Photos of Togo

Introduction

Background

From the 11th to the 16th centuries, various ethnic groups settled the Togo region. From the 16th to the 18th centuries, the coastal region became a major slave trading center and the surrounding region  took on the name of "The Slave Coast." In 1884, Germany declared a region including present-day Togo as a protectorate called Togoland. After World War I, rule over Togo was transferred to France. French Togoland became Togo upon independence in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multi-party elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has been in power almost continually since 1967 and its successor, the Union for the Republic, maintains a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in February 2005, the military installed the president's son, Faure GNASSINGBE, and then engineered his formal election two months later. Democratic gains since then allowed Togo to hold its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in October 2007. Since 2007, President GNASSINGBE has started the country along a gradual path to democratic reform. Togo has since held multiple presidential and legislative elections deemed generally free and fair by international observers. Despite those positive moves, political reconciliation has moved slowly, and the country experiences periodic outbursts of violent protest by frustrated citizens. Recent constitutional changes to institute a runoff system in presidential elections and establish term limits has done little to reduce the resentment many Togolese feel after over 50 years of one-family rule.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana

Area

total: 56,785 sq km

land: 54,385 sq km

water: 2,400 sq km

country comparison to the world: 126

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries

total: 1,880 km

border countries (3): Benin 651 km, Burkina Faso 131 km, Ghana 1098 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 30 nm; note: the US does not recognize this claim

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate

tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain

gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes

Elevation

mean elevation: 236 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mont Agou 986 m

Natural resources

phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 67.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 45.2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 3.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 18.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 4.9% (2018 est.)

other: 27.7% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

70 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

one of the more densely populated African nations with most of the population residing in rural communities, density is highest in the south on or near the Atlantic coast as shown in this population distribution map

Natural hazards

hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues

deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; very little rain forest still present and what remains is highly degraded; desertification; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna

People and Society

Population

8,283,189 (July 2021 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

country comparison to the world: 100

Nationality

noun: Togolese (singular and plural)

adjective: Togolese

Ethnic groups

Adja-Ewe/Mina 42.4%, Kabye/Tem 25.9%, Para-Gourma/Akan 17.1%, Akposso/Akebu 4.1%, Ana-Ife 3.2%, other Togolese 1.7%, foreigners 5.2%, no response .4% (2013-14 est.)

note: Togo has an estimated 37 ethnic groups

Languages

French (official, the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)

Religions

Christian 43.7%, folk 35.6%, Muslim 14%, Hindu <.1%, Buddhist <.1%, Jewish <.1%, other .5%, none 6.2% (2010 est.)

Demographic profile

Togo’s population is estimated to have grown to four times its size between 1960 and 2010. With nearly 60% of its populace under the age of 25 and a high annual growth rate attributed largely to high fertility, Togo’s population is likely to continue to expand for the foreseeable future. Reducing fertility, boosting job creation, and improving education will be essential to reducing the country’s high poverty rate. In 2008, Togo eliminated primary school enrollment fees, leading to higher enrollment but increased pressure on limited classroom space, teachers, and materials. Togo has a good chance of achieving universal primary education, but educational quality, the underrepresentation of girls, and the low rate of enrollment in secondary and tertiary schools remain concerns.

Togo is both a country of emigration and asylum. In the early 1990s, southern Togo suffered from the economic decline of the phosphate sector and ethnic and political repression at the hands of dictator Gnassingbe EYADEMA and his northern, Kabye-dominated administration. The turmoil led 300,000 to 350,000 predominantly southern Togolese to flee to Benin and Ghana, with most not returning home until relative stability was restored in 1997. In 2005, another outflow of 40,000 Togolese to Benin and Ghana occurred when violence broke out between the opposition and security forces over the disputed election of EYADEMA’s son Faure GNASSINGBE to the presidency. About half of the refugees reluctantly returned home in 2006, many still fearing for their safety. Despite ethnic tensions and periods of political unrest, Togo in September 2017 was home to more than 9,600 refugees from Ghana.

Age structure

0-14 years: 39.73% (male 1,716,667/female 1,703,230)

15-24 years: 19.03% (male 817,093/female 820,971)

25-54 years: 33.26% (male 1,423,554/female 1,439,380)

55-64 years: 4.42% (male 179,779/female 200,392)

65 years and over: 3.57% (male 132,304/female 175,074) (2020 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 77.1

youth dependency ratio: 72

elderly dependency ratio: 5.1

potential support ratio: 19.4 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 20 years

male: 19.7 years

female: 20.3 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 196

Birth rate

32.34 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 25

Death rate

5.39 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 185

Net migration rate

-1.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 167

Population distribution

one of the more densely populated African nations with most of the population residing in rural communities, density is highest in the south on or near the Atlantic coast as shown in this population distribution map

Urbanization

urban population: 42.8% of total population (2020)

rate of urbanization: 3.76% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas - population

1.874 million LOME (capital) (2021)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

21 years (2013/14 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Maternal mortality rate

396 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 28

Infant mortality rate

total: 42.64 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 47.4 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 37.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 34

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 70.99 years

male: 68.37 years

female: 73.69 years (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 167

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 92.3% of population

rural: 56% of population

total: 70.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 7.7% of population

rural: 44% of population

total: 29.1% of population (2017 est.)

Physicians density

0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 80.4% of population

rural: 16.2% of population

total: 41.6% of population

unimproved: urban: 19.6% of population

rural: 83.8% of population

total: 57.4% of population (2017 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 63.7%

male: 77.3%

female: 51.2% (2015)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 13 years

male: 14 years

female: 12 years (2017)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 3.9%

male: 3.7%

female: 4.1% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 168

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Togolese Republic

conventional short form: Togo

local long form: Republique Togolaise

local short form: none

former: French Togoland

etymology: derived from the Ewe words "to" (river) and "godo" (on the other side) to give the sense of "on the other side of the river"; originally, this designation applied to the town of Togodo (now Togoville) on the northern shore of Lake Togo, but the name was eventually extended to the entire nation

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Lome

geographic coordinates: 6 07 N, 1 13 E

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: Lome comes from "alotime" which in the native Ewe language means "among the alo plants"; alo trees dominated the city's original founding site

Administrative divisions

5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes

Independence

27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday

Independence Day, 27 April (1960)

Constitution

history: several previous; latest adopted 27 September 1992, effective 14 October 1992

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or supported by at least one fifth of the National Assembly membership; passage requires four-fifths majority vote by the Assembly; a referendum is required if approved by only two-thirds majority of the Assembly or if requested by the president; constitutional articles on the republican and secular form of government cannot be amended; amended 2002, 2007, 2019 when the National Assembly unanimously approved a package of amendments, including setting presidential term limits of two 5-year mandates

Legal system

customary law system

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Togo

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005) 

head of government: Prime Minister Victoire Tomegah DOGBE (since 28 September 2020)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 22 February 2020 (next to be held  February 2025); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Faure GNASSINGBE reelected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE (UNIR) 72.4%, Agbeyome KODJO (MPDD) 18.4%, Jean-Pierre FABRE (ANC) 4.4%, other 5%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (91 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed, party-list proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 20 December 2018 (next to be held in 2023)

election results: percent of vote by coalition/party - NA; seats by party - UNIR 59, UFC 6, NET 3, MPDD 3, other 2, independent 18; composition - men 75, women 16, percent of women 17.6%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into criminal and administrative chambers, each with a chamber president and advisors); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges, including the court president)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by decree of the president of the republic upon the proposal of the Supreme Council of the Magistracy, a 9-member judicial, advisory, and disciplinary body; other judicial appointments and judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Assembly; judge tenure NA

subordinate courts: Court of Assizes (sessions court); Appeal Court; tribunals of first instance (divided into civil, commercial, and correctional chambers; Court of State Security; military tribunal

Political parties and leaders

Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Yaovi AGBOYIBO]
Alliance of Democrats for Integral Development or ADDI [Tchaboure GOGUE]
Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA [Brigitte ADJAMAGBO-JOHNSON]
Democratic Forces for the Republic or FDR [Dodji APEVON]
National Alliance for Change or ANC [Jean-Pierre FABRE]
New Togolese Commitment [Gerry TAAMA]
Pan-African National Party or PNP [Tikpi ATCHADAM]
Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP [Edem KODJO]
Patriotic Movement for Democracy and Development or MPDD [Agbeyome KODJO]
Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR [Abi TCHESSA]
The Togolese Party [Nathaniel OLYMPIO]
Union of Forces for Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO]
Union for the Republic or UNIR [Faure GNASSINGBE]

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Frederic Edem HEGBE (since 24 April 2017)

chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212

FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Eric W. STROHMAYER (since 11 April 2019)

telephone: [228] 2261-5470

embassy: 4332 Blvd. Eyadema, Lome

mailing address: B.P. 852, Lome; 2300 Lome Place, Washington, DC 20521-2300

FAX: [228] 2261-5501

Flag description

five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; a white five-pointed star on a red square is in the upper hoist-side corner; the five horizontal stripes stand for the five different regions of the country; the red square is meant to express the loyalty and patriotism of the people, green symbolizes hope, fertility, and agriculture, while yellow represents mineral wealth and faith that hard work and strength will bring prosperity; the star symbolizes life, purity, peace, dignity, and Togo's independence

note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia

National symbol(s)

lion; national colors: green, yellow, red, white

National anthem

name: "Salut a toi, pays de nos aieux" (Hail to Thee, Land of Our Forefathers)

lyrics/music: Alex CASIMIR-DOSSEH

note: adopted 1960, restored 1992; this anthem was replaced by another during one-party rule between 1979 and 1992

Economy

Economic overview

Togo has enjoyed a period of steady economic growth fueled by political stability and a concerted effort by the government to modernize the country’s commercial infrastructure, but discontent with President Faure GNASSINGBE has led to a rapid rise in protests, creating downside risks. The country completed an ambitious large-scale infrastructure improvement program, including new principal roads, a new airport terminal, and a new seaport. The economy depends heavily on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, providing employment for around 60% of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton and other agricultural products generate about 20% of export earnings with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is among the world's largest producers of phosphate and seeks to develop its carbonate phosphate reserves, which provide more than 20% of export earnings.

Supported by the World Bank and the IMF, the government's decade-long effort to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Togo completed its IMF Extended Credit Facility in 2011 and reached a Heavily Indebted Poor Country debt relief completion point in 2010 at which 95% of the country's debt was forgiven. Togo continues to work with the IMF on structural reforms, and in January 2017, the IMF signed an Extended Credit Facility arrangement consisting of a three-year $238 million loan package. Progress depends on follow through on privatization, increased transparency in government financial operations, progress toward legislative elections, and continued support from foreign donors.

Togo’s 2017 economic growth probably remained steady at 5.0%, largely driven by infusions of foreign aid, infrastructure investment in its port and mineral industry, and improvements in the business climate. Foreign direct investment inflows have slowed in recent years.

Real GDP growth rate

4.4% (2017 est.)

5.1% (2016 est.)

5.7% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 63

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

0.6% (2019 est.)

0.9% (2018 est.)

-0.9% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 50

Credit ratings

Moody's rating: B3 (2019)

Standard & Poors rating: B (2019)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$12.904 billion (2019 est.)

$12.25 billion (2018 est.)

$11.674 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 159

GDP (official exchange rate)

$5.232 billion (2018 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$1,597 (2019 est.)

$1,553 (2018 est.)

$1,517 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 220

Gross national saving

21.7% of GDP (2018 est.)

21.4% of GDP (2017 est.)

21.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 96

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 28.8% (2017 est.)

industry: 21.8% (2017 est.)

services: 49.8% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 84.5% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 11.4% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 23.4% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: -1.4% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 43.1% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -61% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

cassava, maize, yams, sorghum, beans, oil palm fruit, rice, vegetables, cotton, groundnuts

Industries

phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 65%

industry: 5%

services: 30% (1998 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.3%

highest 10%: 27.1% (2006)

Budget

revenues: 1.023 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 1.203 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

75.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

81.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 40

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$383 million (2017 est.)

-$416 million (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 114

Exports

$1.862 billion (2018 est.)

$1.881 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 146

Exports - partners

Benin 16.7%, Burkina Faso 15.2%, Niger 8.9%, India 7.3%, Mali 6.7%, Ghana 5.5%, Cote dIvoire 5.4%, Nigeria 4.1% (2017)

Exports - commodities

reexports, cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa

Imports

$2.911 billion (2018 est.)

$2.789 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 156

Imports - partners

China 27.5%, France 9.1%, Netherlands 4.4%, Japan 4.3% (2017)

Imports - commodities

machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$77.8 million (31 December 2017 est.)

$42.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 182

Debt - external

$1.442 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$1.22 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 161

Exchange rates

Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -

617.4 (2017 est.)

593.01 (2016 est.)

593.01 (2015 est.)

591.45 (2014 est.)

494.42 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 43% (2019)

electrification - urban areas: 77% (2019)

electrification - rural areas: 19% (2019)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 45,311

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 159

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 6,477,816

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 77.2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 109

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile-cellular system; telecoms supply 8% of GDP; 3 mobile operators; 12% of residents have access to the Internet; mobile subscribers and mobile broadband both increasing (2020)

domestic: fixed-line less than 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 77 telephones per 100 persons with mobile-cellular use predominating (2019)

international: country code - 228; landing point for the WACS submarine cable, linking countries along the west coast of Africa with each other and with Portugal; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Symphonie (2020)

note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated

Broadcast media

1 state-owned TV station with multiple transmission sites; five private TV stations broadcast locally; cable TV service is available; state-owned radio network with two stations (in Lome and Kara); several dozen private radio stations and a few community radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters available (2019)

Internet users

total: 1,010,609

percent of population: 12.36% (July 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 141

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 26,156

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 146

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 8

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 566,295 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 10.89 million mt-km (2018)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 2 (2019)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 6 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)

under 914 m: 2 (2013)

Pipelines

62 km gas

Railways

total: 568 km (2014)

narrow gauge: 568 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)

country comparison to the world: 111

Roadways

total: 11,734 km (2081)

paved: 1,794 km (2018)

unpaved: 8,157 km (2018)

urban: 1,783 km (2018)

country comparison to the world: 133

Waterways

50 km (seasonally navigable by small craft on the Mono River depending on rainfall) (2011)

country comparison to the world: 102

Merchant marine

total: 415

by type: bulk carrier 4, container ship 7, general cargo 271, oil tanker 49, other 84 (2020)

country comparison to the world: 45

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Kpeme, Lome

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Togolese Armed Forces (Forces Armees Togolaise, FAT): Togolese Army (l'Armee de Terre), Togolese Navy (Forces Naval Togolaises), Togolese Air Force (Armee de l’Air), National Gendarmerie (2020)

Military expenditures

3.1% of GDP (2019)

2% of GDP (2018)

1.9% of GDP (2017)

1.9% of GDP (2016)

1.7% of GDP (2015)

country comparison to the world: 25

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Togolese Armed Forces (FAT) are comprised of approximately 9,100 personnel (8,000 Army; 200 Navy; 200 Navy; 750 Gendarmerie) (2019 est.)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the FAT's small inventory is a mix of older Brazilian, British, French, German, Russian/Soviet, and US equipment; since 2010, France is the leading supplier of military hardware to Togo (2020)

Military deployments

920 Mali (MINUSMA) (2020)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for military service; 2-year service obligation; currently the military is only an all-volunteer force (2017)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

in 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary; talks continue between Benin and Togo on funding the Adjrala hydroelectric dam on the Mona River

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 9,556 (Ghana) (2020)

Illicit drugs

transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers; money laundering not a significant problem