Photos of Togo

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Introduction

Background

From the 11th to the 16th centuries, various ethnic groups settled the Togo region. From the 16th to the 18th centuries, the coastal region became a major trading center for enslaved people, and the surrounding region took on the name of "The Slave Coast." In 1884, Germany declared the area a protectorate called Togoland, which included present-day Togo. After World War I, colonial rule over Togo was transferred to France. French Togoland became Togo upon independence in 1960.

Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multi-party elections instituted in the early 1990s, EYADEMA largely dominated the government. His Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has been in power almost continually since 1967, with its successor, the Union for the Republic, maintaining a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in 2005, the military installed his son, Faure GNASSINGBE, as president and then engineered his formal election two months later. Togo held its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in 2007. Since then, GNASSINGBE has started the country along a gradual path to democratic reform. Togo has held multiple presidential and legislative elections, and in 2019, the country held its first local elections in 32 years.

Despite those positive moves, political reconciliation has moved slowly, and the country experiences periodic outbursts of protests from frustrated citizens, leading to violence between security forces and protesters. Constitutional changes in 2019 to institute a runoff system in presidential elections and to establish term limits have done little to reduce the resentment many Togolese feel after more than 50 years of one-family rule. GNASSINGBE became eligible for his current fourth term and one additional fifth term under the new rules. The next presidential election is set for 2025. 

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana

Area

total: 56,785 sq km

land: 54,385 sq km

water: 2,400 sq km

comparison ranking: total 126

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries

total: 1,880 km

border countries (3): Benin 651 km; Burkina Faso 131 km; Ghana 1,098 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 30 nm; note: the US does not recognize this claim

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate

tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain

gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes

Elevation

highest point: Mont Agou 986 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 236 m

Natural resources

phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 67.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 45.2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 3.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 18.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 4.9% (2018 est.)

other: 27.7% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

70 sq km (2012)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Volta (410,991 sq km)

Population distribution

one of the more densely populated African nations with most of the population residing in rural communities, density is highest in the south on or near the Atlantic coast as shown in this population distribution map

Natural hazards

hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts

Geography - note

the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna

People and Society

Population

total: 8,917,994

male: 4,395,271

female: 4,522,723 (2024 est.)

comparison rankings: female 100; male 101; total 101

Nationality

noun: Togolese (singular and plural)

adjective: Togolese

Ethnic groups

Adja-Ewe/Mina 42.4%, Kabye/Tem 25.9%, Para-Gourma/Akan 17.1%, Akposso/Akebu 4.1%, Ana-Ife 3.2%, other Togolese 1.7%, foreigners 5.2%, no response 0.4% (2013-14 est.)

note: Togo has an estimated 37 ethnic groups

Languages

French (official, the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)

Religions

Christian 42.3%, folk religion 36.9%, Muslim 14%, Hindu <1%, Buddhist <1%, Jewish <1%, other <1%, none 6.2% (2020 est.)

Demographic profile

Togo’s population is estimated to have grown to four times its size between 1960 and 2010. With nearly 60% of its populace under the age of 25 and a high annual growth rate attributed largely to high fertility, Togo’s population is likely to continue to expand for the foreseeable future. Reducing fertility, boosting job creation, and improving education will be essential to reducing the country’s high poverty rate. In 2008, Togo eliminated primary school enrollment fees, leading to higher enrollment but increased pressure on limited classroom space, teachers, and materials. Togo has a good chance of achieving universal primary education, but educational quality, the underrepresentation of girls, and the low rate of enrollment in secondary and tertiary schools remain concerns.

Togo is both a country of emigration and asylum. In the early 1990s, southern Togo suffered from the economic decline of the phosphate sector and ethnic and political repression at the hands of dictator Gnassingbe EYADEMA and his northern, Kabye-dominated administration. The turmoil led 300,000 to 350,000 predominantly southern Togolese to flee to Benin and Ghana, with most not returning home until relative stability was restored in 1997. In 2005, another outflow of 40,000 Togolese to Benin and Ghana occurred when violence broke out between the opposition and security forces over the disputed election of EYADEMA’s son Faure GNASSINGBE to the presidency. About half of the refugees reluctantly returned home in 2006, many still fearing for their safety. Despite ethnic tensions and periods of political unrest, Togo in December 2022 was home to almost 8,400 refugees from Ghana.

Age structure

0-14 years: 38.7% (male 1,749,533/female 1,699,084)

15-64 years: 57% (male 2,486,142/female 2,597,914)

65 years and over: 4.3% (2024 est.) (male 159,596/female 225,725)

2023 population pyramids:
2023 population pyramids

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 76.5

youth dependency ratio: 71

elderly dependency ratio: 5.5

potential support ratio: 18.3 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 20.7 years (2024 est.)

male: 19.9 years

female: 21.4 years

comparison ranking: total 199

Population growth rate

2.41% (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 21

Birth rate

30.9 births/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 23

Death rate

5.1 deaths/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 192

Net migration rate

-1.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 164

Population distribution

one of the more densely populated African nations with most of the population residing in rural communities, density is highest in the south on or near the Atlantic coast as shown in this population distribution map

Urbanization

urban population: 44.5% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 3.6% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

1.982 million LOME (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2024 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

25 years (2017 est.)

note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-29

Maternal mortality ratio

399 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 23

Infant mortality rate

total: 38.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2024 est.)

male: 43 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 33.7 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 30

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 72.1 years (2024 est.)

male: 69.5 years

female: 74.7 years

comparison ranking: total population 165

Total fertility rate

4.13 children born/woman (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 20

Gross reproduction rate

2.03 (2024 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 93.8% of population

rural: 60.3% of population

total: 74.6% of population

unimproved: urban: 6.2% of population

rural: 39.7% of population

total: 25.4% of population (2020 est.)

Physician density

0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 81.9% of population

rural: 18.3% of population

total: 45.5% of population

unimproved: urban: 18.1% of population

rural: 81.7% of population

total: 54.5% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and sexually transmitted diseases: hepatitis B (2024)

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis

note: on 31 August 2023, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Travel Alert for polio in Africa; Togo is currently considered a high risk to travelers for circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV); vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) is a strain of the weakened poliovirus that was initially included in oral polio vaccine (OPV) and that has changed over time and behaves more like the wild or naturally occurring virus; this means it can be spread more easily to people who are unvaccinated against polio and who come in contact with the stool or respiratory secretions, such as from a sneeze, of an “infected” person who received oral polio vaccine; the CDC recommends that before any international travel, anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series; before travel to any high-risk destination, the CDC recommends that adults who previously completed the full, routine polio vaccine series receive a single, lifetime booster dose of polio vaccine

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

8.4% (2016)

comparison ranking: 151

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 1.4 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.78 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.09 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.2 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.33 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 141

Tobacco use

total: 6.8% (2020 est.)

male: 12.3% (2020 est.)

female: 1.2% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 158

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

15.2% (2017)

comparison ranking: 33

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 6.4%

women married by age 18: 24.8%

men married by age 18: 2.6% (2017 est.)

Education expenditures

4% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 118

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 66.5%

male: 80%

female: 55.1% (2019)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 13 years

male: 14 years

female: 12 years (2017)

Environment

Environment - current issues

deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; very little rain forest still present and what remains is highly degraded; desertification; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate

tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Land use

agricultural land: 67.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 45.2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 3.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 18.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 4.9% (2018 est.)

other: 27.7% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 44.5% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 3.6% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

3.96% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 18

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 55

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 35.66 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 3 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 3.06 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 1,109,030 tons (2014 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 22,181 tons (2012 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 2% (2012 est.)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Volta (410,991 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 140 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 10 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 80 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

14.7 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Togolese Republic

conventional short form: Togo

local long form: Republique Togolaise

local short form: none

former: French Togoland

etymology: derived from the Ewe words "to" (river) and "godo" (on the other side) to give the sense of "on the other side of the river"; originally, this designation applied to the town of Togodo (now Togoville) on the northern shore of Lake Togo, but the name was eventually extended to the entire nation

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Lome

geographic coordinates: 6 07 N, 1 13 E

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: Lome comes from "alotime" which in the native Ewe language means "among the alo plants"; alo trees dominated the city's original founding site

Administrative divisions

5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes

Independence

27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday

Independence Day, 27 April (1960)

Constitution

history: several previous; latest adopted 27 September 1992, effective 14 October 1992

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or supported by at least one fifth of the National Assembly membership; passage requires four-fifths majority vote by the Assembly; a referendum is required if approved by only two-thirds majority of the Assembly or if requested by the president; constitutional articles on the republican and secular form of government cannot be amended; amended 2002, 2007, last in 2023 

Legal system

customary law system

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Togo

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005)

head of government: Prime Minister Victoire TOMEGAH Dogbé (since 25 September 2020) 

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 22 February 2020 (next to be held in 2025); prime minister appointed by the president
note- on 21 May 2024 the Prime Minister and her cabinet resigned. The President requested they continue serving during the government transition.

election results:
2020: Faure GNASSINGBE reelected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE (UNIR) 70.8%, Agbeyome KODJO (MPDD) 19.5%, Jean-Pierre FABRE (ANC) 4.7%, other 5%

2015: Faure GNASSINGBE reelected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE (UNIR) 58.8%, Jean-Pierre FABRE (ANC) 35.2%, Tchaboure GOGUE (ADDI) 4%, other 2%

 

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (113 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed, party-list proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms); party lists are required to contain equal numbers of men and women

elections: last held on 29 April 2024 (next election April 2029)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UNIR 108, ADDI 2, ANC 1, DMP 1, FDR 1 composition - men 92, women 21, percentage of women elected 18.6%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into criminal and administrative chambers, each with a chamber president and advisors); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges, including the court president)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by decree of the president of the republic upon the proposal of the Supreme Council of the Magistracy, a 9-member judicial, advisory, and disciplinary body; other judicial appointments and judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Assembly; judge tenure NA

subordinate courts: Court of Assizes (sessions court); Appeal Court; tribunals of first instance (divided into civil, commercial, and correctional chambers; Court of State Security; military tribunal

Political parties and leaders

Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Dodji APEVON]
Alliance of Democrats for Integral Development or ADDI [Tchaboure GOGUE]
Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA [Léopold GNININVI]
Democratic Forces for the Republic or FDR [Dodji APEVON]
National Alliance for Change or ANC [Jean-Pierre FABRE]
New Togolese Commitment [Gerry TAAMA]
Pan-African National Party or PNP [Tikpi ATCHADAM]
Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP (vacant)
Patriotic Movement for Democracy and Development or MPDD [Agbeyome KODJO]
Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR [Abi TCHESSA]
The Togolese Party [Nathaniel OLYMPIO]
Union of Forces for Change or UFC [Jean-Pierre FABRE]
Union for the Republic or UNIR [Faure GNASSINGBE]

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AIIB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Frédéric Edem HEGBE (since 24 April 2017)

chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212

FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190

email address and website:
embassyoftogo@hotmail.com

https://embassyoftogousa.com/

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Elizabeth FITZSIMMONS (since 26 April 2022)

embassy: Boulevard Eyadema, B.P. 852, Lome

mailing address: 2300 Lome Place, Washington, DC 20521-2300

telephone: [228] 2261-5470

FAX: [228] 2261-5501

email address and website:
consularLome@state.gov

https://tg.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; a white five-pointed star on a red square is in the upper hoist-side corner; the five horizontal stripes stand for the five different regions of the country; the red square is meant to express the loyalty and patriotism of the people, green symbolizes hope, fertility, and agriculture, while yellow represents mineral wealth and faith that hard work and strength will bring prosperity; the star symbolizes life, purity, peace, dignity, and Togo's independence

note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia

National symbol(s)

lion; national colors: green, yellow, red, white

National anthem

name: "Salut a toi, pays de nos aieux" (Hail to Thee, Land of Our Forefathers)

lyrics/music: Alex CASIMIR-DOSSEH

note: adopted 1960, restored 1992; this anthem was replaced by another during one-party rule between 1979 and 1992

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Koutammakou; the Land of the Batammariba

Economy

Economic overview

low-income West African economy; primarily agrarian economy; has a deep-water port; growing international shipping locale; improving privatization and public budgeting transparency; key phosphate mining industry; extremely high rural poverty

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$19.491 billion (2022 est.)
$18.421 billion (2021 est.)
$17.38 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 157

Real GDP growth rate

5.81% (2022 est.)
5.99% (2021 est.)
2.16% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 56

Real GDP per capita

$2,200 (2022 est.)
$2,100 (2021 est.)
$2,100 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 203

GDP (official exchange rate)

$8.341 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

7.97% (2022 est.)
4.19% (2021 est.)
1.7% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 127

Credit ratings

Moody's rating: B3 (2019)

Standard & Poors rating: B (2019)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 28.8% (2017 est.)

industry: 21.8% (2017 est.)

services: 49.8% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 178; industry 133; agriculture 18

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 84.5% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 11.4% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 23.4% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: -1.4% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 43.1% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -61% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

cassava, yams, maize, oil palm fruit, sorghum, soybeans, beans, rice, vegetables, cotton (2022)

note: top ten agricultural products based on tonnage

Industries

phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages

Industrial production growth rate

7.27% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 36

Labor force

3.074 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 107

Unemployment rate

3.85% (2022 est.)
4.4% (2021 est.)
4.17% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 77

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 9.7% (2021 est.)

male: 12.3%

female: 7.7%

comparison ranking: total 156

Population below poverty line

45.5% (2018 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

42.5 (2018 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

comparison ranking: 36

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.3%

highest 10%: 33% (2018 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population

Remittances

7.8% of GDP (2022 est.)
7.7% of GDP (2021 est.)
8.69% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Budget

revenues: $1.275 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $1.158 billion (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-3.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 153

Public debt

75.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
81.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 45

Taxes and other revenues

13.58% (of GDP) (2019 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 155

Current account balance

-$20.738 million (2020 est.)
-$55.444 million (2019 est.)
-$184.852 million (2018 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 74

Exports

$1.722 billion (2020 est.)
$1.665 billion (2019 est.)
$1.703 billion (2018 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 169

Exports - partners

UAE 26%, India 11%, Cote d'Ivoire 11%, South Africa 6%, Burkina Faso 6% (2022)

note: top five export partners based on percentage share of exports

Exports - commodities

gold, refined petroleum, phosphates, soybeans, plastic products (2022)

note: top five export commodities based on value in dollars

Imports

$2.389 billion (2020 est.)
$2.261 billion (2019 est.)
$2.329 billion (2018 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 167

Imports - partners

India 30%, China 16%, South Korea 13%, Nigeria 4%, Taiwan 4% (2022)

note: top five import partners based on percentage share of imports

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, crude petroleum, motorcycles and cycles, garments, rice (2022)

note: top five import commodities based on value in dollars

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$77.8 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$42.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 189

Debt - external

$1.442 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.22 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 161

Exchange rates

Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
623.76 (2022 est.)
554.531 (2021 est.)
575.586 (2020 est.)
585.911 (2019 est.)
555.446 (2018 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 57.2% (2022 est.)

electrification - urban areas: 96.5%

electrification - rural areas: 25%

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 309,000 kW (2022 est.)

consumption: 1.562 billion kWh (2022 est.)

imports: 796.563 million kWh (2022 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 121.682 million kWh (2022 est.)

comparison rankings: transmission/distribution losses 53; imports 85; consumption 154; installed generating capacity 164

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 74.4% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

solar: 6.8% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

hydroelectricity: 18.4% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

biomass and waste: 0.4% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

Coal

consumption: 108,000 metric tons (2022 est.)

imports: 108,000 metric tons (2022 est.)

Petroleum

refined petroleum consumption: 12,000 bbl/day (2022 est.)

Natural gas

consumption: 131.373 million cubic meters (2022 est.)

imports: 131.373 million cubic meters (2022 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

2.306 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 257,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 1.793 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 256,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 155

Energy consumption per capita

4.077 million Btu/person (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: 173

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 66,000 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: (2022 est.) less than 1

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 147

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 6.564 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 74 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 115

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: include radio, television, fixed and mobile telephones, and the Internet (2022)

domestic: fixed-line less than 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular is 74 telephones per 100 persons (2022)

international: country code - 228; landing point for the WACS submarine cable, linking countries along the west coast of Africa with each other and with Portugal; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Symphonie (2020)

Broadcast media

1 state-owned TV station with multiple transmission sites; five private TV stations broadcast locally; cable TV service is available; state-owned radio network with two stations (in Lome and Kara); several dozen private radio stations and a few community radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters available (2019)

Internet users

total: 3.01 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 35% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 120

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 52,706 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0.6 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 143

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 8

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 566,295 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 10.89 million (2018) mt-km

Airports

7 (2024)

comparison ranking: 172

Pipelines

62 km gas

Railways

total: 568 km (2014)

narrow gauge: 568 km (2014) 1.000-m gauge

comparison ranking: total 110

Roadways

total: 9,951 km

paved: 1,794 km

unpaved: 8,157 km

urban: 1,783 km (2018)

comparison ranking: total 136

Waterways

50 km (2011) (seasonally navigable by small craft on the Mono River depending on rainfall)

comparison ranking: 113

Merchant marine

total: 397 (2023)

by type: bulk carrier 1, container ship 10, general cargo 250, oil tanker 56, other 80

comparison ranking: total 49

Ports

total ports: 2 (2024)

large: 0

medium: 1

small: 0

very small: 1

ports with oil terminals: 2

key ports: Kpeme, Lome

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Togolese Armed Forces (Forces Armees Togolaise, FAT): Togolese Army (l'Armee de Terre), Togolese Navy (Forces Naval Togolaises), Togolese Air Force (Armee de l’Air), National Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie Nationale Togolaise or GNT)

Ministry of Security and Civil Protection: National Police Directorate (Direction de la Police Nationale) (2024)

note: the Police Directorate and GNT are responsible for law enforcement and maintenance of order within the country; the GNT is also responsible for migration and border enforcement; the GNT falls under the Ministry of the Armed Forces but also reports to the Ministry of Security and Civil Protection on many matters involving law enforcement and internal security; in 2022, the Ministry of the Armed Forces was made part of the Office of the Presidency

Military expenditures

2.1% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.9% of GDP (2021 est.)
2% of GDP (2020 est.)
2.6% of GDP (2019 est.)
1.9% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 62

Military and security service personnel strengths

estimated 15,000 active-duty personnel, including approximately 3,000 Gendarmerie (2023)

note: in January 2022, the Togolese Government announced its intent to boost the size of the FAT to more than 20,000 by 2025

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the FAT has a small, mixed inventory of mostly older equipment from a variety of countries; in recent years, it has received limited amounts of equipment from several suppliers, including France, Russia, and the US (2023)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for military service for men and women; 24-month service obligation; no conscription (2023)

note: as of 2022, about 7% of the military's personnel were women

Military - note

since its creation in 1963, the Togolese military has had a history of interfering in the country’s politics with assassinations, coups, influence, and a large military crackdown in 2005 that killed hundreds; over the past decade, however, it has made some efforts to reform and professionalize, as well as increase its role in UN peacekeeping activities; Togo maintains a regional peacekeeping training center for military and police in Lome; the military participates in multinational exercises and has received training from foreign partners, including France and the US

the FAT’s current focuses are primarily terrorism and maritime security; in recent years, it has increased operations in the northern border region of the country to boost border security and prevent terrorist infiltrations from Jama'at Nasr al-Islam wal Muslimin (JNIM), a coalition of al-Qa'ida-affiliated militant groups based in Mali that also operates in neighboring Burkina Faso; in 2022, the Togolese Government declared a state of emergency in the north due to the threat from JNIM following an attack on a Togolese military post that killed several soldiers; the Navy and Air Force have increased focus on combating piracy and smuggling in the Gulf of Guinea (2023)

Terrorism

Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Jama’at Nusrat al Islam wal Muslimeen (JNIM)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 9,846 (Burkina Faso), 8,436 (Ghana) (2023)

Illicit drugs

transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers; money laundering not a significant problem