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Introduction

Background

From the 11th to the 16th centuries, various ethnic groups settled the Togo region. From the 16th to the 18th centuries, the coastal region became a major trading center for enslaved people, and the surrounding region  took on the name of "The Slave Coast." In 1884, Germany declared a region including present-day Togo as a protectorate called Togoland. After World War I, rule over Togo was transferred to France. French Togoland became Togo upon independence in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multi-party elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has been in power almost continually since 1967 and its successor, the Union for the Republic, maintains a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in February 2005, the military installed the president's son, Faure GNASSINGBE, and then engineered his formal election two months later. Togo held its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in October 2007. Since then, President GNASSINGBE has started the country along a gradual path to democratic reform. Togo has held multiple presidential and legislative elections, and in 2019 held its first local elections in 32 years. Despite those positive moves, political reconciliation has moved slowly, and the country experiences periodic outbursts of protests by frustrated citizens that have led to violence between security forces and protesters. Constitutional changes in 2019 to institute a runoff system in presidential elections and to establish term limits has done little to reduce the resentment many Togolese feel after more than 50 years of one-family rule. GNASSINGBE became eligible for his current fourth term and one additional fifth term under the new rules. The next presidential election will be in 2025. 

 

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana

Area

total: 56,785 sq km

land: 54,385 sq km

water: 2,400 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries

total: 1,880 km

border countries (3): Benin 651 km; Burkina Faso 131 km; Ghana 1,098 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 30 nm; note: the US does not recognize this claim

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate

tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain

gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes

Elevation

highest point: Mont Agou 986 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 236 m

Natural resources

phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 67.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 45.2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 3.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 18.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 4.9% (2018 est.)

other: 27.7% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

70 sq km (2012)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Volta (410,991 sq km)

Population distribution

one of the more densely populated African nations with most of the population residing in rural communities, density is highest in the south on or near the Atlantic coast as shown in this population distribution map

Natural hazards

hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts

Geography - note

the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna

People and Society

Population

8,492,333 (2022 est.)

Nationality

noun: Togolese (singular and plural)

adjective: Togolese

Ethnic groups

Adja-Ewe/Mina 42.4%, Kabye/Tem 25.9%, Para-Gourma/Akan 17.1%, Akposso/Akebu 4.1%, Ana-Ife 3.2%, other Togolese 1.7%, foreigners 5.2%, no response 0.4% (2013-14 est.)

note: Togo has an estimated 37 ethnic groups

Languages

French (official, the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)

Religions

Christian 42.3%, folk religion 36.9%, Muslim 14%, Hindu <1%, Buddhist <1%, Jewish <1%, other <1%, none 6.2% (2020 est.)

Demographic profile

Togo’s population is estimated to have grown to four times its size between 1960 and 2010. With nearly 60% of its populace under the age of 25 and a high annual growth rate attributed largely to high fertility, Togo’s population is likely to continue to expand for the foreseeable future. Reducing fertility, boosting job creation, and improving education will be essential to reducing the country’s high poverty rate. In 2008, Togo eliminated primary school enrollment fees, leading to higher enrollment but increased pressure on limited classroom space, teachers, and materials. Togo has a good chance of achieving universal primary education, but educational quality, the underrepresentation of girls, and the low rate of enrollment in secondary and tertiary schools remain concerns.

Togo is both a country of emigration and asylum. In the early 1990s, southern Togo suffered from the economic decline of the phosphate sector and ethnic and political repression at the hands of dictator Gnassingbe EYADEMA and his northern, Kabye-dominated administration. The turmoil led 300,000 to 350,000 predominantly southern Togolese to flee to Benin and Ghana, with most not returning home until relative stability was restored in 1997. In 2005, another outflow of 40,000 Togolese to Benin and Ghana occurred when violence broke out between the opposition and security forces over the disputed election of EYADEMA’s son Faure GNASSINGBE to the presidency. About half of the refugees reluctantly returned home in 2006, many still fearing for their safety. Despite ethnic tensions and periods of political unrest, Togo in September 2017 was home to more than 9,600 refugees from Ghana.

Age structure

0-14 years: 39.73% (male 1,716,667/female 1,703,230)

15-24 years: 19.03% (male 817,093/female 820,971)

25-54 years: 33.26% (male 1,423,554/female 1,439,380)

55-64 years: 4.42% (male 179,779/female 200,392)

65 years and over: 3.57% (male 132,304/female 175,074) (2020 est.)

2022 population pyramid
2022 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 77.1

youth dependency ratio: 72

elderly dependency ratio: 5.1

potential support ratio: 19.4 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 20 years

male: 19.7 years

female: 20.3 years (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

2.48% (2022 est.)

Birth rate

31.86 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

Death rate

5.27 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

Net migration rate

-1.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

Population distribution

one of the more densely populated African nations with most of the population residing in rural communities, density is highest in the south on or near the Atlantic coast as shown in this population distribution map

Urbanization

urban population: 43.9% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 3.6% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

1.926 million LOME (capital) (2022)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.55 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

25 years (2017 est.)

note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-29

Maternal mortality ratio

396 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 41.19 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 45.88 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 36.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 71.36 years

male: 68.76 years

female: 74.03 years (2022 est.)

Total fertility rate

4.23 children born/woman (2022 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 93.8% of population

rural: 60.3% of population

total: 74.6% of population

unimproved: urban: 6.2% of population

rural: 39.7% of population

total: 25.4% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

5.7% of GDP (2019)

Physicians density

0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 81.9% of population

rural: 18.3% of population

total: 45.5% of population

unimproved: urban: 18.1% of population

rural: 81.7% of population

total: 54.5% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 1.4 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.78 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.09 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.2 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.33 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 6.8% (2020 est.)

male: 12.3% (2020 est.)

female: 1.2% (2020 est.)

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 6.4%

women married by age 18: 24.8%

men married by age 18: 2.6% (2017 est.)

Education expenditures

5% of GDP (2019 est.)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 66.5%

male: 80%

female: 55.1% (2019)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 13 years

male: 14 years

female: 12 years (2017)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 9.5%

male: 12.3%

female: 7.4% (2017 est.)

Environment

Environment - current issues

deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; very little rain forest still present and what remains is highly degraded; desertification; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 32.71 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 3 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 3.06 megatons (2020 est.)

Climate

tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Land use

agricultural land: 67.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 45.2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 3.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 18.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 4.9% (2018 est.)

other: 27.7% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 43.9% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 3.6% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

forest revenues: 3.96% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 1,109,030 tons (2014 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 22,181 tons (2012 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 2% (2012 est.)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Volta (410,991 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 140.7 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 6.3 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 76 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

14.7 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Togolese Republic

conventional short form: Togo

local long form: Republique Togolaise

local short form: none

former: French Togoland

etymology: derived from the Ewe words "to" (river) and "godo" (on the other side) to give the sense of "on the other side of the river"; originally, this designation applied to the town of Togodo (now Togoville) on the northern shore of Lake Togo, but the name was eventually extended to the entire nation

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Lome

geographic coordinates: 6 07 N, 1 13 E

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: Lome comes from "alotime" which in the native Ewe language means "among the alo plants"; alo trees dominated the city's original founding site

Administrative divisions

5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes

Independence

27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday

Independence Day, 27 April (1960)

Constitution

history: several previous; latest adopted 27 September 1992, effective 14 October 1992

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or supported by at least one fifth of the National Assembly membership; passage requires four-fifths majority vote by the Assembly; a referendum is required if approved by only two-thirds majority of the Assembly or if requested by the president; constitutional articles on the republican and secular form of government cannot be amended; amended 2002, 2007, last in 2019 when the National Assembly unanimously approved a package of amendments, including setting presidential term limits of two 5-year mandates

Legal system

customary law system

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Togo

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005)

head of government: Prime Minister Victoire Tomegah DOGBE (since 28 September 2020)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 22 February 2020 (next to be held  February 2025); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Faure GNASSINGBE reelected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE (UNIR) 70.8%, Agbeyome KODJO (MPDD) 19.5%, Jean-Pierre FABRE (ANC) 4.7%, other 5% (2020)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (91 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed, party-list proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 20 December 2018 (next to be held in 2023)

election results: percent of vote by coalition/party - NA; seats by party - UNIR 59, UFC 6, NET 3, MPDD 3, other 2, independent 18; composition - men 74, women 17, percent of women 18.7%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into criminal and administrative chambers, each with a chamber president and advisors); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges, including the court president)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by decree of the president of the republic upon the proposal of the Supreme Council of the Magistracy, a 9-member judicial, advisory, and disciplinary body; other judicial appointments and judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Assembly; judge tenure NA

subordinate courts: Court of Assizes (sessions court); Appeal Court; tribunals of first instance (divided into civil, commercial, and correctional chambers; Court of State Security; military tribunal

Political parties and leaders

Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Dodji APEVON]
Alliance of Democrats for Integral Development or ADDI [Tchaboure GOGUE]
Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA [Léopold GNININVI]
Democratic Forces for the Republic or FDR [Dodji APEVON]
National Alliance for Change or ANC [Jean-Pierre FABRE]
New Togolese Commitment [Gerry TAAMA]
Pan-African National Party or PNP [Tikpi ATCHADAM]
Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP [Edem KODJO]
Patriotic Movement for Democracy and Development or MPDD [Agbeyome KODJO]
Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR [Abi TCHESSA]
The Togolese Party [Nathaniel OLYMPIO]
Union of Forces for Change or UFC [N/A]
Union for the Republic or UNIR [Faure GNASSINGBE]

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Frederic Edem HEGBE (since 24 April 2017)

chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212

FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190

email address and website:
embassyoftogo@hotmail.com

https://embassyoftogousa.com/

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Elizabeth FITZSIMMONS (since 26 April 2022)

embassy: Boulevard Eyadema, B.P. 852, Lome

mailing address: 2300 Lome Place, Washington, DC 20521-2300

telephone: [228] 2261-5470

FAX: [228] 2261-5501

email address and website:
consularLome@state.gov

https://tg.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; a white five-pointed star on a red square is in the upper hoist-side corner; the five horizontal stripes stand for the five different regions of the country; the red square is meant to express the loyalty and patriotism of the people, green symbolizes hope, fertility, and agriculture, while yellow represents mineral wealth and faith that hard work and strength will bring prosperity; the star symbolizes life, purity, peace, dignity, and Togo's independence

note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia

National symbol(s)

lion; national colors: green, yellow, red, white

National anthem

name: "Salut a toi, pays de nos aieux" (Hail to Thee, Land of Our Forefathers)

lyrics/music: Alex CASIMIR-DOSSEH

note: adopted 1960, restored 1992; this anthem was replaced by another during one-party rule between 1979 and 1992

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Koutammakou; the Land of the Batammariba

Economy

Economic overview

Togo has enjoyed a period of steady economic growth fueled by political stability and a concerted effort by the government to modernize the country’s commercial infrastructure, but discontent with President Faure GNASSINGBE has led to a rapid rise in protests, creating downside risks. The country completed an ambitious large-scale infrastructure improvement program, including new principal roads, a new airport terminal, and a new seaport. The economy depends heavily on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, providing employment for around 60% of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton and other agricultural products generate about 20% of export earnings with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is among the world's largest producers of phosphate and seeks to develop its carbonate phosphate reserves, which provide more than 20% of export earnings.

 

Supported by the World Bank and the IMF, the government's decade-long effort to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Togo completed its IMF Extended Credit Facility in 2011 and reached a Heavily Indebted Poor Country debt relief completion point in 2010 at which 95% of the country's debt was forgiven. Togo continues to work with the IMF on structural reforms, and in January 2017, the IMF signed an Extended Credit Facility arrangement consisting of a three-year $238 million loan package. Progress depends on follow through on privatization, increased transparency in government financial operations, progress toward legislative elections, and continued support from foreign donors.

 

Togo’s 2017 economic growth probably remained steady at 5.0%, largely driven by infusions of foreign aid, infrastructure investment in its port and mineral industry, and improvements in the business climate. Foreign direct investment inflows have slowed in recent years.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$17.45 billion (2020 est.)

$17.15 billion (2019 est.)

$16.26 billion (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real GDP growth rate

4.4% (2017 est.)

5.1% (2016 est.)

5.7% (2015 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$2,100 (2020 est.)

$2,100 (2019 est.)

$2,100 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$5.232 billion (2018 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

0.6% (2019 est.)

0.9% (2018 est.)

-0.9% (2017 est.)

Credit ratings

Moody's rating: B3 (2019)

Standard & Poors rating: B (2019)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 28.8% (2017 est.)

industry: 21.8% (2017 est.)

services: 49.8% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 84.5% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 11.4% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 23.4% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: -1.4% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 43.1% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -61% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

cassava, maize, yams, sorghum, beans, oil palm fruit, rice, vegetables, cotton, groundnuts

Industries

phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages

Labor force

2.595 million (2007 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 65%

industry: 5%

services: 30% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate

6.9% (2016 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 9.5%

male: 12.3%

female: 7.4% (2017 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.3%

highest 10%: 27.1% (2006)

Budget

revenues: 1.023 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 1.203 billion (2017 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-3.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt

75.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

81.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

21.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$383 million (2017 est.)

-$416 million (2016 est.)

Exports

$1.67 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$1.7 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Exports - partners

India 16%, Benin 15%, Burkina Faso 6%, France 6%, Morocco 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, crude petroleum, electricity, calcium phosphates, cotton (2019)

Imports

$2.26 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$2.33 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Imports - partners

China 18%, South Korea 13%, India 11%, Belgium 10%, Netherlands 8%, United States 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, motorcycles, crude petroleum, rice, broadcasting equipment (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$77.8 million (31 December 2017 est.)

$42.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)

Debt - external

$1.442 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$1.22 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Exchange rates

Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -

617.4 (2017 est.)

593.01 (2016 est.)

593.01 (2015 est.)

591.45 (2014 est.)

494.42 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 43% (2019)

electrification - urban areas: 77% (2019)

electrification - rural areas: 19% (2019)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 210,000 kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 1,180,140,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 118 million kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 963 million kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 210 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 82.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 17.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 46,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 46,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 10,000 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

13,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 0 cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 44.797 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

2.244 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 706,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 1.451 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 87,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita

4.113 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 46,499 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2020 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 6,239,180 (2019)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 77.2 (2019)

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile-cellular system; telecoms supply 8% of GDP; 3 mobile operators; 12% of residents have access to the Internet; mobile subscribers and mobile broadband both increasing (2020)

domestic: fixed-line less than 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular nearly 79 telephones per 100 persons with mobile-cellular use predominating (2020)

international: country code - 228; landing point for the WACS submarine cable, linking countries along the west coast of Africa with each other and with Portugal; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Symphonie (2020)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced a downturn, particularly in mobile device production; progress toward 5G implementation has resumed, as well as upgrades to infrastructure; consumer spending on telecom services has increased due to the surge in demand for capacity and bandwidth; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home is still evident, and the spike in this area has seen growth opportunities for development of new tools and increased services

Broadcast media

1 state-owned TV station with multiple transmission sites; five private TV stations broadcast locally; cable TV service is available; state-owned radio network with two stations (in Lome and Kara); several dozen private radio stations and a few community radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters available (2019)

Internet users

total: 1,986,897 (2020 est.)

percent of population: 24% (2020 est.)

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 52,706 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0.6 (2020 est.)

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 8

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 566,295 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 10.89 million (2018) mt-km

Airports

total: 8 (2021)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2021)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 2 (2021)

Pipelines

62 km gas

Railways

total: 568 km (2014)

narrow gauge: 568 km (2014) 1.000-m gauge

Roadways

total: 9,951 km (2018)

paved: 1,794 km (2018)

unpaved: 8,157 km (2018)

urban: 1,783 km (2018)

Waterways

50 km (2011) (seasonally navigable by small craft on the Mono River depending on rainfall)

Merchant marine

total: 411

by type: bulk carrier 1, container ship 9, general cargo 265, oil tanker 56, other 80 (2021)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Kpeme, Lome

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Togolese Armed Forces (Forces Armees Togolaise, FAT): Togolese Army (l'Armee de Terre), Togolese Navy (Forces Naval Togolaises), Togolese Air Force (Armee de l’Air), National Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie Nationale Togolaise or GNT) (2022)

note: the GNT falls under the Ministry of the Armed Forces but also reports to the Ministry of Security and Civil Protection on many matters involving law enforcement and internal security

Military expenditures

1.8% of GDP (2021 est.)

2% of GDP (2020 est.)

2.6% of GDP (2019 est.) (approximately $190 million)

1.9% of GDP (2018 est.) (approximately $140 million)

1.9% of GDP (2017 est.) (approximately $130 million)

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 11,000 personnel (6,500 Army; 500 Air and Navy; 3,000 Gendarmerie) (2022)

note: in January 2022, the Togolese Government announced its intent to boost the size of the FAT to more than 20,000 by 2025

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the FAT has a small, mixed inventory of mostly older equipment from a variety of countries, including Brazil, China, France, Germany, Russia/former Soviet Union, South Africa, the UK, and the US (2022)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for military service; 2-year service obligation; no conscription; women have been able to serve since 2007 (2022)

Military deployments

730 (plus about 300 police) Mali (MINUSMA) (May 2022)

Military - note

the first Togolese Army unit was created in 1963, while the Air Force was established in 1964; the Navy was not established until 1976; since its creation, the Togolese military has a history of interfering in the country’s politics with assassinations, coups, influence, and a large military crackdown in 2005 that killed hundreds; over the past decade, it has made some efforts to reform and professionalize, as well as increase its role in UN peacekeeping activities; Togolese police have also been deployed on peacekeeping operations, and Togo maintains a regional peacekeeping training center for military and police in Lome; the Navy and Air Force has increased focus on combating piracy and smuggling in the Gulf of Guinea

in June 2022, the Togolese Government declared a state of emergency in its northern border region due to the threat from Jama'at Nasr al-Islam wal Muslimin (JNIM), a coalition of al-Qa'ida-affiliated militant groups based in Mali that also operates in neighboring Burkina Faso; the declaration followed an attack on a Togolese military post in May that killed 8 soldiers and a Togolese military operation launched the same month to boost border security and prevent terrorist infiltrations (2022)

Maritime threats

the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the Niger Delta and Gulf of Guinea remain a very high risk for piracy and armed robbery of ships; in 2021, there were 34 reported incidents of piracy and armed robbery at sea in the Gulf of Guinea region; although a significant decrease from the total number of 81 incidents in 2020, it included the one hijacking and three of five ships fired upon worldwide; while boarding and attempted boarding to steal valuables from ships and crews are the most common types of incidents, almost a third of all incidents involve a hijacking and/or kidnapping; in 2021, 57 crew members were kidnapped in seven separate incidents in the Gulf of Guinea, representing 100% of kidnappings worldwide; Nigerian pirates in particular are well armed and very aggressive, operating as far as 200 nm offshore; the Maritime Administration of the US Department of Transportation has issued a Maritime Advisory (2022-001 - Gulf of Guinea-Piracy/Armed Robbery/Kidnapping for Ransom) effective 4 January 2022, which states in part, "Piracy, armed robbery, and kidnapping for ransom continue to serve as significant threats to US-flagged vessels transiting or operating in the Gulf of Guinea"

Terrorism

Terrorist group(s)

Jama’at Nusrat al Islam wal Muslimeen (JNIM)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Togo-Benin: in 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary; Benin’s and Togo’s Adjrala hydroelectric dam project on the Mona River, proposed in the 1990s, commenced in 2017 with funding from a Chinese bank

Togo-Burkina Faso: none identified

Togo-Ghana: none identified

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 8,391 (Ghana) (2022)

Illicit drugs

transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers; money laundering not a significant problem