One of the highest mountain reliefs on Earth can be found in the tiny country of Bhutan. Sandwiched between eastern India and the Tibetan plateau, Bhutan hosts peaks that range between 5,000 and 7,000 m (16,000-23,000 ft) in height. These mountains are neighbors to Mount Everest, Earth's highest peak at 8,850 m (29,035 ft). The impressive Bhutan Himalayas are permanently capped with snow, which extends down valleys in long glacier tongues. Because of disparate weather patterns on either side of the Himalayas and differences in topography, the glaciers on each side of the mountain are distinctly different from one another and are likely to react very differently to climate change. Image courtesy of NASA.
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Following Britain’s victory in the 1865 Duar War, Britain and Bhutan signed the Treaty of Sinchulu, under which Bhutan would receive an annual subsidy in exchange for ceding land to British India. Ugyen WANGCHUCK - who had served as the de facto ruler of an increasingly unified Bhutan and had improved relations with the British toward the end of the 19th century - was named king in 1907. Three years later, a treaty was signed whereby the British agreed not to interfere in Bhutanese internal affairs, and Bhutan allowed Britain to direct its foreign affairs. Bhutan negotiated a similar arrangement with independent India in 1949. The Indo-Bhutanese Treaty of Friendship returned to Bhutan a small piece of the territory annexed by the British, formalized the annual subsidies the country received, and defined India's responsibilities in defense and foreign relations. Under a succession of modernizing monarchs beginning in the 1950s, Bhutan joined the UN in 1971 and slowly continued its engagement beyond its borders.

In 2005, King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK unveiled the draft of Bhutan's first constitution - which introduced major democratic reforms - and held a national referendum for its approval. The King abdicated the throne in 2006 in favor of his son, Jigme Khesar Namgyel WANGCHUCK. In 2007, India and Bhutan renegotiated their treaty, eliminating the clause that stated that Bhutan would be "guided by" India in conducting its foreign policy, although Thimphu continues to coordinate closely with New Delhi. In 2008, Bhutan held its first parliamentary election in accordance with the constitution. Bhutan experienced a peaceful turnover of power following a parliamentary election in 2013, which resulted in the defeat of the incumbent party. In 2018, the incumbent party again lost the parliamentary election. Of the more than 100,000 ethnic Nepali - predominantly Lhotshampa - refugees who fled or were forced out of Bhutan in the 1990s, about 6,500 remain displaced in Nepal.

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Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates

27 30 N, 90 30 E


total: 38,394 sq km

land: 38,394 sq km

water: 0 sq km

country comparison to the world: 136

Area - comparative

slightly larger than Maryland; about one-half the size of Indiana

Area comparison map
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 1,136 km

border countries (2): China 477 km; India 659 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)


varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas


mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna


highest point: Gangkar Puensum 7,570 m

lowest point: Drangeme Chhu 97 m

mean elevation: 2,220 m

Natural resources

timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbonate

Land use

agricultural land: 13.6% (2018 est.)

arable land: 2.6% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 10.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 85.5% (2018 est.)

other: 0.9% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

320 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards

violent storms from the Himalayas are the source of the country's Bhutanese name, which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season

Geography - note

landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes

People and Society


noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural)

adjective: Bhutanese

Ethnic groups

Ngalop (also known as Bhote) 50%, ethnic Nepali 35% (predominantly Lhotshampas), indigenous or migrant tribes 15%


Sharchopkha 28%, Dzongkha (official) 24%, Lhotshamkha 22%, other 26% (includes foreign languages) (2005 est.)


Lamaistic Buddhist 75.3%, Indian- and Nepali-influenced Hinduism 22.1%, other 2.6% (2005 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 23.49% (male 105,317/female 100,526)

15-64 years: 69.97% (male 318,732/female 294,292)

65 years and over: 6.54% (2023 est.) (male 29,582/female 27,732)

2023 population pyramid
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 40.7

youth dependency ratio: 32.1

elderly dependency ratio: 8.6

potential support ratio: 11.1 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 29.1 years

male: 29.6 years

female: 28.6 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 136

Birth rate

15.61 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

country comparison to the world: 103

Death rate

6.05 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

country comparison to the world: 156

Net migration rate

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

country comparison to the world: 85


urban population: 44.4% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 2.52% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

203,000 THIMPHU (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.07 male(s)/female

total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

60 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 92

Infant mortality rate

total: 25.61 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 25.86 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 25.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

country comparison to the world: 61

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 73.01 years

male: 71.84 years

female: 74.25 years (2023 est.)

country comparison to the world: 152

Gross reproduction rate

0.86 (2023 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.5% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 99.8% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.5% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0.2% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

4.4% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

0.5 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

1.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 90.8% of population

rural: 83.1% of population

total: 86.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 9.2% of population

rural: 16.9% of population

total: 13.6% of population (2020 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 0.07 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.05 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 179


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 70.9%

male: 77.9%

female: 62.8% (2021)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 13 years

male: 13 years

female: 13 years (2018)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 18.8%

male: 15.6%

female: 22% (2021 est.)


Environment - current issues

soil erosion; limited access to potable water; wildlife conservation; industrial pollution; waste disposal

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea


varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas

Land use

agricultural land: 13.6% (2018 est.)

arable land: 2.6% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 10.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 85.5% (2018 est.)

other: 0.9% (2018 est.)


urban population: 44.4% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 2.52% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 35.32 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 1.26 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 1.11 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 111,314 tons (2007 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 957 tons (2016 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 0.9% (2016 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 20 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 3 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

agricultural: 320 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

78 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan

conventional short form: Bhutan

local long form: Druk Gyalkhap

local short form: Druk Yul

etymology: named after the Bhotia, the ethnic Tibetans who migrated from Tibet to Bhutan; "Bod" is the Tibetan name for their land; the Bhutanese name "Druk Yul" means "Land of the Thunder Dragon"

Government type

constitutional monarchy


name: Thimphu

geographic coordinates: 27 28 N, 89 38 E

time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: the origins of the name are unclear; the traditional explanation, dating to the 14th century, is that thim means "dissolve" and phu denotes "high ground" to express the meaning of "dissolving high ground," in reference to a local deity that dissolved before a traveler's eyes, becoming a part of the rock on which the present city stands

Administrative divisions

20 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Dagana, Gasa, Haa, Lhuentse, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatshel, Punakha, Samdrup Jongkhar, Samtse, Sarpang, Thimphu, Trashigang, Trashi Yangtse, Trongsa, Tsirang, Wangdue Phodrang, Zhemgang


17 December 1907 (became a unified kingdom under its first hereditary king); 8 August 1949 (Treaty of Friendship with India maintains Bhutanese independence)

National holiday

National Day (Ugyen WANGCHUCK became first hereditary king), 17 December (1907)


history: previous governing documents were various royal decrees; first constitution drafted November 2001 to March 2005, ratified 18 July 2008

amendments: proposed as a motion by simple majority vote in a joint session of Parliament; passage requires at least a three-fourths majority vote in a joint session of the next Parliament and assent by the king

Legal system

civil law based on Buddhist religious law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Bhutan

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: King Jigme Khesar Namgyel WANGCHUCK (since 14 December 2006); note - King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK abdicated the throne on 14 December 2006 to his son

head of government: Prime Minister Lotay TSHERING (since 7 November 2018)

cabinet: Council of Ministers or Lhengye Zhungtshog members nominated by the monarch in consultation with the prime minister and approved by the National Assembly; members serve 5-year terms

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary but can be removed by a two-thirds vote of Parliament; leader of the majority party in Parliament is nominated as the prime minister, appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Chi Tshog consists of:
non-partisan National Council or Gyelyong Tshogde (25 seats; 20 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 5 members appointed by the king; members serve 5-year terms)
National Assembly or Tshogdu (47 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies in a two-round majoritarian voting system; members serve 5-year terms)

National Council - last held on 20 April 2023 (next to be held in 2028)
National Assembly - first round held on 15 September 2018 and second round held on 18 October 2018 (next to be held in October 2023)

election results:
National Council - seats by party - independent 20 (all candidates ran as independents) and 5 appointed by the king; composition (elected only) - men 19, women 1, percent of women 5%; note - composition of 5 appointments by the king unavailable as of mid-May 2023
National Assembly - first round - percent of vote by party - DNT 31.9%, DPT 30.9%, PDP 27.4%, BKP 9.8%; second round - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - DNT 30, DPT 17; composition - men 40, women 7, percent of women 14.9%; note - total Parliament NA

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 4 associate justices); note - the Supreme Court has sole jurisdiction in constitutional matters

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the monarch upon the advice of the National Judicial Commission, a 4-member body to include the Legislative Committee of the National Assembly, the attorney general, the Chief Justice of Bhutan and the senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court; other judges (drangpons) appointed by the monarch from among the High Court judges selected by the National Judicial Commission; chief justice serves a 5-year term or until reaching age 65 years, whichever is earlier; the 4 other judges serve 10-year terms or until age 65, whichever is earlier

subordinate courts: High Court (first appellate court); District or Dzongkhag Courts; sub-district or Dungkhag Courts

Political parties and leaders

Bhutan Kuen-Nyam Party  (dissolved in January 2023)
Bhutan Peace and Prosperity Party (Druk Phuensum Tshogpa) or DPT [Dorji WANGDI] (Druk Chirwang Tshogpa or DCT merged with DPT in March 2018)
People's Democratic Party or PDP [Tshering TOBGAY]
United Party of Bhutan (Druk Nyamrup Tshogpa) or DNT [Lotay TSHERING]

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Doma TSHERING (since 13 September 2017)
note - also the Permanent Representative to the UN

telephone: [1] (212) 682-2268

FAX: [1] (212) 661-0551

email address and website: email -
web address -

consulate(s) general: New York

embassy: 343 East 43rd Street, New York, NY 10017

note - the Permanent Mission to the UN for Bhutan has consular jurisdiction in the US

Diplomatic representation from the US

embassy: none; frequent informal contact is maintained via the US embassy in New Delhi (India) and Bhutan's Permanent Mission to the UN

Flag description

divided diagonally from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange; centered along the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from the hoist side; the dragon, called the Druk (Thunder Dragon), is the emblem of the nation; its white color stands for purity and the jewels in its claws symbolize wealth; the background colors represent spiritual and secular powers within Bhutan: the orange is associated with Buddhism, while the yellow denotes the ruling dynasty

National symbol(s)

thunder dragon known as Druk Gyalpo; national colors: orange, yellow

National anthem

name: "Druk tsendhen" (The Thunder Dragon Kingdom)

lyrics/music: Gyaldun Dasho Thinley DORJI/Aku TONGMI

note: adopted 1953


Economic overview

hydropower investments spurring economic development; Gross National Happiness economy; sharp poverty declines; low inflation; strong monetary and fiscal policies; stable currency; fairly resilient response to COVID-19; key economic and strategic relations with India; climate vulnerabilities

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$8.481 billion (2021 est.)

$8.148 billion (2020 est.)

$9.054 billion (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 168

Real GDP growth rate

4.09% (2021 est.)

-10.01% (2020 est.)

5.76% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 120

Real GDP per capita

$10,900 (2021 est.)

$10,500 (2020 est.)

$11,800 (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 138

GDP (official exchange rate)

$2.405 billion (2017 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

7.35% (2021 est.)

5.63% (2020 est.)

2.73% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 186

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 16.2% (2017 est.)

industry: 41.8% (2017 est.)

services: 42% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 58% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 16.8% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 47.2% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 26% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -48% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, rice, maize, potatoes, roots/tubers, oranges, areca nuts, chillies/peppers, spices, ginger


cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium carbide, tourism

Labor force

361,000 (2021 est.)

note: major shortage of skilled labor

country comparison to the world: 165

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 58%

industry: 20%

services: 22% (2015 est.)

Unemployment rate

4.33% (2021 est.)

3.65% (2020 est.)

2.5% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 60

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 30.6% (2012)


revenues: $710 million (2020 est.)

expenditures: $777 million (2020 est.)

note: the Government of India finances nearly one-quarter of Bhutan's budget expenditures

Public debt

117.33% of GDP (2020 est.)

97.49% of GDP (2019 est.)

101.19% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 17

Fiscal year

1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

-$321.535 million (2021 est.)

-$381.153 million (2020 est.)

-$500.802 million (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 109


$741.602 million (2021 est.)

$786.681 million (2020 est.)

$777.529 million (2019 est.)

note: Data are in current year dollars and do not include illicit exports or re-exports.

country comparison to the world: 185

Exports - partners

India 94% (2019)

Exports - commodities

iron alloys, dolomite, aircraft, cement, gypsum (2021)


$1.027 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$1.188 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$1.23 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 187

Imports - partners

India 85%, Thailand 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, iron products, delivery trucks, cars, wood charcoal (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$1.056 billion (31 December 2021 est.)

$1.473 billion (31 December 2020 est.)

$1.238 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 144

Debt - external

$2.671 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$2.355 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 146

Exchange rates

ngultrum (BTN) per US dollar -

73.939 (2021 est.)

74.1 (2020 est.)

70.42 (2019 est.)

68.389 (2018 est.)

65.122 (2017 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)


installed generating capacity: 2.334 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 4.315 billion kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 4.6 billion kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 22.85 million kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 60 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 100% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)


production: 174,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 211,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 37,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 4,400 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

934,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 328,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 606,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 174


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 19,680 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 173

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 778,008 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 100 (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 168

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: the small land-locked Kingdom of Bhutan has only recently emerged from decades of isolation from the modern world; that, and its mountainous terrain, left the country far back in the field in terms of teledensity as well as access to the Internet; over the last decade, the country has undergone a significant transformation due to the opening of its borders, liberalization of its telecom sector, and the active support from the government towards increased competition in the mobile, broadband, and ISP segments; the relatively widespread availability of the mobile platform has caused an explosion in mobile broadband subscriber numbers, growing from zero to over 100% penetration in just ten years (between 2010 and 2019).; the onset of the Covid-19 crisis in 2020 caused the subscription rates to drop back a little; growth is projected to return in 2022 (along with the broader mobile market) as the overall economy recovers; the government opens up more to foreign investment, trade, and tourism; and network expansion continues – the recent (December 2021) launch of 5G services by both of the country’s mobile operators being particularly noteworthy (2022)

domestic: approximately 3 to 100 fixed-line and 100 mobile cellular subscriptions per 100 people (2021)

international: country code - 975; international telephone and telegraph service via landline and microwave relay through India; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat

Broadcast media

state-owned TV station established in 1999; cable TV service offers dozens of Indian and other international channels; first radio station, privately launched in 1973, is now state-owned; 5 private radio stations are currently broadcasting (2012)

Internet users

total: 670,800 (2021 est.)

percent of population: 86% (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 162

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 3,189 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0.4 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 192


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 275,849 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 690,000 (2018) mt-km

Airports - with paved runways


note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports - with unpaved runways


note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control


total: 12,205 km (2017)

urban: 437 km (2017)

country comparison to the world: 132

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Royal Bhutan Army (includes Royal Bodyguard and an air wing); National Militia; Ministry of Home and Cultural Affairs: Royal Bhutan Police (2023)

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Royal Bhutan Army has an estimated 8,000 personnel (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

India has provided most of the Royal Bhutan Army's equipment (2023)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; no conscription; militia training is compulsory for males aged 20-25, over a 3-year period  (2023)

note: in 2021, the Royal Bhutan Army graduated from a year-long training course the first batch of 150 women to be allowed to serve in combat roles; previously, women were allowed to serve in medical and other non-combat roles

Military - note

the Army is responsible for external threats but also has some internal security functions such as conducting counterinsurgency operations, guarding forests, and providing security for prominent persons; the force is deployed throughout the country in more than a dozen “wings,” each comprised of a few infantry companies; the Army also has units of royal bodyguards and special forces; Bhutan relies on India for military training, arms supplies, and the country’s air defense (2023)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Bhutan-China: Lacking any treaty describing the boundary, Bhutan and China continue negotiations to establish a common boundary alignment to resolve territorial disputes arising from substantial cartographic discrepancies, the most contentious of which lie in Bhutan's west along China’s Chumbi salient.

Bhutan-India: none identified

Trafficking in persons

tier rating:

Tier 2 Watch List — Bhutan does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making efforts to do so; the government increased convictions of traffickers and the number of victims identified and referred to services; officials drafted and launched an anti-trafficking National Action Plan; however, the government did not demonstrate overall increasing anti-trafficking efforts compared with the previous year; the government reported only one investigation and did not initiate any new prosecutions, and the overall identification efforts remained insufficient; because the government has devoted sufficient resources to a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute significant efforts to meet the minimum standards, Bhutan was granted a waiver per the TVPA from a downgrade to Tier 3; therefore Bhutan remained on Tier 2 Watch List for the third consecutive year (2022)

trafficking profile:

Trafficking profile:  human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Bhutan and exploit victims from Bhutan abroad; unregistered foreign employment recruitment agencies increasingly operate through social media to target unemployed or economically disadvantaged individuals; Bhutanese citizens working in hospitality, retail, and services sectors in the Gulf, including in Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, and the UAE, and in India, Thailand, and the United Kingdom, reported indicators of trafficking; in recent years traffickers sent Bhutanese women to Iraq and Oman for forced labor in domestic work; traffickers have exploited Bhutanese women and girls in sex and labor trafficking, including in forced domestic labor and caregiving; reports indicate an increase in commercial sex by Bhutanese and Indian women in the Bhutan-India border’s growing hospitality and entertainment districts—including hotels, massage parlors, and nightclubs—some of which might be forced; traffickers reportedly have exploited Indian child domestic workers and male Indian migrants working in the construction and hydropower sectors; rural Bhutanese transported to urban areas may be involved in forced domestic work, and child labor in restaurants and automotive workshops may involve forced labor (2022)