Photos of Denmark

Side view of Christiansborg Palace on the island of Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen. The structure serves as the seat of the Folketinget (Danish parliament), the prime minister's office, and the Danish Supreme Court. It is the only building in the world where all three branches of government - the executive, legislative, and judicial - are housed in one building.

Introduction

Background

Once the seat of Viking raiders and later a major north European power, Denmark has evolved into a modern, prosperous nation that is part of the general political and economic integration of Europe. It joined NATO in 1949 and the EEC (now the EU) in 1973. However, the country has opted out of certain elements of the EU's Maastricht Treaty, including the European Economic and Monetary Union and justice and home affairs issues.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, on a peninsula north of Germany (Jutland); also includes several major islands (Sjaelland, Fyn, and Bornholm)

Geographic coordinates

56 00 N, 10 00 E

Area

total: 43,094 sq km

land: 42,434 sq km

water: 660 sq km

note: includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest of metropolitan Denmark (the Jutland Peninsula, and the major islands of Sjaelland and Fyn) but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland

comparison ranking: total 133

Area - comparative

slightly less than twice the size of Massachusetts; about two-thirds the size of West Virginia

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 141 km

border countries: Germany 140 km; Canada 1.3 km

Coastline

7,314 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate

temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers

Terrain

low and flat to gently rolling plains

Elevation

highest point: Store Mollehoj 171 m

lowest point: Lammefjord -7 m

mean elevation: 34 m

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, fish, arable land, salt, limestone, chalk, stone, gravel and sand

Land use

agricultural land: 63.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 58.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 4.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 12.9% (2018 est.)

other: 23.7% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

2,360 sq km (2020)

Population distribution

with excellent access to the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat, and the Baltic Sea, population centers tend to be along coastal areas, particularly in Copenhagen and the eastern side of the country's mainland

Natural hazards

flooding is a threat in some areas of the country (e.g., parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the island of Lolland) that are protected from the sea by a system of dikes

Geography - note

composed of the Jutland Peninsula and a group of more than 400 islands (Danish Archipelago); controls Danish Straits (Skagerrak and Kattegat) linking Baltic and North Seas; about one-quarter of the population lives in greater Copenhagen

People and Society

Population

total: 5,973,136

male: 2,975,261

female: 2,997,875 (2024 est.)

comparison rankings: female 115; male 115; total 115

Nationality

noun: Dane(s)

adjective: Danish

Ethnic groups

Danish (includes Greenlandic (who are predominantly Inuit) and Faroese) 84.2%, Turkish 1.1%, other 14.7% (largest groups are Polish, Romanian, Syrian, Ukrainian, German, and Iraqi) (2023 est.)

note: data represent population by country of origin

Languages

Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Inuit dialect), German (small minority); note - English is the predominant second language

major-language sample(s):
Verdens Faktabog, den uundværlig kilde til grundlæggende oplysninger. (Danish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Danish audio sample:

Religions

Evangelical Lutheran (official) 71.4%, Muslim 4.3%, other/none/unspecified (denominations include Roman Catholic, Jehovah's Witness, Serbian Orthodox Christian, Jewish, Baptist, Buddhist, Church of Jesus Christ, Pentecostal, and nondenominational Christian) 24.3% (2024 est.)

Demographic profile

Modern immigration to Denmark began in the 1960s and 1970s, although immigration, primarily from the Nordic countries and Western Europe, has earlier roots.  Dutch migrants came in the 16th century and Germans in the 18th, in both cases to work in agriculture.  Between the late 19th century and World War I, Denmark absorbed unskilled Polish, German, and Swedish labor migrants in significant numbers, sometimes at the request of the Danish Government.  Between the two World Wars, Denmark received many Eastern European, Jewish, and German migrants. It wasn’t until after World War II, that refugees began seeking sanctuary in Demark, including a large number of German refugees and later Hungarians, Czechs, and Polish Jews.  Denmark also imported foreign labor during the 1960s, mainly from Turkey, the former Yugoslavia, and Pakistan.  Although the “guest worker” program was halted in 1973, immigrants continued to arrive to be reunited with family members who were already in Denmark as refugees or as guest workers. Non-European refugees came from Chile, Uganda, and Vietnam.  In the 1990s, Denmark began receiving migrants and refugees from new places, including Russia, Hungary, Bosnia, Iran, Iraq, and Lebanon.  Despite raising more restrictions on immigration, in the 2000s, Denmark continued to receive asylum seekers, particularly from Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, and the former Yugoslavia, as well as labor migrants from new EU member states. 

In more recent years, Denmark has severely limited its refugee intake, aiming to accept as few refugees outside of the UN resettlement program as possible.  In the mid-2010s, Denmark passed legislation enabling it to withdraw temporary protective status as soon as conditions in the home country, as determined by Denmark, have improved.  This policy has lead Denmark, to deem Damascus and other areas in Syria safe for return, making it the only country in Europe to do so.  Consequently, some Syrian refugees have had their residency status revoked, and they are detained in deportation centers because Denmark does not have diplomatic relations with Syria and, therefore, cannot send them back.  Copenhagen hopes its stricter policies will discourage asylum seekers, particularly those from non-Western countries.

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.2% (male 496,793/female 471,018)

15-64 years: 62.9% (male 1,903,315/female 1,856,615)

65 years and over: 20.8% (2024 est.) (male 575,153/female 670,242)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 57.3

youth dependency ratio: 25.4

elderly dependency ratio: 31.9

potential support ratio: 3.1 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 42.2 years (2024 est.)

male: 41 years

female: 43.4 years

comparison ranking: total 45

Population growth rate

0.44% (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 155

Birth rate

11.3 births/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 160

Death rate

9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 41

Net migration rate

2.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 41

Population distribution

with excellent access to the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat, and the Baltic Sea, population centers tend to be along coastal areas, particularly in Copenhagen and the eastern side of the country's mainland

Urbanization

urban population: 88.5% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.54% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

1.381 million COPENHAGEN (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2024 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.8 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

5 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 167

Infant mortality rate

total: 3 deaths/1,000 live births (2024 est.)

male: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 210

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 82.1 years (2024 est.)

male: 80.2 years

female: 84.1 years

comparison ranking: total population 35

Total fertility rate

1.77 children born/woman (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 144

Gross reproduction rate

0.86 (2024 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

10.5% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

4.23 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

2.6 beds/1,000 population (2019)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

19.7% (2016)

comparison ranking: 109

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 9.16 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 3.42 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 4.08 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 1.66 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 33

Tobacco use

total: 17.5% (2020 est.)

male: 17.8% (2020 est.)

female: 17.1% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 97

Child marriage

women married by age 18: 0.7% (2021 est.)

Education expenditures

6.4% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 32

Literacy

total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 19 years

male: 18 years

female: 19 years (2020)

Environment

Environment - current issues

air pollution, principally from vehicle and power plant emissions; nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of the North Sea; drinking and surface water becoming polluted from animal wastes and pesticides; much of country's household and industrial waste is recycled

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protection

Climate

temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers

Land use

agricultural land: 63.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 58.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 4.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 12.9% (2018 est.)

other: 23.7% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 88.5% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.54% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.02% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 140

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 108

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 9.66 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 31.79 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 6.54 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 4.485 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 1,223,060 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 27.3% (2015 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 400 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 50 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 530 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

6 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Geoparks

total global geoparks and regional networks: 3 (2024)

global geoparks and regional networks: Odsherred; South Fyn Archipelago; Vestjylland (2024)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Kingdom of Denmark

conventional short form: Denmark

local long form: Kongeriget Danmark

local short form: Danmark

etymology: the name derives from the words "Dane(s)" and "mark"; the latter referring to a march (borderland) or forest

Government type

parliamentary constitutional monarchy

Capital

name: Copenhagen

geographic coordinates: 55 40 N, 12 35 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October; note - applies to continental Denmark only, not to its North Atlantic components

etymology: name derives from the city's Danish appellation Kobenhavn, meaning "Merchant's Harbor"

Administrative divisions

metropolitan Denmark - 5 regions (regioner, singular - region); Hovedstaden (Capital), Midtjylland (Central Jutland), Nordjylland (North Jutland), Sjaelland (Zealand), Syddanmark (Southern Denmark)

Independence

ca. 965 (unified and Christianized under Harald I GORMSSON); 5 June 1849 (became a parliamentary constitutional monarchy)

National holiday

Constitution Day, 5 June (1849); note - closest equivalent to a national holiday

Constitution

history: several previous; latest adopted 5 June 1953

amendments: proposed by the Folketing (Parliament) with consent of the government; passage requires approval by the next Folketing following a general election, approval by simple majority vote of at least 40% of voters in a referendum, and assent of the chief of state; changed several times, last in 2009 (Danish Act of Succession)

Legal system

civil law; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Denmark

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: King FREDERIK X (since 14 January 2024); Heir Apparent Crown Prince CHRISTIAN (son of the king, born 15 October 2005); note - Queen MARGRETHE II abdicated on 14 January 2024, the first Danish monarch to voluntarily abdicate since King ERIC III in 1146

head of government: Prime Minister Mette FREDERIKSEN (since 27 June 2019)

cabinet: Council of State appointed by the monarch

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch

Legislative branch

description: unicameral People's Assembly or Folketing (179 seats, including 2 each representing Greenland and the Faroe Islands; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms unless the Folketing is dissolved earlier)

elections: last held on 1 November 2022 (next to be held by 31 October 2026)

election results: percent of vote by party - SDP 27.5%, V 13.3%, M 9.3%, SF 8.3%, E 8.1%, LA 8.1%, C 5.5%, EL 5.1%, SLP 3.8%, AP 3.3%, NB 3.3%, DF 2.6%; seats by party - SDP 50, V 23, M 16, SF 15, E 14, LA 14, C 10, EL 9, SLP 7, AP 6, NB 6, DF 5; composition - men 98, women 81, percentage women 45.3%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president and 18 judges)

judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the monarch upon the recommendation of the Minister of Justice, with the advice of the Judicial Appointments Council, a 6-member independent body of judges and lawyers; judges appointed for life with retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: Special Court of Indictment and Revision; 2 High Courts; Maritime and Commercial Court; county courts

Political parties and leaders

The Alternative or AP [Franciska ROSENKILDE]
Conservative People's Party or DKF or C [Mona JUUL]
Danish People's Party or DF or O [Morten MESSERSCHMIDT]
Denmark Democrats or E [Inger STOJBERG]
Green Left or SF or F [Pia OLSEN DYHR] (formerly Socialist People's Party or SF or F)
Liberal Alliance or LA or I [Alex VANOPSLAGH]
Liberal Party (Venstre) or V [Troels LUND POULSEN]
Moderates or M [Lars Lokke RASMUSSEN]
New Right Party or NB or D [Ann Pernille VERMUND TVEDE]
Red-Green Alliance (Unity List) or EL [collective leadership, Mai VILLADSEN, spokesperson]
Social Democrats or SDP or A [Mette FREDERIKSEN]
Social Liberal Party or SLP or B [Martin LIDEGAARD]

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOOSA, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Jesper Møller SØRENSEN (since 15 September 2023)

chancery: 3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 234-4300

FAX: [1] (202) 328-1470

email address and website:
wasamb@um.dk

https://usa.um.dk/en

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, Silicon Valley (CA)

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Alan LEVENTHAL (since 1 July 2022)

embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100 Kobenhavn 0

mailing address: 5280 Copenhagen Place, Washington DC  20521-5280

telephone: [45] 33-41-71-00

FAX: [45] 35-43-02-23

email address and website:
CopenhagenACS@state.gov

https://dk.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side; the banner is referred to as the Dannebrog (Danish flag) and is one of the oldest national flags in the world; traditions as to the origin of the flag design vary, but the best known is a legend that the banner fell from the sky during an early-13th century battle; caught up by the Danish king before it ever touched the earth, this heavenly talisman inspired the royal army to victory; in actuality, the flag may derive from a crusade banner or ensign

note: the shifted cross design element was subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, as well as by the Faroe Islands

National symbol(s)

lion, mute swan; national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "Der er et yndigt land" (There is a Lovely Country); "Kong Christian" (King Christian)

lyrics/music: Adam Gottlob OEHLENSCHLAGER/Hans Ernst KROYER; Johannes EWALD/unknown

note: Denmark has two national anthems with equal status; "Der er et yndigt land," adopted 1844, is a national anthem, while "Kong Christian," adopted 1780, serves as both a national and royal anthem; "Kong Christian" is also known as "Kong Christian stod ved hojen mast" (King Christian Stood by the Lofty Mast) and "Kongesangen" (The King's Anthem); within Denmark, the royal anthem is played only when royalty is present and is usually followed by the national anthem; when royalty is not present, only the national anthem is performed; outside Denmark, the royal anthem is played, unless the national anthem is requested

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 11 (8 cultural, 3 natural); note - includes three sites in Greenland

selected World Heritage Site locales: Denmark: Mounds, Runic Stones, and Church at Jelling (c); Roskilde Cathedral (c); Kronborg Castle (c); Wadden Sea (n); Stevns Klint (n); Christiansfeld, Moravian Church Settlement (c); Par force hunting landscape, North Zealand (c); Greenland: Ilulissat Icefjord (n); Kujataa, Norse and Inuit Farming (c); Aasivissuit–Nipisat, Inuit Hunting Ground (c); Viking-Age Ring Fortresses (c)

Economy

Economic overview

diversified EU trade-based economy; environmental regulatory innovator; dominant services sector; increased government spending but retaining budget surpluses; currently high inflation; unique "flexicurity" labor market

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$353.799 billion (2022 est.)
$344.393 billion (2021 est.)
$322.331 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 53

Real GDP growth rate

2.73% (2022 est.)
6.84% (2021 est.)
-2.42% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 144

Real GDP per capita

$59,900 (2022 est.)
$58,800 (2021 est.)
$55,300 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 17

GDP (official exchange rate)

$400.167 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

7.7% (2022 est.)
1.85% (2021 est.)
0.42% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 120

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: AAA (2003)

Moody's rating: Aaa (1999)

Standard & Poors rating: AAA (2001)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 1.3% (2017 est.)

industry: 22.9% (2017 est.)

services: 75.8% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 43; industry 124; agriculture 190

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 48% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 25.2% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 20% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: -0.2% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 54.5% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -47.5% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, wheat, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, pork, rapeseed, rye, oats, chicken (2022)

note: top ten agricultural products based on tonnage

Industries

wind turbines, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment, shipbuilding and refurbishment, iron, steel, nonferrous metals, chemicals, food processing, machinery and transportation equipment, textiles and clothing, electronics, construction, furniture and other wood products

Industrial production growth rate

6.98% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 39

Labor force

3.141 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 105

Unemployment rate

4.43% (2022 est.)
5.04% (2021 est.)
5.64% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 90

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 10.1% (2021 est.)

male: 9.7%

female: 10.6%

comparison ranking: total 151

Population below poverty line

12.4% (2021 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

27.5 (2020 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

comparison ranking: 165

Average household expenditures

on food: 12.3% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 3.6% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.7%

highest 10%: 22.9% (2020 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population

Remittances

0.31% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.35% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.38% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Budget

revenues: $185.645 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $172.408 billion (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

1.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 30

Public debt

35.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
37.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

comparison ranking: 152

Taxes and other revenues

34.81% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 21

Current account balance

$53.067 billion (2022 est.)
$36.94 billion (2021 est.)
$28.731 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 15

Exports

$279.939 billion (2022 est.)
$237.861 billion (2021 est.)
$195.876 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 34

Exports - partners

Germany 15%, US 11%, Sweden 10%, Netherlands 6%, Norway 5% (2022)

note: top five export partners based on percentage share of exports

Exports - commodities

packaged medicine, garments, fish, electricity, refined petroleum (2022)

note: top five export commodities based on value in dollars

Imports

$235.68 billion (2022 est.)
$210.716 billion (2021 est.)
$172.954 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 33

Imports - partners

Germany 20%, Sweden 12%, China 9%, Netherlands 8%, Norway 5% (2022)

note: top five import partners based on percentage share of imports

Imports - commodities

garments, cars, refined petroleum, electricity, packaged medicine (2022)

note: top five import commodities based on value in dollars

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$96.073 billion (2022 est.)
$82.236 billion (2021 est.)
$72.823 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 36

Debt - external

$504.808 billion (2019 est.)
$517.972 billion (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 24

Exchange rates

Danish kroner (DKK) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
7.076 (2022 est.)
6.287 (2021 est.)
6.542 (2020 est.)
6.669 (2019 est.)
6.315 (2018 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 17.655 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 33.081 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 12.694 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 18.891 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 1.573 billion kWh (2020 est.)

comparison rankings: transmission/distribution losses 116; imports 14; exports 18; consumption 59; installed generating capacity 52

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 14.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 4.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 57.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 23.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 1.249 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 194,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 1.122 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 69,000 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 165,400 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 56,700 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 95,200 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 441 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

183,900 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 55

Refined petroleum products - exports

133,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 38

Refined petroleum products - imports

109,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 51

Natural gas

production: 1.315 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

consumption: 2.188 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 1.701 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

imports: 2.646 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 29.534 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

33.85 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 3.455 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 24.621 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 5.775 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 73

Energy consumption per capita

124.163 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 43

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 712,000 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 81

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 7.444 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 127 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 109

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Denmark has one of the highest broadband subscription rates globally, with a near universal availability of super-fast connections; extensive cable and DSL infrastructure has been supported by a progressive regulatory regime which has encouraged operator access to both copper and fiber networks; fiber networks have a fast-growing footprint, while a number of community and metropolitan schemes have supplemented their own commitments to build out fiber nationally; a number of wholesale fiber schemes have also added to the wider availability of fiber broadband; the reach of LTE infrastructure is comprehensive, while the Mobile Network Operators by mid-2021 had also provided about 90% population coverage with 5G; services based on 5G were initially launched using trial 3.5GHz licenses; the multi-spectrum auction held in April 2021 has enabled them to improve the resilience and capacity of 5G; all MNOs are engaged in closing down their 3G networks and repurposing spectrum for LTE and 5G use (2021)

domestic: fixed-line roughly 12 per 100 and about 124 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions (2021)

international: country code - 45; landing points for the NSC, COBRAcable, CANTAT-3, DANICE, Havfrue/AEC-2, TAT-14m Denmark-Norway-5 & 6, Skagenfiber West & East, GC1, GC2, GC3, GC-KPN, Kattegat 1 & 2 & 3, Energinet Lyngsa-Laeso, Energinet Laeso-Varberg, Fehmarn Balt, Baltica, German-Denmark 2 & 3, Ronne-Rodvig, Denmark-Sweden 15 & 16 & 17 & 18, IP-Only Denmark-Sweden, Scandinavian South, Scandinavian Ring North, Danica North, 34 series of fiber-optic submarine cables link Denmark with Canada, Faroe Islands, Germany, Iceland, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, US, and UK; satellite earth stations - 18 (6 Intelsat, 10 Eutelsat, 1 Orion, 1 Inmarsat (Blaavand-Atlantic-East)); note - the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) share the Danish earth station and the Eik, Norway, station for worldwide Inmarsat access (2019)

Broadcast media

strong public-sector TV presence with state-owned Danmarks Radio (DR) operating 6 channels and publicly owned TV2 operating roughly a half-dozen channels; broadcasts of privately owned stations are available via satellite and cable feed; DR operates 4 nationwide FM radio stations, 10 digital audio broadcasting stations, and 14 web-based radio stations; 140 commercial and 187 community (non-commercial) radio stations (2019)

Internet users

total: 5.841 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 99% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 82

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 2,590,282 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 45 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 51

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 10 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 76

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 582,011 (2015)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: mt-km

Airports

99 (2024)

comparison ranking: 54

Heliports

25 (2024)

Pipelines

1,536 km gas, 330 km oil (2015)

Railways

total: 2,682 km (2020) 876 km electrified

comparison ranking: total 61

Roadways

total: 73,591 km (2022)

comparison ranking: total 68

Waterways

400 km (2010)

comparison ranking: 97

Merchant marine

total: 715 (2023)

by type: bulk carrier 15, container ship 132, general cargo 69, oil tanker 107, other 392

comparison ranking: total 33

Ports

total ports: 69 (2024)

large: 1

medium: 2

small: 30

very small: 36

ports with oil terminals: 33

key ports: Abenra, Alborg, Arhus, Assens, Augustenborg, Bandholm, Esbjerg, Faborg, Fredericia, Frederikshavn, Haderslev, Holstebro-Stuer, Kalundborg, Kobenhavn, Kolding, Korsor, Marstal, Middelfart, Naestved, Nakskov, Nyborg, Nykobing, Odense, Randers, Ronne, Rudkobing, Sakskobing, Skagen Havn, Sonderborg, Stubbekobing, Studstrup, Svendborg, Vejle

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Danish Armed Forces (Forsvaret): Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish Air Force, Danish Home Guard (Reserves) (2023)

note: the Danish military maintains a joint service Arctic Command with the mission of protecting the sovereignty of the Kingdom of Denmark in the Arctic Region, including the Faroe Islands and Greenland; the command also conducts maritime pollution prevention, environmental monitoring, fishery inspections, search and rescue, hydrographical surveys, and provides support to governmental science missions

Military expenditures

2% of GDP (2023 est.)
1.4% of GDP (2022)
1.3% of GDP (2021)
1.4% of GDP (2020)
1.3% of GDP (2019)

comparison ranking: 62

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 17,000 active-duty personnel (10,000 Army; 3,500 Navy; 3,500 Air Force) (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Danish military inventory is comprised of a mix of modern European, US, and domestically produced equipment; the US has been the largest supplier of military equipment to Denmark in recent years; the Danish defense industry is active in the production of naval vessels, defense electronics, and subcomponents of larger weapons systems, such as the US F-35 fighter aircraft (2023)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscripts serve an initial training period that varies from 4 to 12 months depending on specialization; former conscripts are assigned to mobilization units; women eligible to volunteer for military service; in addition to full time employment, the Danish military offers reserve contracts in all three branches (2023)

note 1: women have been able serve in all military occupations, including combat arms, since 1988; as of 2022, they made up about 9% of the military's full-time personnel; in 2024, Denmark announced that it would extend military conscription to women in 2026

note 2: conscientious objectors can choose to instead serve 6 months in a non-military position, for example in Beredskabsstyrelsen (dealing with non-military disasters like fires, flood, pollution, etc.) or overseas foreign aid work

note 3: foreigners who have lived in Denmark for at least 1 year or in another EU country for 6 years may apply to join the armed forces, provided they are fluent in Danish 

note 4: Denmark has had compulsory military service since 1849

Military deployments

approximately 800 Latvia (NATO); Denmark contributes small numbers of air, ground, and naval forces to a variety of other NATO and international missions (2024)

Military - note

the Danish Armed Forces (Forsvaret) have a variety of missions, including enforcing the country’s sovereignty, monitoring Danish waters and airspace, search and rescue, environmental protection, host nation support for alliance partners, international peacekeeping, fulfilling Denmark’s commitments to NATO, and providing assistance to the police for border control, guard tasks, air surveillance, and during national disasters and other emergencies

NATO has been a cornerstone of Danish security and defense police since it joined in 1949 as one of the organization’s original members under the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty); the Forsvaret regularly exercises with NATO allies and participates in a number of NATO missions, including its Enhanced Forward Presence in Eastern Europe, air policing in the Baltics, naval operations in the Baltic Sea and North Atlantic, and an advisory mission in Iraq; the Forsvaret leads NATO’s Multinational Division – North (inaugurated 2019), a headquarters based in Latvia that supports the defense planning of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, and the coordination of regional military activities, including NATO’s forward deployed forces; it also takes part in other international missions for Europe and the UN ranging from peacekeeping in Africa to protecting Europe's external borders by patrolling the Mediterranean Sea in support of the European Border and Coast Guard Agency; Denmark is a member of the EU and voted to join the EU’s Common Defense and Security Policy in a June 2022 referendum; the Forsvaret cooperates closely with the militaries of other Nordic countries through the Nordic Defense Cooperation (NORDEFCO; established 2009), which consists of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden in such areas as armaments, training and exercises, and operations; it also has a joint composite special operations command with Belgium and the Netherlands

the Defense Command is Denmark's overall military command authority for land, air, and naval operations, although the Army, Air Force, and Navy also have their own individual service commands; an Arctic Command protects the sovereignty of Denmark in the Arctic region, including the Faroe Islands and Greenland, and conducts maritime pollution prevention, environmental monitoring, fishery inspections, search and rescue, and hydrographical surveys, plus support to governmental science missions; there is also a joint service Special Operations Command, which includes the Sirius Dog Sled Patrol, an elite unit that patrols the most remote parts of northeast Greenland

established in 1614, the Royal Danish Army’s combat forces consist of two mechanized brigades; the Air Force (established in 1950) has two fighter squadrons comprised of more than 30 US-made F-16 aircraft, which are being replaced by US-origin F-35 stealth multirole fighter aircraft; the Navy was founded in the early 1500s, but Denmark has a long maritime tradition going back to the time of the Vikings; the modern Navy’s principal warships are nine frigates, three offshore patrol ships, and several other coastal patrol vessels of varying size and capabilities (2023)

Space

Space agency/agencies

no formal space agency; the Ministry of Higher Education and Science has responsibility for coordinating Danish space activities managing international cooperation; the Danish Space Research Institute (Dansk Rumforskningsinstitut (DRKI) was the country’s space agency from 1966-2005; DTU Space, National Space Institute, is Denmark’s national space institute (2024)

Space program overview

a member of the European Space Agency (ESA) and fully integrated within its structure; participates in ESA programs, particularly those linked to human spaceflight and satellite-based remote sensing activities, as well as technology programs involving telecommunications and navigation; independently builds and operates satellites, particularly those with meteorological, science, technology, and signal/traffic monitoring capabilities; conducts research and development of such technologies as measurement and instrumentation systems, microwaves, remote sensing, electromagnetic systems, astrophysics, geomagnetism, etc.; in addition to cooperating with the ESA and EU, as well as bi-laterally with member states, it has relations with the space agencies and industries of Canada, India, Japan, and the US (2024)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Terrorism

Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS); Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps/Qods Force

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 19,424 (Syria), 5,885 (Eritrea) (mid-year 2022); 37,530 (Ukraine) (as of 3 March 2024)

stateless persons: 11,644 (2022)