View of the Nabro Volcano as of 29 June 2011 shows the extent of the lava flow and that the intensity of the eruption has abated somewhat. The eruption continued for many more weeks. Image courtesy of NASA.
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Introduction

Background

After independence from Italian colonial control in 1941 and 10 years of British administrative control, the UN established Eritrea as an autonomous region within the Ethiopian federation in 1952. Ethiopia's full annexation of Eritrea as a province 10 years later sparked a violent 30-year struggle for independence that ended in 1991 with Eritrean rebels defeating government forces. Eritreans overwhelmingly approved independence in a 1993 referendum. ISAIAS Afwerki has been Eritrea's only president since independence; his rule, particularly since 2001, has been highly autocratic and repressive. His government has created a highly militarized society by pursuing an unpopular program of mandatory conscription into national service – divided between military and civilian service – of indefinite length. A two-and-a-half-year border war with Ethiopia that erupted in 1998 ended under UN auspices in December 2000. A subsequent 2007 Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC) demarcation was rejected by Ethiopia. More than a decade of a tense “no peace, no war” stalemate ended in 2018 after the newly elected Ethiopian prime minister accepted the EEBC’s 2007 ruling, and the two countries signed declarations of peace and friendship. Following the July 2018 peace agreement with Ethiopia, Eritrean leaders engaged in intensive diplomacy around the Horn of Africa, bolstering regional peace, security, and cooperation, as well as brokering rapprochements between governments and opposition groups. In November 2018, the UN Security Council lifted an arms embargo that had been imposed on Eritrea since 2009, after the UN Somalia-Eritrea Monitoring Group reported they had not found evidence of Eritrean support in recent years for Al-Shabaab. The country’s rapprochement with Ethiopia has led to a steady resumption of economic ties, with increased air transport, trade, tourism, and port activities, but the economy remains agriculture-dependent, and Eritrea is still one of Africa’s poorest nations. Despite the country's improved relations with its neighbors, ISAIAS has not let up on repression and conscription and militarization continue.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti and Sudan

Geographic coordinates

15 00 N, 39 00 E

Area

total: 117,600 sq km

land: 101,000 sq km

water: 16,600 sq km

country comparison to the world: 101

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Area comparison map
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 1,840 km

border countries (3): Djibouti 125 km; Ethiopia 1,033 km; Sudan 682 km

Coastline

2,234 km (mainland on Red Sea 1,151 km, islands in Red Sea 1,083 km)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate

hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually, heaviest June to September); semiarid in western hills and lowlands

Terrain

dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains

Elevation

highest point: Soira 3,018 m

lowest point: near Kulul within the Danakil Depression -75 m

mean elevation: 853 m

Natural resources

gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, possibly oil and natural gas, fish

Land use

agricultural land: 75.1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 6.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 68.3% (2018 est.)

forest: 15.1% (2018 est.)

other: 9.8% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

210 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

density is highest in the center of the country in and around the cities of Asmara (capital) and Keren; smaller settlements exist in the north and south as shown in this population distribution map

Natural hazards

frequent droughts, rare earthquakes and volcanoes; locust swarms

volcanism: Dubbi (1,625 m), which last erupted in 1861, was the country's only historically active volcano until Nabro (2,218 m) came to life on 12 June 2011

Geography - note

strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping lanes; Eritrea retained the entire coastline of Ethiopia along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia on 24 May 1993

Map description

Eritrea map showing major cities as well as parts of surrounding countries and the Red Sea.

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Eritrean(s)

adjective: Eritrean

Ethnic groups

Tigrinya 50%, Tigre 30%, Saho 4%, Afar 4%, Kunama 4%, Bilen 3%, Hedareb/Beja 2%, Nara 2%, Rashaida 1% (2021 est.)

note: data represent Eritrea's nine recognized ethnic groups

Languages

Tigrinya (official), Arabic (official), English (official), Tigre, Kunama, Afar, other Cushitic languages

Religions

Eritrean Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Evangelical Lutheran, Sunni Muslim

Demographic profile

Eritrea is a persistently poor country that has made progress in some socioeconomic categories but not in others. Education and human capital formation are national priorities for facilitating economic development and eradicating poverty. To this end, Eritrea has made great strides in improving adult literacy – doubling the literacy rate over the last 20 years – in large part because of its successful adult education programs. The overall literacy rate was estimated to be almost 74% in 2015; more work needs to be done to raise female literacy and school attendance among nomadic and rural communities. Subsistence farming fails to meet the needs of Eritrea’s growing population because of repeated droughts, dwindling arable land, overgrazing, soil erosion, and a shortage of farmers due to conscription and displacement. The government’s emphasis on spending on defense over agriculture and its lack of foreign exchange to import food also contribute to food insecurity.

Eritrea has been a leading refugee source country since at least the 1960s, when its 30-year war for independence from Ethiopia began. Since gaining independence in 1993, Eritreans have continued migrating to Sudan, Ethiopia, Yemen, Egypt, or Israel because of a lack of basic human rights or political freedom, educational and job opportunities, or to seek asylum because of militarization. Eritrea’s large diaspora has been a source of vital remittances, funding its war for independence and providing 30% of the country’s GDP annually since it became independent.

In the last few years, Eritreans have increasingly been trafficked and held hostage by Bedouins in the Sinai Desert, where they are victims of organ harvesting, rape, extortion, and torture. Some Eritrean trafficking victims are kidnapped after being smuggled to Sudan or Ethiopia, while others are kidnapped from within or around refugee camps or crossing Eritrea’s borders. Eritreans composed approximately 90% of the conservatively estimated 25,000-30,000 victims of Sinai trafficking from 2009-2013, according to a 2013 consultancy firm report.

Age structure

0-14 years: 38.23% (male 1,169,456/female 1,155,460)

15-24 years: 20.56% (male 622,172/female 627,858)

25-54 years: 33.42% (male 997,693/female 1,034,550)

55-64 years: 3.8% (male 105,092/female 125,735)

65 years and over: 4% (2020 est.) (male 99,231/female 143,949)

2022 population pyramid
2022 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 83.9

youth dependency ratio: 75.6

elderly dependency ratio: 8.3

potential support ratio: 12.1 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 20.3 years

male: 19.7 years

female: 20.8 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 192

Birth rate

27.04 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 40

Death rate

6.69 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 130

Net migration rate

-10.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 221

Population distribution

density is highest in the center of the country in and around the cities of Asmara (capital) and Keren; smaller settlements exist in the north and south as shown in this population distribution map

Urbanization

urban population: 42.6% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 3.67% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

1.035 million ASMARA (capital) (2022)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

21.3 years (2010 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Maternal mortality ratio

480 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 21

Infant mortality rate

total: 41.5 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 48.36 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 34.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 30

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 66.85 years

male: 64.25 years

female: 69.53 years (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 195

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 73.2% of population

rural: 53.3% of population

total: 57.8% of population

unimproved: urban: 26.8% of population

rural: 46.7% of population

total: 42.2% of population (2015 est.)

Physicians density

0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 44.5% of population

rural: 7.3% of population

total: 15.7% of population

unimproved: urban: 55.5% of population

rural: 92.7% of population

total: 84.3% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

(2020 est.) <500

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 0.93 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.42 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.51 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 153

Tobacco use

total: 7.5% (2020 est.)

male: 14.7% (2020 est.)

female: 0.2% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 153

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 76.6%

male: 84.4%

female: 68.9% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 8 years

male: 8 years

female: 7 years (2015)

Environment

Environment - current issues

deforestation; desertification; soil erosion; overgrazing

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Paris Agreement

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 42.4 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 0.71 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 4.48 megatons (2020 est.)

Climate

hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually, heaviest June to September); semiarid in western hills and lowlands

Land use

agricultural land: 75.1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 6.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 68.3% (2018 est.)

forest: 15.1% (2018 est.)

other: 9.8% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 42.6% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 3.67% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 726,957 tons (2011 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 31 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 1 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 550 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

7.315 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: State of Eritrea

conventional short form: Eritrea

local long form: Hagere Ertra

local short form: Ertra

former: Eritrea Autonomous Region in Ethiopia

etymology: the country name derives from the ancient Greek appellation "Erythra Thalassa" meaning Red Sea, which is the major water body bordering the country

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Asmara

geographic coordinates: 15 20 N, 38 56 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: the name means "they [women] made them unite," which according to Tigrinya oral tradition refers to the women of the four clans in the Asmara area who persuaded their menfolk to unite and defeat their common enemy; the name has also been translated as "live in peace"

Administrative divisions

6 regions (zobatat, singular - zoba); 'Anseba, Debub (South), Debubawi K'eyyih Bahri (Southern Red Sea), Gash-Barka, Ma'ikel (Central), Semienawi K'eyyih Bahri (Northern Red Sea)

Independence

24 May 1993 (from Ethiopia)

National holiday

Independence Day, 24 May (1991)

Constitution

history: ratified by the Constituent Assembly 23 May 1997 (not fully implemented)

amendments: proposed by the president of Eritrea or by assent of at least one half of the National Assembly membership; passage requires at least an initial three-quarters majority vote by the Assembly and, after one year, final passage by at least four-fifths majority vote by the Assembly

Legal system

mixed legal system of civil, customary, and Islamic religious law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Eritrea

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 20 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President ISAIAS Afwerki (since 8 June 1993); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government and is head of the State Council and National Assembly

head of government: President ISAIAS Afwerki (since 8 June 1993)

cabinet: State Council appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); the only election was held on 8 June 1993, following independence from Ethiopia (next election postponed indefinitely)

election results: 1993: ISAIAS Afwerki elected president by the transitional National Assembly; percent of National Assembly vote - ISAIAS  Afwerki (PFDJ) 95%, other 5%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly (Hagerawi Baito) (150 seats; 75 members indirectly elected by the ruling party and 75 directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: in May 1997, following the adoption of the new constitution, 75 members of the PFDJ Central Committee (the old Central Committee of the EPLF), 60 members of the 527-member Constituent Assembly, which had been established in 1997 to discuss and ratify the new constitution, and 15 representatives of Eritreans living abroad were formed into a Transitional National Assembly to serve as the country's legislative body until countrywide elections to form a National Assembly were held; although only 75 of 150 members of the Transitional National Assembly were elected, the constitution stipulates that once past the transition stage, all members of the National Assembly will be elected by secret ballot of all eligible voters; National Assembly elections scheduled for December 2001 were postponed indefinitely due to the war with Ethiopia, and as of late 2021, there was no sitting legislative body (2021)

election results: NA

Judicial branch

highest courts: High Court (consists of 20 judges and organized into civil, commercial, criminal, labor, administrative, and customary sections)

judge selection and term of office: High Court judges appointed by the president

subordinate courts: regional/zonal courts; community courts; special courts; sharia courts (for issues dealing with Muslim marriage, inheritance, and family); military courts

Political parties and leaders

People's Front for Democracy and Justice or PFDJ [ISAIAS Afwerki] (the only party recognized by the government)

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (observer), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS (observer), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Berhane Gebrehiwet SOLOMON (since 15 March 2011)

chancery: 1708 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 319-1991

FAX: [1] (202) 319-1304

email address and website:
embassyeritrea@embassyeritrea.org

https://us.embassyeritrea.org/

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Steven C. WALKER (since December 2019)

embassy: 179 Alaa Street, Asmara

mailing address: 7170 Asmara Place, Washington DC  20521-7170

telephone: [291] (1) 12-00-04

FAX: [291] (1) 12-75-84

email address and website:
consularasmara@state.gov

https://er.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) dividing the flag into two right triangles; the upper triangle is green, the lower one is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive branch is centered on the hoist side of the red triangle; green stands for the country's agriculture economy, red signifies the blood shed in the fight for freedom, and blue symbolizes the bounty of the sea; the wreath-olive branch symbol is similar to that on the first flag of Eritrea from 1952; the shape of the red triangle broadly mimics the shape of the country

note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, and Vanuatu

National symbol(s)

camel; national colors: green, red, blue

National anthem

name: "Ertra, Ertra, Ertra" (Eritrea, Eritrea, Eritrea)

lyrics/music: SOLOMON Tsehaye Beraki/Isaac Abraham MEHAREZGI and ARON Tekle Tesfatsion

note: adopted 1993; upon independence from Ethiopia

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Asmara: A Modernist African City

Economy

Economic overview

Since formal independence from Ethiopia in 1993, Eritrea has faced many economic problems, including lack of financial resources and chronic drought. Eritrea has a command economy under the control of the sole political party, the People's Front for Democracy and Justice. Like the economies of many African nations, a large share of the population - nearly 80% in Eritrea - is engaged in subsistence agriculture, but the sector only produces a small share of the country's total output. Mining accounts for the lion's share of output.

 

The government has strictly controlled the use of foreign currency by limiting access and availability; new regulations in 2013 aimed at relaxing currency controls have had little economic effect. Few large private enterprises exist in Eritrea and most operate in conjunction with government partners, including a number of large international mining ventures, which began production in 2013. In late 2015, the Government of Eritrea introduced a new currency, retaining the name nakfa, and restricted the amount of hard currency individuals could withdraw from banks per month. The changeover has resulted in exchange fluctuations and the scarcity of hard currency available in the market.

 

While reliable statistics on Eritrea are difficult to obtain, erratic rainfall and the large percentage of the labor force tied up in military service continue to interfere with agricultural production and economic development. Eritrea's harvests generally cannot meet the food needs of the country without supplemental grain purchases. Copper, potash, and gold production are likely to continue to drive limited economic growth and government revenue over the next few years, but military spending will continue to compete with development and investment plans.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$9.702 billion (2017 est.)

$8.953 billion (2016 est.)

$8.791 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 163

Real GDP growth rate

5% (2017 est.)

1.9% (2016 est.)

2.6% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 46

Real GDP per capita

$1,600 (2017 est.)

$1,500 (2016 est.)

$1,500 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 217

GDP (official exchange rate)

$5.813 billion (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 11.7% (2017 est.)

industry: 29.6% (2017 est.)

services: 58.7% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 80.9% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 24.3% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 6.4% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 10.9% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -22.5% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

sorghum, milk, vegetables, barley, cereals, pulses nes, roots/tubers nes, wheat, millet, beef

Industries

food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles, light manufacturing, salt, cement

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 80%

industry: 20% (2004 est.)

Budget

revenues: 2.029 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 2.601 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

131.2% of GDP (2017 est.)

132.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 6

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$137 million (2017 est.)

-$105 million (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 91

Exports

$624.3 million (2017 est.)

$485.4 million (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 187

Exports - partners

China 62%, South Korea 28.3% (2017)

Exports - commodities

gold and other minerals, livestock, sorghum, textiles, food, small industry manufactures

Imports

$1.127 billion (2017 est.)

$1.048 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 186

Imports - partners

UAE 14.5%, China 13.2%, Saudi Arabia 13.2%, Italy 12.9%, Turkey 5.6%, South Africa 4.6% (2017)

Imports - commodities

machinery, petroleum products, food, manufactured goods

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$236.7 million (31 December 2017 est.)

$218.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 171

Debt - external

$792.7 million (31 December 2017 est.)

$875.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 170

Exchange rates

nakfa (ERN) per US dollar -

15.38 (2017 est.)

15.375 (2016 est.)

15.375 (2015 est.)

15.375 (2014 est.)

15.375 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 47% (2019)

electrification - urban areas: 95% (2019)

electrification - rural areas: 13% (2019)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 228,000 kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 394.46 million kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 61 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 93.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 5.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 5,200 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 barrels/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 barrels/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

798,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 798,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 179

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 66,000 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 150

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 1.801 million (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 51 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 154

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Eritrea’s telecom sector operates under a state-owned monopoly for fixed and mobile services; the country has the least developed telecommunications market in Africa; mobile subscriptions stands at only about 20%, while fixed-line internet use barely registers; this is exacerbated by the very low use of computers, with only about 4% of households having a computer, and most of these being in the capital, Asmara; the provision of internet services is open to competition, about 2% of households have access to the internet; the national telco, the Eritrean Telecommunication Services Corporation (EriTel), continues to roll out a 3G network which provides basic internet access to the majority or Eritreans; considerable investment in telecom infrastructure is still required to improve the quality of services; the government has embarked on a work program aimed at extending services to remote areas, improving the quality of services, and ensuring that more telecoms infrastructure is supported by solar power to compensate for the poor state of the electricity network; additional foreign investment in telecom infrastructure, as well as introduction of more competition, would help transform what remains a virtually untapped market. (2021)

domestic: fixed-line subscribership is less than 2 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular is just over 20 per 100 (2019)

international: country code - 291 (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced a downturn, particularly in mobile device production; progress towards 5G implementation has resumed, as well as upgrades to infrastructure; consumer spending on telecom services has increased due to the surge in demand for capacity and bandwidth; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home is still evident, and the spike in this area has seen growth opportunities for development of new tools and increased services

Broadcast media

government controls broadcast media with private ownership prohibited; 1 state-owned TV station; state-owned radio operates 2 networks; purchases of satellite dishes and subscriptions to international broadcast media are permitted (2019)

Internet users

total: 53,200 (2019 est.)

percent of population: 1% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 195

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 5,000 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0.1 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 187

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 102,729 (2018)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 4

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2021)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 9

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2021)

Heliports

1 (2021)

Railways

total: 306 km (2018)

narrow gauge: 306 km (2018) 0.950-m gauge

country comparison to the world: 121

Roadways

total: 16,000 km (2018)

paved: 1,600 km (2000)

unpaved: 14,400 km (2000)

country comparison to the world: 121

Merchant marine

total: 9

by type: general cargo 4, oil tanker 1, other 4 (2021)

country comparison to the world: 157

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Assab, Massawa

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Eritrean Defense Forces (EDF): Eritrean Ground Forces, Eritrean Navy, Eritrean Air Force (includes Air Defense Force); Hizbawi Serawit (aka People's Army or People's Militia) (2022)

Military expenditures

10% of GDP (2019 est.) (approximately $640 million)

10.2% of GDP (2018 est.) (approximately $630 million)

10.3% of GDP (2017 est.) (approximately $630 million)

10.4% of GDP (2016 est.) (approximately $640 million)

10.6% of GDP (2015 est.) (approximately $600 million)

country comparison to the world: 1

Military and security service personnel strengths

limited available information; estimated 150,000-200,000 personnel, including about 2,000 in the naval and air forces (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the EDF inventory is comprised primarily of older Russian and Soviet-era systems; Eritrea was under a UN arms embargo from 2009 to 2018; from the 1990s to 2008, Russia was the leading supplier of arms to Eritrea; in 2019, Eritrea expressed interest in purchasing Russian arms, including missile boats, helicopters, and small arms (2021)

Military service age and obligation

Eritrea mandates military service for all citizens between the ages of 18 and 40 (18-27 for women if conscripted); 18-month conscript service obligation, which includes 4-6 months of military training and 12 months of military or other national service (military service is most common); in practice, military service is often extended indefinitely; citizens up to the age of 55 eligible for recall during mobilization (2022)

note: as of 2020, women were estimated to make up as much as 30% of the Eritrean military

Military - note

since the country's independence in 1991, the Eritrean military has participated in numerous conflicts, including the Hanish Island Crisis with Yemen (1995), the First Congo War (1996-1997), the Second Sudanese Civil War (1996-1998), the Eritrea-Ethiopia War (1998-2000), the Djiboutian-Eritrean border conflict (2008), and the Tigray War (2020-2022) (2022)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by 2002 Ethiopia-Eritrea Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; Sudan accuses Eritrea of supporting eastern Sudanese rebel groups; in 2008, Eritrean troops moved across the border on Ras Doumera peninsula and occupied Doumera Island with undefined sovereignty in the Red Sea

Trafficking in persons

current situation: human traffickers export domestic victims in Eritrea or abroad; National Service is mandatory at age 18 and may take a variety of forms, including military service and physical labor but also government office jobs and teaching; Eritreans who flee the country, usually with the aim of reaching Europe, seek the help of paid smugglers and are vulnerable to trafficking when they cross the border clandestinely into Sudan, Ethiopia, and to a lesser extent Djibouti; Eritreans are subject to forced labor and sex trafficking mainly in Sudan, Ethiopia, and Libya

tier rating: Tier 3 — Eritrea does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; the government engaged in critical bilateral and multilateral partnerships to build its capacity for anti-trafficking initiatives; officials participated in a UN-sponsored regional anti-trafficking workshop and committed to produce a regional plan of action to combat trafficking; however, a government policy or pattern of forced labor existed; the government continued to subject its nationals to forced labor in its compulsory national service and citizen militia by forcing them to serve indefinitely or for arbitrary periods; authorities did not report any trafficking investigations, prosecutions, or convictions, including complicit government employees, nor did they report identifying victims and referring them to care; the government has no action plan to combat human trafficking (2020)