Photos of Fiji

Nudibranchs are a group of soft-bodied mollusks, commonly called sea slugs, which shed their shells after their larval stage. They are noted for their often extraordinary colors and striking forms, and are usually found in shallow salt water seas.



Austronesians settled Fiji around 1000 B.C., followed by successive waves of Melanesians starting around the first century A.D. Fijians traded with Polynesian groups in Samoa and Tonga, and by about A.D. 900, much of Fiji was in the Tu’i Tongan Empire’s sphere of influence. The Tongan influence declined significantly by 1200, while Melanesian seafarers continued to periodically arrive in Fiji, further mixing Melanesian and Polynesian cultural traditions. Dutch explorer Abel TASMAN was the first European to spot Fiji in 1643, followed by British explorer James COOK in 1774. Captain William BLIGH plotted the islands in 1789. In the 1800s, merchants, traders, and whalers frequented the islands, and the first missionaries arrived in 1835. Rival kings and chiefs competed for power, at times aided by Europeans and their weapons, and in 1865, Seru Epenisa CAKOBAU united many groups into the Confederacy of Independent Kingdoms of Viti. The arrangement proved weak, and in 1871 CAKOBAU formed the Kingdom of Fiji in an attempt to centralize power. Fearing a hostile takeover by a foreign power as the kingdom’s economy began to falter, CAKOBAU ceded Fiji to the UK in 1874.

The first British governor set up a plantation-style economy and brought in more than 60,000 Indians as indentured laborers, most of whom chose to stay in Fiji rather than return to India when their contracts expired. In the early 1900s, society was divided along ethnic lines, with iTaukei (indigenous Fijians), Europeans, and Indo-Fijians living in separate areas and maintaining their own languages and traditions. ITaukei fears of an Indo-Fijian takeover of government delayed independence through the 1960s; Fiji achieved independence in 1970 with agreements to allocate parliamentary seats by ethnic groups. After two coups in 1987, a new constitution in 1990 cemented iTaukei control of politics, leading thousands of Indo-Fijians to leave. A reformed constitution in 1997 was more equitable and led to the election of an Indo-Fijian prime minister in 1999, who was ousted in a coup the following year. In 2005, the new prime minister put forward a bill that would grant pardons to the coup perpetrators, leading Commodore Josaia Voreqe "Frank" BAINIMARAMA to launch a coup in 2006. BAINIMARAMA appointed himself prime minister in 2007 and retained the position after elections in 2014 and 2018 that international observers deemed credible. BAINIMARAMA's party lost control of the prime minister position after elections in 2022 -- former opposition leader Sitiveni Ligamamada RABUKA won the office by one vote and leads a coalition with a slim, three-seat parliamentary margin.

With relatively well-developed infrastructure, Fiji has become a hub for the Pacific, hosting the Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat and the main campus of the University of the South Pacific. In addition, Fiji is a center for Pacific tourism, and Nadi International Airport is by far the busiest airport in a Pacific island country.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Oceania, island group in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates

18 00 S, 175 00 E


total: 18,274 sq km

land: 18,274 sq km

water: 0 sq km

comparison ranking: total 156

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries

total: 0 km


1,129 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines


tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation


mostly mountains of volcanic origin


highest point: Tomanivi 1,324 m

lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

Natural resources

timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 23.3% (2018 est.)

arable land: 9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 4.7% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 9.6% (2018 est.)

forest: 55.7% (2018 est.)

other: 21% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

40 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

approximately 70% of the population lives on the island of Viti Levu; roughly half of the population lives in urban areas

Natural hazards

cyclonic storms can occur from November to January

Geography - note

consists of 332 islands, approximately 110 of which are inhabited, and more than 500 islets

People and Society


total: 951,611

male: 482,304

female: 469,307 (2024 est.)

comparison rankings: female 163; male 162; total 163


noun: Fijian(s)

adjective: Fijian

Ethnic groups

iTaukei 56.8% (predominantly Melanesian with a Polynesian admixture), Indo-Fijian 37.5%, Rotuman 1.2%, other 4.5% (European, part European, other Pacific Islanders, Chinese) (2007 est.)

note: a 2010 law replaces 'Fijian' with 'iTaukei' when referring to the original and native settlers of Fiji


English (official), iTaukei (official), Fiji Hindi (official)


Protestant 45% (Methodist 34.6%, Assembly of God 5.7%, Seventh Day Adventist 3.9%, and Anglican 0.8%), Hindu 27.9%, other Christian 10.4%, Roman Catholic 9.1%, Muslim 6.3%, Sikh 0.3%, other 0.3%, none 0.8% (2007 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 24.7% (male 119,910/female 114,904)

15-64 years: 66.4% (male 323,339/female 308,921)

65 years and over: 8.9% (2024 est.) (male 39,055/female 45,482)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 53

youth dependency ratio: 44.2

elderly dependency ratio: 8.7

potential support ratio: 11.4 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 31.6 years (2024 est.)

male: 31.4 years

female: 31.8 years

comparison ranking: total 124

Population growth rate

0.4% (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 157

Birth rate

15.9 births/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 99

Death rate

6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 135

Net migration rate

-5.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 206

Population distribution

approximately 70% of the population lives on the island of Viti Levu; roughly half of the population lives in urban areas


urban population: 58.7% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.37% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

178,000 SUVA (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female

total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2024 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

38 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 107

Infant mortality rate

total: 9.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2024 est.)

male: 11.1 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 8.1 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 133

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 74.8 years (2024 est.)

male: 72.2 years

female: 77.6 years

comparison ranking: total population 136

Total fertility rate

2.21 children born/woman (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 84

Gross reproduction rate

1.08 (2024 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 98.2% of population

rural: 89.1% of population

total: 94.3% of population

unimproved: urban: 1.8% of population

rural: 10.9% of population

total: 5.7% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

3.8% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

0.86 physicians/1,000 population (2015)

Hospital bed density

2 beds/1,000 population (2016)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

30.2% (2016)

comparison ranking: 24

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 2.71 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 1.64 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.29 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.79 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 120

Tobacco use

total: 23.1% (2020 est.)

male: 35.6% (2020 est.)

female: 10.5% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 65

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

4.6% (2021) NA

comparison ranking: 77

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 0.2%

women married by age 18: 4%

men married by age 18: 1.7% (2021 est.)

Education expenditures

5.7% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 51


total population: 99.1%

male: 99.1%

female: 99.1% (2018)


Environment - current issues

the widespread practice of waste incineration is a major contributor to air pollution in the country, as are vehicle emissions in urban areas; deforestation and soil erosion are significant problems; a contributory factor to erosion is clearing of land by bush burning, a widespread practice that threatens biodiversity

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements


tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation

Land use

agricultural land: 23.3% (2018 est.)

arable land: 9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 4.7% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 9.6% (2018 est.)

forest: 55.7% (2018 est.)

other: 21% (2018 est.)


urban population: 58.7% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.37% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.59% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 63

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 185

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 7.36 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 2.05 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 0.95 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 189,390 tons (2011 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 10,322 tons (2013 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 5.5% (2013 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 30 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 10 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 50 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

28.55 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Fiji

conventional short form: Fiji

local long form: Republic of Fiji (English)/ Matanitu ko Viti (Fijian)

local short form: Fiji (English)/ Viti (Fijian)

etymology: the Fijians called their home Viti, but the neighboring Tongans called it Fisi, and in the Anglicized spelling of the Tongan pronunciation - promulgated by explorer Captain James COOK - the designation became Fiji

Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Suva (on Viti Levu)

geographic coordinates: 18 08 S, 178 25 E

time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: the name means "little hill" in the native Fijian (iTaukei) language and refers to a mound where a temple once stood

Administrative divisions

14 provinces and 1 dependency*; Ba, Bua, Cakaudrove, Kadavu, Lau, Lomaiviti, Macuata, Nadroga and Navosa, Naitasiri, Namosi, Ra, Rewa, Rotuma*, Serua, Tailevu


10 October 1970 (from the UK)

National holiday

Fiji (Independence) Day, 10 October (1970)


history: several previous; latest signed into law 6 September 2013

amendments: proposed as a bill by Parliament and supported by at least three quarters of its members, followed by referral to the president and then to the Electoral Commission, which conducts a referendum; passage requires approval by at least three-quarters of registered voters and assent by the president

Legal system

common law system based on the English model

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Fiji

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: at least 5 years residency out of the 10 years preceding application


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Ratu Wiliame KATONIVERE (since 12 November 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Sitiveni Ligamamada RABUKA (since 24 December 2022)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among members of Parliament and is responsible to Parliament

elections/appointments: president elected by Parliament for a 3-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 October 2021 (next to be held in 2024); prime minister endorsed by the president

election results: 2021: Ratu Wiliame KATONIVERE elected president; Wiliame KATONIVERE (People's Alliance) 28 votes, Teimumu KEPA (SODELPA) 23 votes

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament (55 seats; members directly elected in a nationwide, multi-seat constituency by open-list proportional representation vote with a 5% electoral threshold; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 14 December 2022 (next to be held in 2026)

election results: percent of vote by party - FijiFirst 42.5%, People's Alliance 35.8%, NFP 8.9%, SODELPA 5.1%, other 7.7%; seats by party - FijiFirst 26, People's Alliance 21, NFP 5, SODELPA 3; composition - men 50, women 5, percentage women 9.1%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, all justices of the Court of Appeal, and judges appointed specifically as Supreme Court judges); Court of Appeal (consists of the court president, all puisne judges of the High Court, and judges specifically appointed to the Court of Appeal); High Court (chaired by the chief justice and includes a minimum of 10 puisne judges; High Court organized into civil, criminal, family, employment, and tax divisions)

judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the president of Fiji on the advice of the prime minister following consultation with the parliamentary leader of the opposition; judges of the Supreme Court, the president of the Court of Appeal, the justices of the Court of Appeal, and puisne judges of the High Court appointed by the president of Fiji upon the nomination of the Judicial Service Commission after consulting with the cabinet minister and the committee of the House of Representatives responsible for the administration of justice; the chief justice, Supreme Court judges and justices of Appeal generally required to retire at age 70, but this requirement may be waived for one or more sessions of the court; puisne judges appointed for not less than 4 years nor more than 7 years, with mandatory retirement at age 65

subordinate courts: Magistrates' Court (organized into civil, criminal, juvenile, and small claims divisions)

Political parties and leaders

Fiji First [Voroqe "Frank" BAINIMARAMA]
Fiji Labor Party or FLP [Mahendra CHAUDHRY]
Freedom Alliance [Jagath KARUNARATNE] (formerly Fiji United Freedom Party or FUFP)
National Federation Party or NFP [Biman PRASAD] (primarily Indian)
People's Alliance [Sitiveni RABUKA]
Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Lynda TABUYA]
Social Democratic Liberal Party or SODELPA [Lenaitasi DURU, general secretary]
Unity Fiji [Savenaca NARUBE]

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d'Affaires Aporosa BABAKOBUA

chancery: 1707 L Street NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (917) 208-4560

FAX: [1] (202) 466-8325

email address and website:

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Marie DAMOUR (since 24 November 2022); note - also accredited to Kiribati, Nauru, Tonga, and Tuvalu

embassy: 158 Princes Road, Tamavua, Suva

mailing address: 4290 Suva Place, Washington DC  20521-4290

telephone: [679] 331-4466

FAX: [679] 330-2267

email address and website:

Flag description

light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the blue symbolizes the Pacific Ocean and the Union Jack reflects the links with Great Britain; the shield - taken from Fiji's coat of arms - depicts a yellow lion, holding a coconut pod between its paws, above a white field quartered by the cross of Saint George; the four quarters depict stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree, a banana bunch, and a white dove of peace

National symbol(s)

Fijian canoe; national color: light blue

National anthem

name: "God Bless Fiji"

lyrics/music: Michael Francis Alexander PRESCOTT/C. Austin MILES (adapted by Michael Francis Alexander PRESCOTT)

note: adopted 1970; known in Fijian as "Meda Dau Doka" (Let Us Show Pride); adapted from the hymn, "Dwelling in Beulah Land," the anthem's English lyrics are generally sung, although they differ in meaning from the official Fijian lyrics

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Levuka Historical Port Town


Economic overview

upper-middle income, tourism-based Pacific island economy; susceptible to ocean rises; key energy and infrastructure investments; post-pandemic tourism resurgence; improved debt standing; limited workforce

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$11.518 billion (2022 est.)
$9.597 billion (2021 est.)
$10.09 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 161

Real GDP growth rate

20.02% (2022 est.)
-4.88% (2021 est.)
-17.04% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 3

Real GDP per capita

$12,400 (2022 est.)
$10,400 (2021 est.)
$11,000 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 128

GDP (official exchange rate)

$4.98 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

4.52% (2022 est.)
0.16% (2021 est.)
-2.6% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 70

Credit ratings

Moody's rating: Ba3 (2017)

Standard & Poors rating: BB- (2019)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 13.5% (2017 est.)

industry: 17.4% (2017 est.)

services: 69.1% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 76; industry 169; agriculture 72

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 81.3% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 24.4% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 16.9% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 29% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -51.6% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

sugarcane, cassava, taro, chicken, vegetables, coconuts, ginger, rice, milk, sweet potatoes (2022)

note: top ten agricultural products based on tonnage


tourism, sugar processing, clothing, copra, gold, silver, lumber

Industrial production growth rate

5.7% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 52

Labor force

382,000 (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 164

Unemployment rate

4.56% (2022 est.)
4.8% (2021 est.)
4.73% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 94

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 18.1% (2021 est.)

male: 14.1%

female: 25.9%

comparison ranking: total 95

Population below poverty line

24.1% (2019 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

30.7 (2019 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

comparison ranking: 140

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.5%

highest 10%: 24.2% (2019 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population


9.21% of GDP (2022 est.)
9.14% of GDP (2021 est.)
7.16% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities


revenues: $885 million (2020 est.)

expenditures: $1.515 billion (2020 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 154

Public debt

48.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
47.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 109

Taxes and other revenues

15.87% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 133

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$865.665 million (2022 est.)
-$686.577 million (2021 est.)
-$614.13 million (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 121


$2.376 billion (2022 est.)
$1.171 billion (2021 est.)
$1.23 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 159

Exports - partners

US 39%, Australia 11%, Tonga 5%, NZ 5%, China 4% (2022)

note: top five export partners based on percentage share of exports

Exports - commodities

water, fish, refined petroleum, wood, garments (2022)

note: top five export commodities based on value in dollars


$3.434 billion (2022 est.)
$2.344 billion (2021 est.)
$1.977 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 161

Imports - partners

Singapore 23%, China 16%, Australia 13%, NZ 11%, South Korea 8% (2022)

note: top five import partners based on percentage share of imports

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, plastic products, plastics, wheat, garments (2022)

note: top five import commodities based on value in dollars

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$1.557 billion (2022 est.)
$1.518 billion (2021 est.)
$1.082 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 138

Debt - external

$1.022 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$696.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 165

Exchange rates

Fijian dollars (FJD) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
2.201 (2022 est.)
2.071 (2021 est.)
2.169 (2020 est.)
2.16 (2019 est.)
2.087 (2018 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 92.1% (2021)

electrification - urban areas: 96% (2021)

electrification - rural areas: 86.7% (2021)


installed generating capacity: 393,000 kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 1,022,955,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 90 million kWh (2019 est.)

comparison rankings: imports 158; exports 144; installed generating capacity 154; transmission/distribution losses 53; consumption 157

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 41.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 1.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 50.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)


production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 11,500 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 191

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 128

Refined petroleum products - imports

17,460 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 132

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

1.691 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 1.691 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 164

Energy consumption per capita

32.901 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 118


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 48,510 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 5 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 155

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 990,000 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 110 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 163

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Fiji is the leading market to watch in terms of both LTE and 5G development in the region; the market boasts relatively sophisticated, advanced digital infrastructure, with telcos’ heavy investment resulting in the country having the highest mobile and internet subscriptions in the Pacific Islands region; LTE, LTE-A, and fiber technologies have received the most investment by the Fijian mobile operators, LTE now accounts for the largest share of connections in the mobile segment; concentrating on the more highly populated areas, the operators are preparing for the next growth area of high-speed data; they also have 5G in mind, and are preparing their networks to be 5G-ready, anticipating an easier migration to the technology based on the relatively high LTE subscription rate; Fiji presents a challenging geographic environment for infrastructure development due to its population being spread across more than 100 islands; the majority of Fijians live on the two main islands of Viti Levu and Vanua Levu; in July 2018, the two islands were linked by the Savusavu submarine cable system, which provides a more secure link in times of emergency weather events such as the regular tropical cyclones that often cause massive destruction to the area, including destroying essential infrastructure such as electricity and telecommunications equipment; notably, the December 2021 eruption of the Hunga Tonga–Hunga Ha'apai submarine volcano in Tonga damaged the Tonga Cable which connects Fiji, and Tonga blocking the latter off from internet services; cable theft and damage of critical communications infrastructure has also become a concern in Fiji, prompting authorities to establish a joint task force to tackle the issue (2022)

domestic: fixed-line nearly 5 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 110 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 679; landing points for the ICN1, SCCN, Southern Cross NEXT, Tonga Cable and Tui-Samoa submarine cable links to US, NZ, Australia and Pacific islands of Fiji, Vanuatu, Kiribati, Samoa, Tokelau, Tonga, Fallis & Futuna, and American Samoa; satellite earth stations - 2 Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean) (2019)

Broadcast media

Fiji TV, a publicly traded company, operates a free-to-air channel; Digicel Fiji operates the Sky Fiji and Sky Pacific multi-channel pay-TV services; state-owned commercial company, Fiji Broadcasting Corporation, Ltd, operates 6 radio stations - 2 public broadcasters and 4 commercial broadcasters with multiple repeaters; 5 radio stations with repeaters operated by Communications Fiji, Ltd; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available

Internet users

total: 809,600 (2021 est.)

percent of population: 88% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 155

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 23,062 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 162


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 16

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,670,216 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 106.83 million (2018) mt-km


26 (2024)

comparison ranking: 127


2 (2024)


total: 597 km (2008)

narrow gauge: 597 km (2008) 0.600-m gauge

note: belongs to the government-owned Fiji Sugar Corporation; used to haul sugarcane during the harvest season, which runs from May to December

comparison ranking: total 108


total: 7,500 km (2023)

comparison ranking: total 143


203 km (2012) (122 km are navigable by motorized craft and 200-metric-ton barges)

comparison ranking: 107

Merchant marine

total: 74 (2023)

by type: general cargo 21, oil tanker 4, other 49

comparison ranking: total 105


total ports: 5 (2024)

large: 0

medium: 0

small: 2

very small: 3

ports with oil terminals: 4

key ports: Lautoka Harbor, Levuka, Malai, Savusavu Bay, Suva Harbor

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Republic of Fiji Military Force (RFMF): Land Force Command, Maritime Command (2024)

note: the RFMF is subordinate to the president as the commander-in-chief, while the Fiji Police Force reports to the Ministry of Defense, National Security, and Policing

Military expenditures

1.2% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.5% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.4% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.6% of GDP (2019 est.)
1.6% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 110

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 4,000 active personnel (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the RFMF is lightly armed and equipped; Australia has provided patrol boats and a few armored personnel carriers; it also provides logistical support for RFMF regional or UN operations; in recent years, China has provided construction equipment and military vehicles (2024)

Military service age and obligation

18-25 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; mandatory retirement at age 55 (2023)

Military deployments

170 Egypt (MFO); 160 Iraq (UNAMI); 150 Golan Heights (UNDOF) (2024)

Military - note

established in 1920, the RFMF is a small and lightly-armed force with a history of intervening in the country’s politics, including coups in 1987 and 2006, and a mutiny in 2000, and it continues to have significant political power; the RFMF is responsible for external security but can be assigned some domestic security responsibilities in specific circumstances; it also has a tradition of participating in UN peacekeeping operations, having sent troops on nearly 20 such missions since first deploying personnel  to South Lebanon in 1978; these deployments have offered experience and a source of financial support; the RFMF has an infantry regiment and a small naval element comprised of patrol boats

Fiji has a "shiprider" agreement with the US, which allows local maritime law enforcement officers to embark on US Coast Guard (USCG) and US Navy (USN) vessels, including to board and search vessels suspected of violating laws or regulations within Fiji's designated exclusive economic zone (EEZ) or on the high seas; "shiprider" agreements also enable USCG personnel and USN vessels with embarked USCG law enforcement personnel to work with host nations to protect critical regional resources (2023)