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Austronesians settled Fiji around 1000 B.C., followed by successive waves of Melanesians starting around the first century A.D. Fijians traded with Polynesian groups in Samoa and Tonga, and by about 900, much of Fiji was in the Tu’i Tongan Empire’s sphere of influence. The Tongan influence declined significantly by 1200, while Melanesian seafarers continued to periodically arrive in Fiji, further mixing Melanesian and Polynesian cultural traditions. Dutch explorer Abel TASMAN was the first European to spot Fiji in 1643, followed by British explorer James COOK in 1774. Captain William BLIGH plotted the islands in 1789. In the 1800s, merchants, traders, and whalers frequented the islands and the first missionaries arrived in 1835. Rival kings and chiefs competed for power, at times aided by Europeans and their weapons, and in 1865, Seru Epenisa CAKOBAU united many groups into the Confederacy of Independent Kingdoms of Viti. The arrangement proved weak and in 1871 CAKOBAU formed the Kingdom of Fiji in an attempt to centralize power. Fearing a hostile takeover by a foreign power as the kingdom’s economy began to falter, CAKOBAU ceded Fiji to the UK in 1874.

The first British governor set up a plantation-style economy and brought in more than 60,000 Indians as indentured laborers, most of whom chose to stay in Fiji rather than return to India when their contracts expired. In the early 1900s, society was divided along ethnic lines, with iTaukei (indigenous Fijians), Europeans, and Indo-Fijians living in separate areas and maintaining their own languages and traditions. ITaukei fears of an Indo-Fijian takeover of government delayed independence through the 1960s; Fiji achieved independence in 1970 with agreements in place to allocate parliamentary seats by ethnic groups. Long-serving Prime Minister Kamisese MARA largely balanced these ethnic divisions, but concerns about growing Indo-Fijian political influence led to two coups in 1987. A new constitution in 1990 cemented iTaukei control of politics, leading thousands of Indo-Fijians to leave. A reformed constitution in 1997 was more equitable and led to the election of an Indo-Fijian prime minister in 1999, who was ousted in a coup the following year. In 2005, the new prime minister put forward a bill that would grant pardons to the coup perpetrators, leading Commodore Josaia BAINIMARAMA to launch a coup in 2006. BAINIMARAMA  appointed himself prime minister in 2007 and continues to hold the position after elections in 2014 and 2018 that international observers deemed credible.

With well-developed infrastructure, Fiji has become a hub for the Pacific, hosting the secretariat for the Pacific Islands Forum and the main campus of the University of the South Pacific. In addition, Fiji is a center for Pacific tourism, and Nadi International Airport is by far the busiest airport in a Pacific island country.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Oceania, island group in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates

18 00 S, 175 00 E


total: 18,274 sq km

land: 18,274 sq km

water: 0 sq km

country comparison to the world: 156

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries

total: 0 km


1,129 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines


tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation


mostly mountains of volcanic origin


highest point: Tomanivi 1,324 m

lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

Natural resources

timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 23.3% (2018 est.)

arable land: 9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 4.7% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 9.6% (2018 est.)

forest: 55.7% (2018 est.)

other: 21% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

40 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

approximately 70% of the population lives on the island of Viti Levu; roughly half of the population lives in urban areas

Natural hazards

cyclonic storms can occur from November to January

Geography - note

consists of 332 islands, approximately 110 of which are inhabited, and more than 500 islets

Map description

Fiji map showing the many islands that make up the country in the South Pacific Ocean.

People and Society


noun: Fijian(s)

adjective: Fijian

Ethnic groups

iTaukei 56.8% (predominantly Melanesian with a Polynesian admixture), Indo-Fijian 37.5%, Rotuman 1.2%, other 4.5% (European, part European, other Pacific Islanders, Chinese) (2007 est.)

note: a 2010 law replaces 'Fijian' with 'iTaukei' when referring to the original and native settlers of Fiji


English (official), iTaukei (official), Fiji Hindi (official)


Protestant 45% (Methodist 34.6%, Assembly of God 5.7%, Seventh Day Adventist 3.9%, and Anglican 0.8%), Hindu 27.9%, other Christian 10.4%, Roman Catholic 9.1%, Muslim 6.3%, Sikh 0.3%, other 0.3%, none 0.8% (2007 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 26.86% (male 128,499/female 122,873)

15-24 years: 15.51% (male 73,993/female 71,139)

25-54 years: 41.05% (male 196,932/female 187,270)

55-64 years: 9.25% (male 43,813/female 42,763)

65 years and over: 7.34% (2020 est.) (male 31,556/female 37,136)

2022 population pyramid
2022 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 53.4

youth dependency ratio: 44.5

elderly dependency ratio: 8.9

potential support ratio: 11.2 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 29.9 years

male: 29.7 years

female: 30.1 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 125

Birth rate

16.56 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 96

Death rate

6.37 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 141

Net migration rate

-5.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 208

Population distribution

approximately 70% of the population lives on the island of Viti Levu; roughly half of the population lives in urban areas


urban population: 58.2% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 1.37% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

178,000 SUVA (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female

total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

34 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 107

Infant mortality rate

total: 10.06 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 11.59 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 8.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 138

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 74.27 years

male: 71.6 years

female: 77.07 years (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 140

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 98.2% of population

rural: 89.1% of population

total: 94.3% of population

unimproved: urban: 1.8% of population

rural: 10.9% of population

total: 5.7% of population (2020 est.)

Physicians density

0.86 physicians/1,000 population (2015)

Hospital bed density

2 beds/1,000 population (2016)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

(2020 est.) <100

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea

vectorborne diseases: malaria

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 2.71 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 1.64 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.29 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.79 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 120

Tobacco use

total: 23.1% (2020 est.)

male: 35.6% (2020 est.)

female: 10.5% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 64


total population: 99.1%

male: 99.1%

female: 99.1% (2018)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 15.4%

male: 11.9%

female: 22.4% (2016 est.)


Environment - current issues

the widespread practice of waste incineration is a major contributor to air pollution in the country, as are vehicle emissions in urban areas; deforestation and soil erosion are significant problems; a contributory factor to erosion is clearing of land by bush burning, a widespread practice that threatens biodiversity

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 10.19 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 2.05 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 0.95 megatons (2020 est.)


tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation

Land use

agricultural land: 23.3% (2018 est.)

arable land: 9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 4.7% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 9.6% (2018 est.)

forest: 55.7% (2018 est.)

other: 21% (2018 est.)


urban population: 58.2% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 1.37% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 97

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea

vectorborne diseases: malaria

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 189,390 tons (2011 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 10,322 tons (2013 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 5.5% (2013 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 25.3 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 9.6 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 50 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

28.55 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Fiji

conventional short form: Fiji

local long form: Republic of Fiji (English)/ Matanitu ko Viti (Fijian)

local short form: Fiji (English)/ Viti (Fijian)

etymology: the Fijians called their home Viti, but the neighboring Tongans called it Fisi, and in the Anglicized spelling of the Tongan pronunciation - promulgated by explorer Captain James COOK - the designation became Fiji

Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Suva (on Viti Levu)

geographic coordinates: 18 08 S, 178 25 E

time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: the name means "little hill" in the native Fijian (iTaukei) language and refers to a mound where a temple once stood

Administrative divisions

14 provinces and 1 dependency*; Ba, Bua, Cakaudrove, Kadavu, Lau, Lomaiviti, Macuata, Nadroga and Navosa, Naitasiri, Namosi, Ra, Rewa, Rotuma*, Serua, Tailevu


10 October 1970 (from the UK)

National holiday

Fiji (Independence) Day, 10 October (1970)


history: several previous; latest signed into law 6 September 2013

amendments: proposed as a bill by Parliament and supported by at least three quarters of its members, followed by referral to the president and then to the Electoral Commission, which conducts a referendum; passage requires approval by at least three-quarters of registered voters and assent by the president

Legal system

common law system based on the English model

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Fiji

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: at least 5 years residency out of the 10 years preceding application


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Ratu Wiliame KATONIVERE (since 12 November 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Voreqe "Frank" BAINIMARAMA (since 22 September 2014)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among members of Parliament and is responsible to Parliament

elections/appointments: president elected by Parliament for a 3-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 October 2021 (next to be held in 2024); prime minister endorsed by the president

election results: Ratu Wiliame KATONIVERE elected president with 28 votes against 23 votes for Teimumu KEPA

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament (51 seats; members directly elected in a nationwide, multi-seat constituency by open-list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 14 November 2018 (next to be held in 2022)

election results: percent of vote by party - FijiFirst 50%, SODELPA 39.6%, NFP 7.4%; seats by party - FijiFirst 27, SODELPA 21, NFP 3; composition - men 41, women 10, percent of women 19.6%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, all justices of the Court of Appeal, and judges appointed specifically as Supreme Court judges); Court of Appeal (consists of the court president, all puisne judges of the High Court, and judges specifically appointed to the Court of Appeal); High Court (chaired by the chief justice and includes a minimum of 10 puisne judges; High Court organized into civil, criminal, family, employment, and tax divisions)

judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the president of Fiji on the advice of the prime minister following consultation with the parliamentary leader of the opposition; judges of the Supreme Court, the president of the Court of Appeal, the justices of the Court of Appeal, and puisne judges of the High Court appointed by the president of Fiji upon the nomination of the Judicial Service Commission after consulting with the cabinet minister and the committee of the House of Representatives responsible for the administration of justice; the chief justice, Supreme Court judges and justices of Appeal generally required to retire at age 70, but this requirement may be waived for one or more sessions of the court; puisne judges appointed for not less than 4 years nor more than 7 years, with mandatory retirement at age 65

subordinate courts: Magistrates' Court (organized into civil, criminal, juvenile, and small claims divisions)

Political parties and leaders

FijiFirst [Veroqe "Frank" BAINIMARAMA]
Fiji Labor Party or FLP [Mahendra CHAUDHRY]
Freedom Alliance [Jagath KARUNARATNE] (formerly Fiji United Freedom Party or FUFP)
National Federation Party or NFP [Biman PRASAD] (primarily Indian)
Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Lynda TABUYA]
Social Democratic Liberal Party or SODELPA [Viliame Rogoibulu GAVOKA]
Unity Fiji [Savenaca NARUBE]

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Akuila VUIRA

chancery: 1707 L Street NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 466-8320

FAX: [1] (202) 466-8325

email address and website:

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Tony GREUBEL (since 20 January 2021); note - also accredited to Kiribati, Nauru, Tonga, and Tuvalu

embassy: 158 Princes Road, Tamavua, Suva

mailing address: 4290 Suva Place, Washington DC  20521-4290

telephone: [679] 331-4466

FAX: [679] 330-2267

email address and website:

Flag description

light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the blue symbolizes the Pacific Ocean and the Union Jack reflects the links with Great Britain; the shield - taken from Fiji's coat of arms - depicts a yellow lion, holding a coconut pod between its paws, above a white field quartered by the cross of Saint George; the four quarters depict stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree, a banana bunch, and a white dove of peace

National symbol(s)

Fijian canoe; national color: light blue

National anthem

name: "God Bless Fiji"

lyrics/music: Michael Francis Alexander PRESCOTT/C. Austin MILES (adapted by Michael Francis Alexander PRESCOTT)

note: adopted 1970; known in Fijian as "Meda Dau Doka" (Let Us Show Pride); adapted from the hymn, "Dwelling in Beulah Land," the anthem's English lyrics are generally sung, although they differ in meaning from the official Fijian lyrics

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Levuka Historical Port Town


Economic overview

Fiji, endowed with forest, mineral, and fish resources, is one of the most developed and connected of the Pacific island economies. Earnings from the tourism industry, with an estimated 842,884 tourists visiting in 2017, and remittances from Fijian’s working abroad are the country’s largest foreign exchange earners.


Bottled water exports to the US is Fiji’s largest domestic export. Fiji's sugar sector remains a significant industry and a major export, but crops and one of the sugar mills suffered damage during Cyclone Winston in 2016. Fiji’s trade imbalance continues to widen with increased imports and sluggish performance of domestic exports.


The return to parliamentary democracy and successful elections in September 2014 improved investor confidence, but increasing bureaucratic regulation, new taxes, and lack of consultation with relevant stakeholders brought four consecutive years of decline for Fiji on the World Bank Ease of Doing Business index. Private sector investment in 2017 approached 20% of GDP, compared to 13% in 2013.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$9.86 billion (2020 est.)

$12.18 billion (2019 est.)

$12.23 billion (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 161

Real GDP growth rate

3% (2017 est.)

0.7% (2016 est.)

3.8% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 98

Real GDP per capita

$11,000 (2020 est.)

$13,700 (2019 est.)

$13,800 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 135

GDP (official exchange rate)

$4.891 billion (2017 est.)

Credit ratings

Moody's rating: Ba3 (2017)

Standard & Poors rating: BB- (2019)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 13.5% (2017 est.)

industry: 17.4% (2017 est.)

services: 69.1% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 81.3% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 24.4% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 16.9% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 29% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -51.6% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

sugar cane, cassava, taro, poultry, vegetables, coconuts, eggs, milk, ginger, sweet potatoes


tourism, sugar processing, clothing, copra, gold, silver, lumber

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 44.2%

industry: 14.3%

services: 41.6% (2011)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 15.4%

male: 11.9%

female: 22.4% (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 104

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.6%

highest 10%: 34.9% (2009 est.)


revenues: 1.454 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 1.648 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

48.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

47.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 106

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$277 million (2017 est.)

-$131 million (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 104


$1.23 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$2.64 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$2.67 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 170

Exports - partners

United States 29%, Australia 14%, New Zealand 7%, Japan 6%, Tonga 6% (2019)

Exports - commodities

water, refined petroleum, fish, raw sugar, gold (2019)


$1.97 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$3.21 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$3.1 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 174

Imports - partners

Singapore 18%, Australia 13%, China 13.8%, New Zealand 11%, France 11%, South Korea 8% (2017)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, aircraft, cars, wheat, broadcasting equipment (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$1.116 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$908.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 130

Debt - external

$1.022 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$696.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 165

Exchange rates

Fijian dollars (FJD) per US dollar -

2.05955 (2020 est.)

2.17345 (2019 est.)

2.1104 (2018 est.)

2.0976 (2014 est.)

1.8874 (2013 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 99.6% (2018)

electrification - urban areas: 100% (2018)

electrification - rural areas: 99.2% (2018)


installed generating capacity: 393,000 kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 1,022,955,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 90 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 41.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 1.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 50.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)


production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 11,500 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 barrels/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 barrels/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

1.691 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 1.691 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 164


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 48,510 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 5 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 157

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 991,500 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 111 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 162

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Fiji is the leading market to watch in terms of both LTE and 5G development in the region; the market boasts relatively sophisticated, advanced digital infrastructure, with telcos’ heavy investment resulting in the country having the highest mobile and internet subscriptions in the Pacific Islands region; LTE, LTE-A, and fiber technologies have received the most investment by the Fijian mobile operators, which include Digicel Fiji, Vodafone Fiji, and Telecom Fiji. Notably, LTE now accounts for the largest share of connections in the mobile segment; concentrating on the more highly populated areas, the operators are preparing for the next growth area of high-speed data; they also have 5G in mind, and are preparing their networks to be 5G-ready, anticipating an easier migration to the technology based on the relatively high LTE subscription rate; the sale of Digicel to Telstra also passed a major hurdle when the Fijian Competition and Consumer Commission approved the transaction in March 2022; Fiji presents a challenging geographic environment for infrastructure development due to its population being spread across more than 100 islands; the majority of Fijians live on the two main islands of Viti Levu and Vanua Levu; in July 2018, the two islands were linked by the Savusavu submarine cable system, which provides a more secure link in times of emergency weather events such as the regular tropical cyclones that often cause massive destruction to the area, including destroying essential infrastructure such as electricity and telecommunications equipment; notably, the December 2021 eruption of the Hunga Tonga–Hunga Ha'apai submarine volcano in Tonga damaged the Tonga Cable which connects Fiji, and Tonga blocking the latter off from internet services; cable theft and damage of critical communications infrastructure has also become a concern in Fiji, prompting authorities to establish a joint task force to tackle the issue. (2022)

domestic: fixed-line nearly 9 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 118 per 100 persons (2019)

international: country code - 679; landing points for the ICN1, SCCN, Southern Cross NEXT, Tonga Cable and Tui-Samoa submarine cable links to US, NZ, Australia and Pacific islands of Fiji, Vanuatu, Kiribati, Samoa, Tokelau, Tonga, Fallis & Futuna, and American Samoa; satellite earth stations - 2 Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced a downturn, particularly in mobile device production; progress towards 5G implementation has resumed, as well as upgrades to infrastructure; consumer spending on telecom services has increased due to the surge in demand for capacity and bandwidth; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home is still evident, and the spike in this area has seen growth opportunities for development of new tools and increased services

Broadcast media

Fiji TV, a publicly traded company, operates a free-to-air channel; Digicel Fiji operates the Sky Fiji and Sky Pacific multi-channel pay-TV services; state-owned commercial company, Fiji Broadcasting Corporation, Ltd, operates 6 radio stations - 2 public broadcasters and 4 commercial broadcasters with multiple repeaters; 5 radio stations with repeaters operated by Communications Fiji, Ltd; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available

Internet users

total: 444,978 (2019 est.)

percent of population: 50% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 161

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 23,062 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 162


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 16

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,670,216 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 106.83 million (2018) mt-km

Airports - with paved runways

total: 4

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2021)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 24

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 19 (2021)


total: 597 km (2008)

narrow gauge: 597 km (2008) 0.600-m gauge

note: belongs to the government-owned Fiji Sugar Corporation; used to haul sugarcane during the harvest season, which runs from May to December

country comparison to the world: 109


total: 3,440 km (2011)

paved: 1,686 km (2011)

unpaved: 1,754 km (2011)

country comparison to the world: 159


203 km (2012) (122 km are navigable by motorized craft and 200-metric-ton barges)

country comparison to the world: 107

Merchant marine

total: 73

by type: general cargo 20, oil tanker 4, other 49 (2021)

country comparison to the world: 100

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Lautoka, Levuka, Suva

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Republic of Fiji Military Force (RFMF): Land Force Command, Maritime Command; Fiji Police Force (2022)

note: the RFMF is subordinate to the president as the commander-in-chief, while the Fiji Police Force reports to the the Ministry of Defense, National Security, and Policing

Military expenditures

1.5% of GDP (2021 est.)

1.4% of GDP (2020 est.)

1.6% of GDP (2019 est.) (approximately $160 million)

1.6% of GDP (2018 est.) (approximately $160 million)

1.5% of GDP (2017 est.) (approximately $150 million)

country comparison to the world: 87

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 4,000 active personnel (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the RFMF is lightly armed and equipped; Australia has provided patrol boats and a few armored personnel carriers; it also provides logistical support for RFMF regional or UN operations; in recent years, China has provided construction equipment and military vehicles (2021)

Military service age and obligation

18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; mandatory retirement at age 55 (2022)

Military deployments

170 Egypt (MFO); 165 Iraq (UNAMI); 150 Golan Heights (UNDOF) (2022)

Military - note

the RFMF has a history of intervening in the country’s politics since the late 1980s, including coups in 1987 and 2006, and a mutiny in 2000

the RFMF also has a long tradition of participating in UN peacekeeping operations; since its first deployment of troops to South Lebanon in 1978 under the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL), it has deployed troops on nearly 20 additional UN missions (2022)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

maritime boundary dispute with Tonga

Trafficking in persons

current situation: human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Fiji and Fijians abroad; Fijian women and children and victims from Thailand and China are sex trafficked in illegal brothels, local hotels, private homes, and massage parlors; Fijian children sent to live with families in larger cities are vulnerable to forced labor or sexual activity in exchange for food, clothing, shelter, or school fees; labor traffickers exploit Southeast Asian workers on small informal farms and factories and in construction; Southeast Asian fisherman may be subject to forced labor on Fijian-flagged ships or foreign-flagged ships transiting Fijian ports and water

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List — Fiji does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so; authorities maintained anti-trafficking law enforcement, investigating a similar number of cases as the prior year and convicting a trafficker for the first time since 2014; a government-convened working group finalized an updated anti-trafficking national action plan; however, the government did not demonstrate overall increasing efforts; law enforcement was often unaware of the definition of trafficking, procedures for interviewing victims, and how to proactively screen vulnerable populations for trafficking victims; inspectors did not adequately investigate labor violations for trafficking indicators or provide adequate support to victims (2020)