The Grund District is a quarter in central Luxembourg City located on the banks of the Alzette River. The area is a popular night life precinct.
Country Flag
Country Map
Special Country Products
Locator Map

Introduction

Background

Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839 but gained a larger measure of autonomy. In 1867, Luxembourg attained full independence under the condition that it promise perpetual neutrality. Overrun by Germany in both world wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the EEC (later the EU), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency zone.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Western Europe, between France and Germany

Geographic coordinates

49 45 N, 6 10 E

Area

total: 2,586 sq km

land: 2,586 sq km

water: 0 sq km

country comparison to the world: 178

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Rhode Island; about half the size of Delaware

Area comparison map
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 327 km

border countries (3): Belgium 130 km; France 69 km; Germany 128 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

modified continental with mild winters, cool summers

Terrain

mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast

Elevation

highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m

lowest point: Moselle River 133 m

mean elevation: 325 m

Natural resources

iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 50.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 24% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.6% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 26.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 33.5% (2018 est.)

other: 15.8% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

0 sq km (2012)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Rhine-Maas (198,735 sq km)

Population distribution

most people live in the south, on or near the border with France

Natural hazards

occasional flooding

Geography - note

landlocked; the only grand duchy in the world

Map description

Luxembourg map showing major population centers as well as parts of surrounding countries.

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Luxembourger(s)

adjective: Luxembourg

Ethnic groups

Luxembourger 52.9%, Portuguese 14.5%, French 7.6%, Italian 3.7%, Belgian 3%, German 2%, Spanish 1.3%, Romania 1%, other 14% (2022 est.)

note: data represent population by nationality

Languages

Luxembourgish (official administrative and judicial language and national language (spoken vernacular)) 55.8%, Portuguese 15.7%, French (official administrative, judicial, and legislative language) 12.1%, German (official administrative and judicial language) 3.1%, Italian 2.9%, English 2.1%, other 8.4% (2011 est.)

Religions

Christian (predominantly Roman Catholic) 70.6%, Muslim 2.3%, other (includes Buddhist, folk religions, Hindu, Jewish) 0.4%, unaffiliated 26.7% (2020 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.73% (male 54,099/female 51,004)

15-24 years: 11.78% (male 37,946/female 36,061)

25-54 years: 43.93% (male 141,535/female 134,531)

55-64 years: 12.19% (male 39,289/female 37,337)

65 years and over: 15.37% (2020 est.) (male 43,595/female 52,984)

2022 population pyramid
2022 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 42.8

youth dependency ratio: 22.2

elderly dependency ratio: 20.5

potential support ratio: 4.9 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 39.5 years

male: 38.9 years

female: 40 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 56

Birth rate

11.61 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 162

Death rate

7.21 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 114

Net migration rate

12.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 7

Population distribution

most people live in the south, on or near the border with France

Urbanization

urban population: 91.9% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 1.43% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

120,000 LUXEMBOURG (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

5 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 168

Infant mortality rate

total: 3.25 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 3.65 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 204

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 82.98 years

male: 80.52 years

female: 85.58 years (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 15

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 98.6% of population

total: 99.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 1.4% of population

total: 0.1% of population (2020 est.)

Physicians density

3.01 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density

4.3 beds/1,000 population (2019)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 99.9% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0.1% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

(2018 est.) <100

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 11 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 4.04 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 4.73 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 2.14 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 11

Tobacco use

total: 21.1% (2020 est.)

male: 22.4% (2020 est.)

female: 19.8% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 79

Literacy

total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 14 years (2019)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 23.2%

male: 24.8%

female: 21.3% (2020 est.)

Environment

Environment - current issues

air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland; unsustainable patterns of consumption (transport, energy, recreation, space) threaten biodiversity and landscapes

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 10.21 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 8.99 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 0.61 megatons (2020 est.)

Climate

modified continental with mild winters, cool summers

Land use

agricultural land: 50.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 24% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.6% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 26.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 33.5% (2018 est.)

other: 15.8% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 91.9% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 1.43% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 131

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 356,000 tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 100,997 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 28.4% (2015 est.)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Rhine-Maas (198,735 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 43.6 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 1.6 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 400,000 cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

3.5 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

conventional short form: Luxembourg

local long form: Grand Duche de Luxembourg

local short form: Luxembourg

etymology: the name derives from the Celtic "lucilem" (little) and the German "burg" (castle or fortress) to produce the meaning of the "little castle"; the name is actually ironic, since for centuries the Fortress of Luxembourg was one of Europe's most formidable fortifications; the name passed to the surrounding city and then to the country itself

Government type

constitutional monarchy

Capital

name: Luxembourg

geographic coordinates: 49 36 N, 6 07 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the name derives from the Celtic "lucilem" (little) and the German "burg" (castle or fortress) to produce the meaning of the "little castle"; the name is actually ironic, since for centuries the Fortress of Luxembourg was one of Europe's most formidable fortifications; the name passed to the city that grew around the fortress

Administrative divisions

12 cantons (cantons, singular - canton); Capellen, Clervaux, Diekirch, Echternach, Esch-sur-Alzette, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg, Mersch, Redange, Remich, Vianden, Wiltz

Independence

1839 (from the Netherlands)

National holiday

National Day (birthday of Grand Duke HENRI), 23 June; note - this date of birth is not the true date of birth for any of the Royals, but the national festivities were shifted in 1962 to allow observance during a more favorable time of year

Constitution

history: previous 1842 (heavily amended 1848, 1856); latest effective 17 October 1868

amendments: proposed by the Chamber of Deputies or by the monarch to the Chamber; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the Chamber in two successive readings three months apart; a referendum can be substituted for the second reading if approved by more than a quarter of the Chamber members or by 25,000 valid voters; adoption by referendum requires a majority of all valid voters; amended many times, last in 2020

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: limited to situations where the parents are either unknown, stateless, or when the nationality law of the parents' state of origin does not permit acquisition of citizenship by descent when the birth occurs outside of national territory

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Luxembourg

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch

chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981)

head of government: Prime Minister Xavier BETTEL (since 4 December 2013); Deputy Prime Minister Francois BAUSCH (since 11 October 2019); Deputy Prime Minister Daniel KERSCH (since 4 February 2020)

cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister, appointed by the monarch

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; deputy prime minister appointed by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - a 21-member Council of State appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies

elections: last held on 14 October 2018 (next to be held by 31 October 2023)

election results: percent of vote by party - CSV 35%, LSAP 16.7%, DP 20%, Green Party 9%, ADR 6.7%, Pirate Party 3.3%, The Left 3.3%; seats by party - CSV 21, DP 12, LSAP 10, Green Party 9, ADR 4, Pirate Party 2, The Left 2; composition (as of September 2021) - men 40, women 20, percent of women 33.3%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice includes Court of Appeal and Court of Cassation (consists of 27 judges on 9 benches); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)

judge selection and term of office: judges of both courts appointed by the monarch for life

subordinate courts: Court of Accounts; district and local tribunals and courts

Political parties and leaders

Alternative Democratic Reform Party or ADR [Fred KEUP]
Christian Social People's Party or CSV [Claude WISELER]
Democratic Party or DP [Corinne CAHEN]
Green Party [Djuna BERNARD, Meris SEHOVIC]
Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Yves CRUCHTEN]
The Left (dei Lenk/la Gauche) [collective leadership, Central Committee]
Pirate Party [Sven CLEMENT, Marc GOERGEN]

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Nicole BINTNER-BAKSHIAN (since 19 August 2021)

chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 265-4171

FAX: [1] (202) 328-8270

email address and website:
washington.amb@mae.etat.lu

https://washington.mae.lu/en.html

consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas M. BARRETT (since 10 February 2022)

embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City

mailing address: 5380 Luxembourg Place, Washington DC  20521-5380

telephone: [352] 46-01-23-00

FAX: [352] 46-14-01

email address and website:
Luxembourgconsular@state.gov

https://lu.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; the coloring is derived from the Grand Duke's coat of arms (a red lion on a white and blue striped field)

National symbol(s)

red, rampant lion; national colors: red, white, light blue

National anthem

name: "Ons Heemecht" (Our Motherland); "De Wilhelmus" (The William)

lyrics/music: Michel LENTZ/Jean-Antoine ZINNEN; Nikolaus WELTER/unknown

note: "Ons Heemecht," adopted 1864, is the national anthem, while "De Wilhelmus," adopted 1919, serves as a royal anthem for use when members of the grand ducal family enter or exit a ceremony in Luxembourg

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Luxembourg City Old Quarters and Fortifications

Economy

Economic overview

This small, stable, high-income economy has historically featured solid growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. Luxembourg, the only Grand Duchy in the world, is a landlocked country in northwestern Europe surrounded by Belgium, France, and Germany. Despite its small landmass and small population, Luxembourg is the fifth-wealthiest country in the world when measured on a gross domestic product (PPP) per capita basis. Luxembourg has one of the highest current account surpluses as a share of GDP in the euro zone, and it maintains a healthy budgetary position, with a 2017 surplus of 0.5% of GDP, and the lowest public debt level in the region.

 

Since 2002, Luxembourg’s government has proactively implemented policies and programs to support economic diversification and to attract foreign direct investment. The government focused on key innovative industries that showed promise for supporting economic growth: logistics, information and communications technology (ICT); health technologies, including biotechnology and biomedical research; clean energy technologies, and more recently, space technology and financial services technologies. The economy has evolved and flourished, posting strong GDP growth of 3.4% in 2017, far outpacing the European average of 1.8%.

 

Luxembourg remains a financial powerhouse – the financial sector accounts for more than 35% of GDP - because of the exponential growth of the investment fund sector through the launch and development of cross-border funds (UCITS) in the 1990s. Luxembourg is the world’s second-largest investment fund asset domicile, after the US, with $4 trillion of assets in custody in financial institutions.

 

Luxembourg has lost some of its advantage as a favorable tax location because of OECD and EU pressure, as well as the "LuxLeaks" scandal, which revealed advantageous tax treatments offered to foreign corporations. In 2015, the government’s compliance with EU requirements to implement automatic exchange of tax information on savings accounts - thus ending banking secrecy - has constricted banking activity. Likewise, changes to the way EU members collect taxes from e-commerce has cut Luxembourg’s sales tax revenues, requiring the government to raise additional levies and to reduce some direct social benefits as part of the tax reform package of 2017. The tax reform package also included reductions in the corporate tax rate and increases in deductions for families, both intended to increase purchasing power and increase competitiveness.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$69.72 billion (2020 est.)

$70.64 billion (2019 est.)

$69.06 billion (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 103

Real GDP growth rate

2.31% (2019 est.)

3.14% (2018 est.)

1.81% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 119

Real GDP per capita

$110,300 (2020 est.)

$113,900 (2019 est.)

$113,600 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 3

GDP (official exchange rate)

$71.089 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.7% (2019 est.)

1.5% (2018 est.)

1.7% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 95

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: AAA (1994)

Moody's rating: Aaa (1989)

Standard & Poors rating: AAA (1994)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0.3% (2017 est.)

industry: 12.8% (2017 est.)

services: 86.9% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 30.2% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 16.5% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 16.2% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 230% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -194% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, wheat, barley, triticale, potatoes, pork, beef, grapes, rapeseed, oats

Industries

banking and financial services, construction, real estate services, iron, metals, and steel, information technology, telecommunications, cargo transportation and logistics, chemicals, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum, tourism, biotechnology

Labor force

476,000 (2020 est.)

note: data exclude foreign workers; in addition to the figure for domestic labor force, about 150,000 workers commute daily from France, Belgium, and Germany

country comparison to the world: 156

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 1.1%

industry: 20%

services: 78.9% (2013 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 23.2%

male: 24.8%

female: 21.3% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 61

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.5%

highest 10%: 23.8% (2000)

Budget

revenues: 27.75 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 26.8 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

23% of GDP (2017 est.)

20.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

country comparison to the world: 183

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

$3.254 billion (2019 est.)

$3.296 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 33

Exports

$137.09 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$133.59 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$136.11 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 35

Exports - partners

Germany 23%, France 13%, Belgium 12%, Netherlands 6%, Italy 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

iron and iron products, tires, cars, broadcasting equipment, clothing and apparel  (2019)

Imports

$110.1 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$108.29 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$110.28 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 37

Imports - partners

Belgium 27%, Germany 24%, France 11%, Netherlands 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment, scrap iron, aircraft (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$878 million (31 December 2017 est.)

$974 million (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 137

Debt - external

$4,266,792,000,000 (2019 est.)

$4,581,617,000,000 (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 6

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.82771 (2020 est.)

0.90338 (2019 est.)

0.87789 (2018 est.)

0.885 (2014 est.)

0.7634 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 1.899 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 6.188 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 1.079 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 6.543 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 156 million kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 13.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 14.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 27.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 7.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 36.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 65,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 74,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 63,900 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 barrels/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 barrels/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 776.022 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 772.624 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

11.308 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 149,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 9.564 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 1.594 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 102

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 268,090 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 43 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 113

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 890,000 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 142 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 163

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Luxembourg has a small telecom sector dominated by state-owned POST Luxembourg; there remains some pressure from regulatory measures, though no further reductions to fixed and mobile interconnection tariffs have been imposed through to 2024; POST Luxembourg is extending the footprint of its 1Gb/s service in line with a government program to make Luxembourg the first fully fiber country in Europe; by early 2021 about 72% of premises could access such a service; investment in infrastructure is geared towards fulfilling these ambitions;  the level of investment as a proportion of revenue has fallen in recent years, largely as a response to the completion of major projects, there was an increase in investment in 2020, partly due to the spectrum auction held during the year, as also to the continuing shift by POST Luxembourg to an all-IP platform and the rollout of fiber infrastructure; high mobile penetration has slowed subscriber growth in the mobile market since 2005, though a recent law requiring SIM card registration has not had an adverse effect on the number of mobile subscribers despite network operators deactivating unregistered cards. (2021)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity about 43 per 100 persons; nationwide mobile-cellular telephone system with market for mobile-cellular phones virtually saturated with about 142 per 100 mobile-cellular (2020)

international: country code - 352

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced a downturn, particularly in mobile device production; progress towards 5G implementation has resumed, as well as upgrades to infrastructure; consumer spending on telecom services has increased due to the surge in demand for capacity and bandwidth; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home is still evident, and the spike in this area has seen growth opportunities for development of new tools and increased services

Broadcast media

Luxembourg has a long tradition of operating radio and TV services for pan-European audiences and is home to Europe's largest privately owned broadcast media group, the RTL Group, which operates 46 TV stations and 29 radio stations in Europe; also home to Europe's largest satellite operator, Societe Europeenne des Satellites (SES); domestically, the RTL Group operates TV and radio networks; other domestic private radio and TV operators and French and German stations available; satellite and cable TV services available

Internet users

total: 624,115 (2020 est.)

percent of population: 99% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 152

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 235,155 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 38 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 113

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 4 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 66

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,099,102 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 7,323,040,000 (2018) mt-km

Airports - with paved runways

total: 1

over 3,047 m: 1 (2021)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2021)

Heliports

1 (2021)

Pipelines

142 km gas, 27 km refined products (2013)

Railways

total: 275 km (2014)

standard gauge: 275 km (2014) 1.435-m gauge (275 km electrified)

country comparison to the world: 124

Waterways

37 km (2010) (on Moselle River)

country comparison to the world: 115

Merchant marine

total: 153

by type: bulk carrier 4, container ship 1, general cargo 23, oil tanker 3, other 122 (2021)

country comparison to the world: 74

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Mertert (Moselle)

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Luxembourg Army (l'Armée Luxembourgeoise) (2022)

Military expenditures

0.5% of GDP (2021 est.)

0.6% of GDP (2020)

0.5% of GDP (2019) (approximately $420 million)

0.5% of GDP (2018) (approximately $380 million)

0.5% of GDP (2017) (approximately $370 million)

country comparison to the world: 159

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 900 active personnel (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the inventory of Luxembourg's Army is a small mix of Western-origin equipment; since 2010, it has received equipment from several European countries (2021)

Military service age and obligation

18-26 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription (abolished 1969); Luxembourg citizen or EU citizen with 3-year residence in Luxembourg (2021)

note: as of 2019, women made up about 8% of the military's full-time personnel

Military - note

Luxembourg is a member of NATO and was one of the original 12 countries to sign the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty) in 1949

in 2015, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg signed an agreement to conduct joint air policing of their territories; under the agreement, which went into effect in January of 2017, the Belgian and Dutch Air Forces trade responsibility for patrolling the skies over the three countries

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 6,561 (Ukraine) (as of 20 September 2022)

stateless persons: 194 (mid-year 2021)