Photos of Luxembourg

The grave of General George S. Patton at the head of his Third Army troops in the Luxembourg American Cemetery and Memorial in Hamm.



Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and a constituent part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands after the Congress of Vienna. When Belgium declared independence from the Netherlands in 1839, Luxembourg lost more than half of its territory to Belgium but gained a larger measure of autonomy within the Kingdom of the Netherlands.  Luxembourg gained full independence in 1867 by promising to remain permanently neutral. Overrun by Germany in both world wars, its neutrality ended in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the EEC (later the EU), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency zone.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Western Europe, between France and Germany

Geographic coordinates

49 45 N, 6 10 E


total: 2,586 sq km

land: 2,586 sq km

water: 0 sq km

comparison ranking: total 178

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Rhode Island; about half the size of Delaware

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 327 km

border countries (3): Belgium 130 km; France 69 km; Germany 128 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)


modified continental with mild winters, cool summers


mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast


highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m

lowest point: Moselle River 133 m

mean elevation: 325 m

Natural resources

iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 50.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 24% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.6% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 26.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 33.5% (2018 est.)

other: 15.8% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

0 sq km (2012)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Rhine-Maas (198,735 sq km)

Population distribution

most people live in the south, on or near the border with France

Natural hazards

occasional flooding

Geography - note

landlocked; the only grand duchy in the world

People and Society


total: 671,254

male: 338,702

female: 332,552 (2024 est.)

comparison rankings: female 169; male 168; total 168


noun: Luxembourger(s)

adjective: Luxembourg

Ethnic groups

Luxembourger 52.9%, Portuguese 14.5%, French 7.6%, Italian 3.7%, Belgian 3%, German 2%, Spanish 1.3%, Romania 1%, other 14% (2022 est.)

note: data represent population by nationality


Luxembourgish (official administrative and judicial language and national language (spoken vernacular)) 48.9%, Portuguese 15.4%, French (official administrative, judicial, and legislative language) 14.9%, Italian 3.6%, English 3.6%, German (official administrative and judicial language) 2.9%, other 10.8% (2021 est.)


Christian (predominantly Roman Catholic) 70.6%, Muslim 2.3%, other (includes Buddhist, folk religions, Hindu, Jewish) 0.4%, unaffiliated 26.7% (2020 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.7% (male 57,921/female 54,484)

15-64 years: 67.1% (male 231,214/female 219,497)

65 years and over: 16.1% (2024 est.) (male 49,567/female 58,571)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 44.2

youth dependency ratio: 23

elderly dependency ratio: 21.3

potential support ratio: 4.7 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 39.9 years (2024 est.)

male: 39.4 years

female: 40.4 years

comparison ranking: total 64

Population growth rate

1.52% (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 63

Birth rate

11.6 births/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 155

Death rate

7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 116

Net migration rate

10.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 8

Population distribution

most people live in the south, on or near the border with France


urban population: 92.1% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.43% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

120,000 LUXEMBOURG (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2024 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

6 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 159

Infant mortality rate

total: 3.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2024 est.)

male: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.8 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 203

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 83.4 years (2024 est.)

male: 80.9 years

female: 85.9 years

comparison ranking: total population 14

Total fertility rate

1.63 children born/woman (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 175

Gross reproduction rate

0.79 (2024 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 98.6% of population

total: 99.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 1.4% of population

total: 0.1% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

5.8% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

3.01 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density

4.3 beds/1,000 population (2019)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 99.9% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0.1% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

22.6% (2016)

comparison ranking: 74

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 11 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 4.04 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 4.73 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 2.14 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 11

Tobacco use

total: 21.1% (2020 est.)

male: 22.4% (2020 est.)

female: 19.8% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 78

Education expenditures

5% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 78


total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 15 years

female: 15 years (2020)


Environment - current issues

air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland; unsustainable patterns of consumption (transport, energy, recreation, space) threaten biodiversity and landscapes

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification


modified continental with mild winters, cool summers

Land use

agricultural land: 50.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 24% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.6% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 26.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 33.5% (2018 est.)

other: 15.8% (2018 est.)


urban population: 92.1% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.43% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.01% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 155

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 81

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 8.89 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 8.99 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 0.61 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 356,000 tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 100,997 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 28.4% (2015 est.)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Rhine-Maas (198,735 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 50 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 1.6 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 400,000 cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

3.5 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)


total global geoparks and regional networks: 1

global geoparks and regional networks: Mëllerdall (2023)


Country name

conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

conventional short form: Luxembourg

local long form: Grand Duche de Luxembourg

local short form: Luxembourg

etymology: the name derives from the Celtic "lucilem" (little) and the German "burg" (castle or fortress) to produce the meaning of the "little castle"; the name is actually ironic, since for centuries the Fortress of Luxembourg was one of Europe's most formidable fortifications; the name passed to the surrounding city and then to the country itself

Government type

constitutional monarchy


name: Luxembourg

geographic coordinates: 49 36 N, 6 07 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the name derives from the Celtic lucilem (little) and the German burg (castle or fortress) to produce the meaning of the "little castle"; the name is actually ironic, since for centuries the Fortress of Luxembourg was one of Europe's most formidable fortifications; the name passed to the city that grew around the fortress

Administrative divisions

12 cantons (cantons, singular - canton); Capellen, Clervaux, Diekirch, Echternach, Esch-sur-Alzette, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg, Mersch, Redange, Remich, Vianden, Wiltz


1839 (from the Netherlands)

National holiday

National Day (birthday of Grand Duke HENRI), 23 June; note - this date of birth is not the true date of birth for any of the Royals, but the national festivities were shifted in 1962 to allow observance during a more favorable time of year


history: previous 1842 (heavily amended 1848, 1856); latest effective 17 October 1868

amendments: proposed by the Chamber of Deputies or by the monarch to the Chamber; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the Chamber in two successive readings three months apart; a referendum can be substituted for the second reading if approved by more than a quarter of the Chamber members or by 25,000 valid voters; adoption by referendum requires a majority of all valid voters; amended many times, last in 2020

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: limited to situations where the parents are either unknown, stateless, or when the nationality law of the parents' state of origin does not permit acquisition of citizenship by descent when the birth occurs outside of national territory

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Luxembourg

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years


18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch

chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981)

head of government: Prime Minister Luc FRIEDEN (since 17 November 2023); Deputy Prime Minister Xavier BETTEL (since 17 November 2023)

cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister, appointed by the monarch

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; deputy prime minister appointed by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - a 21-member Council of State appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies

elections: last held on 8 October 2023 (next to be held by 31 October 2028)

election results: percent of vote by party - CSV 29.2%, LSAP 18.9%, DP 18.7%, ADR 9.3%, Green Party 8.6%, Pirate Party 6.7%, The Left 3.9%; seats by party - CSV 21, DP 14, LSAP 11, ADR 5, Green Party 4, Pirate Party 3, The Left 2; composition - men 40, women 20, percentage women 33.3%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice includes Court of Appeal and Court of Cassation (consists of 27 judges on 9 benches); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)

judge selection and term of office: judges of both courts appointed by the monarch for life

subordinate courts: Court of Accounts; district and local tribunals and courts

Political parties and leaders

Alternative Democratic Reform Party or ADR [Fred KEUP]
Christian Social People's Party or CSV [Claude WISELER]
Democratic Party or DP [Lex DELLES]
Green Party [Djuna BERNARD, Meris SEHOVIC]
Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Dan BIANCALANA, Francine CLOSENER]
Pirate Party [Starsky FLOR, Rebecca LAU]
The Left (dei Lenk/la Gauche) [collective leadership, Central Committee]

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNHRC, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Nicole BINTNER-BAKSHIAN (since 15 August 2021)

chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 265-4171

FAX: [1] (202) 328-8270

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas M. BARRETT (since 10 February 2022)

embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City

mailing address: 5380 Luxembourg Place, Washington DC  20521-5380

telephone: [352] 46-01-23-00

FAX: [352] 46-14-01

email address and website:

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; the coloring is derived from the Grand Duke's coat of arms (a red lion on a white and blue striped field)

National symbol(s)

red, rampant lion; national colors: red, white, light blue

National anthem

name: "Ons Heemecht" (Our Motherland); "De Wilhelmus" (The William)

lyrics/music: Michel LENTZ/Jean-Antoine ZINNEN; Nikolaus WELTER/unknown

note: "Ons Heemecht," adopted 1864, is the national anthem, while "De Wilhelmus," adopted 1919, serves as a royal anthem for use when members of the grand ducal family enter or exit a ceremony in Luxembourg

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Luxembourg City Old Quarters and Fortifications


Economic overview

high-income, EU-member European economy; global financial and information storage leader; high government spending; one of highest GDP per capita countries; unique audit accountancy based on company sizing; aging labor force; hit by COVID-19

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$76.901 billion (2022 est.)
$75.854 billion (2021 est.)
$70.78 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 99

Real GDP growth rate

1.38% (2022 est.)
7.17% (2021 est.)
-0.91% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 182

Real GDP per capita

$117,700 (2022 est.)
$118,500 (2021 est.)
$112,300 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 2

GDP (official exchange rate)

$81.642 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

6.34% (2022 est.)
2.53% (2021 est.)
0.82% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 100

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: AAA (1994)

Moody's rating: Aaa (1989)

Standard & Poors rating: AAA (1994)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0.3% (2017 est.)

industry: 12.8% (2017 est.)

services: 86.9% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 14; industry 195; agriculture 214

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 30.2% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 16.5% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 16.2% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 230% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -194% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, wheat, barley, triticale, potatoes, pork, grapes, beef, oats, rapeseed (2022)

note: top ten agricultural products based on tonnage


banking and financial services, construction, real estate services, iron, metals, and steel, information technology, telecommunications, cargo transportation and logistics, chemicals, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum, tourism, biotechnology

Industrial production growth rate

-7.47% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 208

Labor force

339,000 (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 166

Unemployment rate

4.58% (2022 est.)
5.25% (2021 est.)
6.77% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 95

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 15.2% (2021 est.)

male: 16.3%

female: 14.1%

comparison ranking: total 116

Population below poverty line

17.4% (2021 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

33.4 (2020 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

comparison ranking: 121

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 25% (2020 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population


2.68% of GDP (2022 est.)
2.84% of GDP (2021 est.)
3.15% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities


revenues: $31.74 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $30.014 billion (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

1.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 22

Public debt

23% of GDP (2017 est.)
20.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

comparison ranking: 180

Taxes and other revenues

26.11% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 42

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

$6.168 billion (2022 est.)
$6.819 billion (2021 est.)
$6.357 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 32


$172.145 billion (2022 est.)
$184.932 billion (2021 est.)
$150.519 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 36

Exports - partners

Germany 20%, France 15%, Belgium 10%, Netherlands 8%, Italy 4% (2022)

note: top five export partners based on percentage share of exports

Exports - commodities

iron blocks, plastic products, rubber tires, plastics, gas turbines (2022)

note: top five export commodities based on value in dollars


$141.761 billion (2022 est.)
$152.01 billion (2021 est.)
$121.517 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 40

Imports - partners

Belgium 26%, Germany 26%, France 11%, Netherlands 6%, US 3% (2022)

note: top five import partners based on percentage share of imports

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, cars, electricity, natural gas, scrap iron (2022)

note: top five import commodities based on value in dollars

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$2.874 billion (2022 est.)
$2.921 billion (2021 est.)
$1.119 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 137

Debt - external

$4,266,792,000,000 (2019 est.)
$4,581,617,000,000 (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 6

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
0.95 (2022 est.)
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)


installed generating capacity: 1.899 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 6.188 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 1.079 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 6.543 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 156 million kWh (2020 est.)

comparison rankings: transmission/distribution losses 62; imports 35; exports 59; consumption 117; installed generating capacity 120

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 13.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 14.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 27.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 7.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 36.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)


production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 65,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 74,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 63,900 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 129

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 193

Refined petroleum products - imports

59,020 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 73

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 776.022 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 772.624 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

11.308 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 149,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 9.564 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 1.594 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 102

Energy consumption per capita

310.068 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 10


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 261,054 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 42 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 114

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 880,000 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 140 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 165

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Luxembourg has a small telecom sector; there remains some pressure from regulatory measures, though no further reductions to fixed and mobile interconnection tariffs have been imposed through to 2024; high mobile penetration has slowed subscriber growth in the mobile market since 2005, though a recent law requiring SIM card registration has not had an adverse effect on the number of mobile subscribers despite network operators deactivating unregistered cards (2021)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity about 42 per 100 persons; 140 per 100 mobile-cellular subscriptions (2021)

international: country code - 352

Broadcast media

Luxembourg has a long tradition of operating radio and TV services for pan-European audiences and is home to Europe's largest privately owned broadcast media group, the RTL Group, which operates 46 TV stations and 29 radio stations in Europe; also home to Europe's largest satellite operator, Societe Europeenne des Satellites (SES); domestically, the RTL Group operates TV and radio networks; other domestic private radio and TV operators and French and German stations available; satellite and cable TV services available

Internet users

total: 633,600 (2021 est.)

percent of population: 99% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 163

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 235,155 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 38 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 113


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 4 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 66

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,099,102 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 7,323,040,000 (2018) mt-km


3 (2024)

comparison ranking: 194


11 (2024)


142 km gas, 27 km refined products (2013)


total: 271 km (2020) 262 km electrified

comparison ranking: total 125


total: 2,746 km (2022)

comparison ranking: total 168


37 km (2010) (on Moselle River)

comparison ranking: 115

Merchant marine

total: 147 (2023)

by type: bulk carrier 3, container ship 1, general cargo 24, oil tanker 4, other 115

comparison ranking: total 76

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Luxembourg Army (l'Armée Luxembourgeoise) (2024)

note: the Grand Ducal Police maintain internal security and report to the Ministry of Internal Security

Military expenditures

1% of GDP (2023 est.)
0.6% of GDP (2022)
0.5% of GDP (2021)
0.6% of GDP (2020)
0.6% of GDP (2019)

comparison ranking: 131

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 900 active-duty personnel (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the inventory of Luxembourg's Army is a small mix of Western origin equipment (2024)

Military service age and obligation

18-26 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; no conscription (abolished 1969) (2024)

note 1: since 2003, the Army has allowed EU citizens 18-24 years of age who have been a resident in the country for at least 36 months to volunteer

note 2:
2023, women made up about 12% of the military's full-time personnel

Military - note

founded in 1881, the Luxembourg Army is responsible for the defense of the country and fulfilling the Grand Duchy’s commitments to NATO, European security, and international peacekeeping, as well as providing support to civil authorities in the event of emergencies, such as floods or disease outbreaks; the Army is an active participant in EU, NATO, and UN missions and has contributed small numbers of troops to multinational operations in such places as Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Chad, Croatia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Iraq, Kosovo, Lebanon, North Macedonia, Mali, Mozambique, and Uganda; it trains and exercises regularly with EU and NATO partners and has contributed to the NATO battlegroup forward deployed in Lithuania since 2017; Luxembourg was one of the original 12 countries to sign the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty) establishing NATO in 1949

the combat forces of the Luxembourg Army are two companies of infantry and reconnaissance troops; the Army has no combat aircraft; in 2015, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg signed an agreement to conduct joint air policing of their territories; under the agreement, which went into effect in January 2017, the Belgian and Dutch Air Forces trade responsibility for patrolling the skies over the three countries (2024)


Space agency/agencies

the Luxembourg Space Agency (LSA; established 2018) (2023)

Space program overview

aims to be the commercial space hub for Europe; LSA established largely to develop space policy, encourage and coordinate commercial space ventures, support space education, and to promote the country’s space-related capabilities internationally; has set up policy and funding initiatives aimed at encouraging innovation and entrepreneurship and attracting space-based industries; focused on developing commercial satellites and infrastructure (Luxembourg is home to some of the largest commercial satellite companies in the world), as well as other space sector capabilities and technologies, such as autonomous vehicles, robotics, remote sensing (RS), communications, and software; member of the European Space Agency (ESA), participates in ESA programs, and cooperates with individual ESA and EU member states; also has relations with other foreign space agencies and industries, including those of Canada, China, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea, the UAE, and the US (2023)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 6,065 (Ukraine) (as of 11 August 2023)

stateless persons: 174 (2022)