The Republic of Seychelles is an island country spanning an archipelago of 155 islands in the Indian Ocean. It is about 1,500 km (930 mi) east of the African continent, and spreads out over a vast area of ocean north of Madagascar. Independent from the UK since 1976, the country nevertheless is far more French after years of early French settlement and influence. Since independence, tourism has grown dramatically to become the primary industry of Seychelles, overtaking plantation agriculture. This 2010 image of some of the northern Seychelles islands covers an area of 54 x 66 km (34 x 41 mi). Photo courtesy of NASA.
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Seychelles was uninhabited prior to being discovered by Europeans early in the 16th century. A lengthy struggle between France and Great Britain for the islands ended in 1814, when they were ceded to the latter. During colonial rule, a plantation-based economy developed that relied on imported labor, primarily from European colonies in Africa. Independence came in 1976. Following a coup d’etat in 1977, the country was a socialist one-party state until adopting a new constitution and holding free elections in 1993. President France-Albert RENE, who had served since 1977, was reelected in 2001, but stepped down in 2004. Vice President James Alix MICHEL took over the presidency and in 2006 was elected to a new five-year term; he was reelected in 2011 and again in 2015. In 2016, James MICHEL resigned and handed over the presidency to his vice-president, Danny FAURE. In 2020, Wavel RAMKALAWAN was elected president, the first time an opposition candidate has won the presidency since independence.

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archipelago in the Indian Ocean, northeast of Madagascar

Geographic coordinates

4 35 S, 55 40 E


total: 455 sq km

land: 455 sq km

water: 0 sq km

country comparison to the world: 198

Area - comparative

2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Area comparison map
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 0 km


491 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin


tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May)


Mahe Group is volcanic with a narrow coastal strip and rocky, hilly interior; others are relatively flat coral atolls, or elevated reefs; sits atop the submarine Mascarene Plateau


highest point: Morne Seychellois 905 m

lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

Natural resources

fish, coconuts (copra), cinnamon trees

Land use

agricultural land: 6.5% (2018 est.)

arable land: 2.2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 4.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 88.5% (2018 est.)

other: 5% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

3 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

more than three-quarters of the population lives on the main island of Mahe; Praslin contains less than 10%; a smaller percent on La Digue and the outer islands as shown in this population distribution map

Natural hazards

lies outside the cyclone belt, so severe storms are rare; occasional short droughts

Geography - note

the smallest African country in terms of both area and population; the constitution of the Republic of Seychelles lists 155 islands: 42 granitic and 113 coralline; by far the largest island is Mahe, which is home to about 90% of the population and the site of the capital city of Victoria

People and Society


noun: Seychellois (singular and plural)

adjective: Seychellois

Ethnic groups

predominantly Creole (mainly of East African and Malagasy heritage); also French, Indian, Chinese, and Arab populations


Seychellois Creole (official) 89.1%, English (official) 5.1%, French (official) 0.7%, other 3.8%, unspecified 1.4% (2010 est.)


Roman Catholic 76.2%, Protestant 10.5% (Anglican 6.1%, Pentecostal Assembly 1.5%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.2%, other Protestant 1.7%), other Christian 2.4%, Hindu 2.4%, Muslim 1.6%, other non-Christian 1.1%, unspecified 4.8%, none 0.9% (2010 est.)

Demographic profile

Seychelles has no indigenous population and was first permanently settled by a small group of French planters, African slaves, and South Indians in 1770. Seychelles’ modern population is composed of the descendants of French and later British settlers, Africans, and Indian, Chinese, and Middle Eastern traders and is concentrated on three of its 155 islands – the vast majority on Mahe and lesser numbers on Praslin and La Digue. Seychelles’ population grew rapidly during the second half of the 20th century, largely due to natural increase, but the pace has slowed because of fertility decline. The total fertility rate dropped sharply from 4.0 children per woman in 1980 to 1.9 in 2015, mainly as a result of a family planning program, free education and health care, and increased female labor force participation. Life expectancy has increased steadily, but women on average live 9 years longer than men, a difference that is higher than that typical of developed countries.

The combination of reduced fertility and increased longevity has resulted in an aging population, which will put pressure on the government’s provision of pensions and health care. Seychelles’ sustained investment in social welfare services, such as free primary health care and education up to the post-secondary level, have enabled the country to achieve a high human development index score – among the highest in Africa. Despite some of its health and education indicators being nearly on par with Western countries, Seychelles has a high level of income inequality.

An increasing number of migrant workers – mainly young men – have been coming to Seychelles in recent years to work in the construction and tourism industries. As of 2011, foreign workers made up nearly a quarter of the workforce. Indians are the largest non-Seychellois population – representing half of the country’s foreigners – followed by Malagasy.

Age structure

0-14 years: 18.85% (male 9,297/female 8,798)

15-24 years: 12.39% (male 6,283/female 5,607)

25-54 years: 49.03% (male 25,209/female 21,851)

55-64 years: 11.46% (male 5,545/female 5,455)

65 years and over: 8.27% (male 3,272/female 4,664) (2020 est.)

2022 population pyramid
2022 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 46.7

youth dependency ratio: 34.9

elderly dependency ratio: 11.8

potential support ratio: 8.5 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 36.8 years

male: 36.3 years

female: 37.4 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 76

Birth rate

12.37 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 148

Death rate

6.88 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 123

Net migration rate

0.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 67

Population distribution

more than three-quarters of the population lives on the main island of Mahe; Praslin contains less than 10%; a smaller percent on La Digue and the outer islands as shown in this population distribution map


urban population: 58.4% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 0.99% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

28,000 VICTORIA (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.17 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.47 male(s)/female

total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 10.6 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 13.35 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 7.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 133

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.1 years

male: 71.67 years

female: 80.66 years (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 109

Drinking water source

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 96.2% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 3.8% of population (2017 est.)

Current health expenditure

5.2% of GDP (2019)

Physicians density

2.25 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

3.6 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 9.48 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 4.11 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.49 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 4.62 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.25 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 29

Tobacco use

total: 20.2% (2020 est.)

male: 34% (2020 est.)

female: 6.4% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 88


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 95.9%

male: 95.4%

female: 96.4% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 13 years

female: 15 years (2020)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 16.4%

male: 17.4%

female: 15.5% (2020 est.)


Environment - current issues

water supply depends on catchments to collect rainwater; water pollution; biodiversity maintainance

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 18.72 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 0.61 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 0.1 megatons (2020 est.)


tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May)

Land use

agricultural land: 6.5% (2018 est.)

arable land: 2.2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 4.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 88.5% (2018 est.)

other: 5% (2018 est.)


urban population: 58.4% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 0.99% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 164

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 48,000 tons (2012 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 9 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 3.8 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 900,000 cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

0 cubic meters (2017 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Seychelles

conventional short form: Seychelles

local long form: Republic of Seychelles

local short form: Seychelles

etymology: named by French Captain Corneille Nicholas MORPHEY after Jean Moreau de SECHELLES, the finance minister of France, in 1756

Government type

presidential republic


name: Victoria

geographic coordinates: 4 37 S, 55 27 E

time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: founded as L'etablissement in 1778 by French colonists, the town was renamed in 1841 by the British after Queen VICTORIA (1819-1901); "victoria" is the Latin word for "victory"

Administrative divisions

27 administrative districts; Anse aux Pins, Anse Boileau, Anse Etoile, Anse Royale, Au Cap, Baie Lazare, Baie Sainte Anne, Beau Vallon, Bel Air, Bel Ombre, Cascade, Glacis, Grand Anse Mahe, Grand Anse Praslin, Ile Perseverance I, Ile Perseverance II, La Digue, La Riviere Anglaise, Les Mamelles, Mont Buxton, Mont Fleuri, Plaisance, Pointe Larue, Port Glaud, Roche Caiman, Saint Louis, Takamaka


29 June 1976 (from the UK)

National holiday

Constitution Day, 18 June (1993); Independence Day (National Day), 29 June (1976)


history: previous 1970, 1979; latest drafted May 1993, approved by referendum 18 June 1993, effective 23 June 1993

amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the National Assembly; passage of amendments affecting the country’s sovereignty, symbols and languages, the supremacy of the constitution, fundamental rights and freedoms, amendment procedures, and dissolution of the Assembly also requires approval by at least 60% of voters in a referendum; amended several times, last in 2018

Legal system

mixed legal system of English common law, French civil law, and customary law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Seychelles

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Wavel RAMKALAWAN (since 26 October 2020); Vice President Ahmed AFIF (since 27 October 2020); the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Wavel RAMKALAWAN (since 26 October 2020); Vice President Ahmed AFIF (since 27 October 2020)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for 1 additional term); election last held on 22-24 October 2020 (originally scheduled for December 2020 but moved up to coincide with the 22-24 October National Assembly election in order to cut election costs)

election results: 2020: Wavel RAMKALAWAN elected president; Wavel RAMKALAWAN (LDS) 54.9%, Danny FAURE (US) 43.5%, other 1.6%

2015:  President James Alix MICHEL reelected president in second round; percent of vote first round - James Alix MICHEL (PL) 47.8%, Wavel RAMKALAWAN (SNP) 35.3%, other 16.9%; percent of vote second round - James Alix MICHEL (PL) 50.2%, Wavel RAMKALAWAN (SNP) 49.8%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (35 seats in the 2020 -25 term; 26 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and up to 9 members elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 22-24 Oct 2020 (next to be held October 2025); note - the election was originally scheduled for 2021 but was moved up a year and will be held alongside the presidential election in order to cut election costs

election results: percent of vote by party - LDS 54.8%, US 42.3% , other 2.9%; seats by party - LDS 25, US10; composition - men 27, women 8, percent of women 22.9%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Seychelles Court of Appeal (consists of the court president and 4 justices); Supreme Court of Seychelles (consists of the chief justice and 9 puisne judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 3 Supreme Court judges)

judge selection and term of office: all judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the Constitutional Appointments Authority, a 3-member body, with 1 member appointed by the president of the republic, 1 by the opposition leader in the National Assembly, and 1 by the other 2 appointees; judges serve until retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: Magistrates' Courts of Seychelles; Family Tribunal for issues such as domestic violence, child custody, and maintenance; Employment Tribunal for labor-related disputes

Political parties and leaders

Seychelles Party for Social Justice and Democracy or SPSJD [Vesna RAKIC]
Seychellois Democratic Alliance or LDS (Linyon Demokratik Seselwa/Union Démocratique Seychelloise) (coalition includes SNP and SPSJD) [Roger MANCIENNE]
Seychelles National Party or SNP [Wavel RAMKALAWAN]
United Seychelles or US [Patrick HERMINIE]

note: only parties with seats in the National Assembly listed

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Ian MADELEINE (since 1 December 2021)

chancery: 685 Third Avenue, Suite 1107, 11th Floor, New York, NY 10017

telephone: [1] (212) 972-1785

FAX: [1] (212) 972-1786

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

embassy: the US does not have an embassy in Seychelles; the US Ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to Seychelles

Flag description

five oblique bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, red, white, and green (bottom) radiating from the bottom of the hoist side; the oblique bands are meant to symbolize a dynamic new country moving into the future; blue represents sky and sea, yellow the sun giving light and life, red the peoples' determination to work for the future in unity and love, white social justice and harmony, and green the land and natural environment

National symbol(s)

coco de mer (sea coconut); national colors: blue, yellow, red, white, green

National anthem

name: "Koste Seselwa" (Seychellois Unite)

lyrics/music: David Francois Marc ANDRE and George Charles Robert PAYET

note: adopted 1996

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 2 (both natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Aldabra Atoll; Vallée de Mai Nature Reserve


Economic overview

Since independence in 1976, per capita output in this Indian Ocean archipelago has expanded to roughly seven times the pre-independence, near-subsistence level, moving the island into the high income group of countries. Growth has been led by the tourism sector, which directly employs about 26% of the labor force and directly and indirectly accounts for more than 55% of GDP, and by tuna fishing. In recent years, the government has encouraged foreign investment to upgrade hotels and tourism industry services. At the same time, the government has moved to reduce the dependence on tourism by promoting the development of the offshore financial, information, and communication sectors and renewable energy.

In 2008, having depleted its foreign exchange reserves, Seychelles defaulted on interest payments due on a $230 million Eurobond, requested assistance from the IMF, and immediately enacted a number of significant structural reforms, including liberalization of the exchange rate, reform of the public sector to include layoffs, and the sale of some state assets. In December 2013, the IMF declared that Seychelles had successfully transitioned to a market-based economy with full employment and a fiscal surplus. However, state-owned enterprises still play a prominent role in the economy. Effective 1 January 2017, Seychelles was no longer eligible for trade benefits under the US African Growth and Opportunities Act after having gained developed country status. Seychelles grew at 5% in 2017 because of a strong tourism sector and low commodity prices. The Seychellois Government met the IMF’s performance criteria for 2017 but recognizes a need to make additional progress to reduce high income inequality, represented by a Gini coefficient of 46.8.

As a very small open economy dependent on tourism, Seychelles remains vulnerable to developments such as economic downturns in countries that supply tourists, natural disasters, and changes in local climatic conditions and ocean temperature. One of the main challenges facing the government is implementing strategies that will increase Seychelles' long-term resilience to climate change without weakening economic growth.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$2.4 billion (2020 est.)

$2.69 billion (2019 est.)

$2.65 billion (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 193

Real GDP growth rate

5.3% (2017 est.)

4.5% (2016 est.)

4.9% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 39

Real GDP per capita

$24,400 (2020 est.)

$27,500 (2019 est.)

$27,300 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 79

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1.748 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.8% (2019 est.)

3.7% (2018 est.)

2.8% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 102

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: B+ (2020)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2.5% (2017 est.)

industry: 13.8% (2017 est.)

services: 83.7% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 52.7% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 34.4% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 26.7% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 79.4% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -93.2% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

coconuts, vegetables, bananas, fruit, eggs, poultry, tomatoes, pork, tropical fruit, cassava


fishing, tourism, beverages

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 3%

industry: 23%

services: 74% (2006)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 16.4%

male: 17.4%

female: 15.5% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 98

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 4.7%

highest 10%: 15.4% (2007)


revenues: 593.4 million (2017 est.)

expenditures: 600.7 million (2017 est.)

Public debt

63.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

69.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 66

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$307 million (2017 est.)

-$286 million (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 110


$1.09 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$1.61 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$1.68 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 176

Exports - partners

United Arab Emirates 17%, United Kingdom 13%, France 12%, British Virgin Islands 11%, Zambia 9%, Mauritius 5%, Japan 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, fish, recreational boats, cigarettes, animal meal (2019)


$1.35 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$1.79 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$1.86 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 181

Imports - partners

United Arab Emirates 21%, Qatar 13%, British Virgin Islands 7%, Germany 6%, France 6%, China 5%, Spain 5%, South Africa 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

recreational boats, refined petroleum, fish, aircraft, cars (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$545.2 million (31 December 2017 est.)

$523.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 149

Debt - external

$4.802 billion (2019 est.)

$4.613 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 135

Exchange rates

Seychelles rupees (SCR) per US dollar -

13.64 (2017 est.)

13.319 (2016 est.)

13.319 (2015 est.)

13.314 (2014 est.)

12.747 (2013 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)


installed generating capacity: 157,000 kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 463.894 million kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 30 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 99.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)


production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 7,500 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

1.156 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 1.156 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 171


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 18,882 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 19 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 176

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 183,498 (2020)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 187 (2020)

country comparison to the world: 185

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: effective system; direct international calls to over 100 countries; radiotelephone communications between islands in the archipelago; 3 ISPs; use of Internet cafes' for access to Internet; 4G services and 5G pending (2020)

domestic: fixed-line a little over 19 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity is nearly 187 telephones per 100 persons (2020)

international: country code - 248; landing points for the PEACE and the SEAS submarine cables providing connectivity to Europe, the Middle East, Africa and Asia; direct radiotelephone communications with adjacent island countries and African coastal countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced a downturn, particularly in mobile device production; progress toward 5G implementation has resumed, as well as upgrades to infrastructure; consumer spending on telecom services has increased due to the surge in demand for capacity and bandwidth; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home is still evident, and the spike in this area has seen growth opportunities for development of new tools and increased services

Broadcast media

the national broadcaster, Seychelles Broadcasting Corporation (SBC), which is funded by taxpayer money, operates the only terrestrial TV station, which provides local programming and airs broadcasts from international services; a privately owned Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) channel also provides local programming multi-channel cable and satellite TV are available through 2 providers; the national broadcaster operates 1 AM and 1 FM radio station; there are 2 privately operated radio stations; transmissions of 2 international broadcasters are accessible in Victoria


Internet users

total: 77,785 (2020 est.)

percent of population: 79% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 184

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 34,966 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 36 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 148


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 7

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 455,201 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 7.79 million (2018) mt-km

Airports - with paved runways

total: 7

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 1 (2021)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 5 (2021)


1 (2021)


total: 526 km (2015)

paved: 514 km (2015)

unpaved: 12 km (2015)

country comparison to the world: 196

Merchant marine

total: 27

by type: general cargo 5, oil tanker 6, other 16 (2021)

country comparison to the world: 138

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Victoria

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Seychelles Defense Forces (SDF): Army (includes infantry, special forces, and a presidential security unit), Coast Guard, and Air Force; Ministry of Internal Affairs: Seychelles Police Force (includes unarmed police and an armed paramilitary Police Special Support Wing, the Anti-Narcotics Bureau, and the Marine Police Unit) (2022)

note: the military reports to the president, who acts as minister of defense  

Military expenditures

1.5% of GDP (2021 est.)

1.6% of GDP (2020 est.)

1.3% of GDP (2019 est.)

1.4% of GDP (2018 est.)

1.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 94

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 500 personnel (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the SDF's inventory primarily consists of Soviet-era equipment delivered in the 1970s and 1980s; since 2010, the SDF has received limited amounts of more modern equipment, mostly donations of patrol boats and aircraft, from several suppliers led by China and India (2022)

Military service age and obligation

18-28 (18-25 for officers) years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; 6-year initial commitment; no conscription (2022)

Military - note

formed in 1977, the SDF's primary responsibility is maritime security, particularly countering illegal fishing, piracy, and drug smuggling (2022)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Seychelles-UK: Mauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Islands (UK-administered British Indian Ocean Territory)

Trafficking in persons

current situation: Seychelles is a source and destination country for children and women subjected to sex trafficking; Seychellois girls and, to a lesser extent boys, are forced into prostitution in nightclubs, bars, guest houses, hotels, brothels, private homes, and on the streets by peers, family members, and pimps; foreign tourists, sailors, and migrant workers contribute to the demand for commercial sex acts in Seychelles; some of the large population of foreign migrant workers reportedly experience the underpayment of wages and substandard housing

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List — Seychelles does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so; the government allocated an operational and programmatic budget to the National Coordinating Committee on Trafficking in Persons, signed a bilateral agreement outlining procedures for employment and repatriation in Seychelles of migrant workers from Bangladesh and established a hotline to report forced labor concerns; however, no victims of trafficking were identified; efforts to address sex trafficking remained inadequate, its standard operating procedures for victim identification and referral to care services were not implemented; there are no shelters or care facilities for trafficking victims; investigations, prosecutions, and convictions of traffickers decreased; Seychelles did not establish a secretariat to support the Coordinating Committee, hindering the committee’s ability to direct anti-trafficking efforts across government and drive national policy; Seychelles was downgraded to Tier 2 Watch List (2020)