Photos of Seychelles

Introduction

Background

Seychelles was uninhabited prior to being discovered by Europeans early in the 16th century. A lengthy struggle between France and Great Britain for the islands ended in 1814, when they were ceded to the latter. During colonial rule, a plantation-based economy developed that relied on imported labor, primarily from European colonies in Africa. Seychelles gained independence in 1976 through negotiations with Great Britain. In 1977, prime minister France-Albert RENE launched a coup against the country’s first president and Seychelles became a socialist one-party state until adopting a new constitution and holding elections in 1993. RENE continued to lead Seychelles through two election cycles until he stepped down in 2004. Vice President James Alix MICHEL took over the presidency and in 2006 was elected to a new five-year term; he was reelected in 2011 and again in 2015. In 2016, James MICHEL resigned and handed over the presidency to his vice-president, Danny FAURE. In 2020, Wavel RAMKALAWAN was elected president, the first time an opposition candidate has won the presidency.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

archipelago in the Indian Ocean, northeast of Madagascar

Geographic coordinates

4 35 S, 55 40 E

Area

total: 455 sq km

land: 455 sq km

water: 0 sq km

comparison ranking: total 198

Area - comparative

2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 0 km

Coastline

491 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate

tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May)

Terrain

Mahe Group is volcanic with a narrow coastal strip and rocky, hilly interior; others are relatively flat coral atolls, or elevated reefs; sits atop the submarine Mascarene Plateau

Elevation

highest point: Morne Seychellois 905 m

lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

Natural resources

fish, coconuts (copra), cinnamon trees

Land use

agricultural land: 6.5% (2018 est.)

arable land: 2.2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 4.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 88.5% (2018 est.)

other: 5% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

3 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

more than three-quarters of the population lives on the main island of Mahe; Praslin contains less than 10%; a smaller percent on La Digue and the outer islands as shown in this population distribution map

Natural hazards

lies outside the cyclone belt, so severe storms are rare; occasional short droughts

Geography - note

the smallest African country in terms of both area and population; the constitution of the Republic of Seychelles lists 155 islands: 42 granitic and 113 coralline; by far the largest island is Mahe, which is home to about 90% of the population and the site of the capital city of Victoria

People and Society

Population

97,617 (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 197

Nationality

noun: Seychellois (singular and plural)

adjective: Seychellois

Ethnic groups

predominantly Creole (mainly of East African and Malagasy heritage); also French, Indian, Chinese, and Arab populations

Languages

Seychellois Creole (official) 89.1%, English (official) 5.1%, French (official) 0.7%, other 3.8%, unspecified 1.4% (2010 est.)

Religions

Roman Catholic 76.2%, Protestant 10.5% (Anglican 6.1%, Pentecostal Assembly 1.5%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.2%, other Protestant 1.7%), other Christian 2.4%, Hindu 2.4%, Muslim 1.6%, other non-Christian 1.1%, unspecified 4.8%, none 0.9% (2010 est.)

Demographic profile

Seychelles has no indigenous population and was first permanently settled by a small group of French planters, African slaves, and South Indians in 1770. Seychelles’ modern population is composed of the descendants of French and later British settlers, Africans, and Indian, Chinese, and Middle Eastern traders and is concentrated on three of its 155 islands – the vast majority on Mahe and lesser numbers on Praslin and La Digue. Seychelles’ population grew rapidly during the second half of the 20th century, largely due to natural increase, but the pace has slowed because of fertility decline. The total fertility rate dropped sharply from 4.0 children per woman in 1980 to 1.9 in 2015, mainly as a result of a family planning program, free education and health care, and increased female labor force participation. Life expectancy has increased steadily, but women on average live 9 years longer than men, a difference that is higher than that typical of developed countries.

The combination of reduced fertility and increased longevity has resulted in an aging population, which will put pressure on the government’s provision of pensions and health care. Seychelles’ sustained investment in social welfare services, such as free primary health care and education up to the post-secondary level, have enabled the country to achieve a high human development index score – among the highest in Africa. Despite some of its health and education indicators being nearly on par with Western countries, Seychelles has a high level of income inequality.

An increasing number of migrant workers – mainly young men – have been coming to Seychelles in recent years to work in the construction and tourism industries. As of 2011, foreign workers made up nearly a quarter of the workforce. Indians are the largest non-Seychellois population – representing half of the country’s foreigners – followed by Malagasy.

Age structure

0-14 years: 17.95% (male 8,999/female 8,524)

15-64 years: 72.58% (male 37,677/female 33,177)

65 years and over: 9.47% (2023 est.) (male 3,956/female 5,284)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 45

youth dependency ratio: 33.6

elderly dependency ratio: 11.4

potential support ratio: 8.7 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 38.2 years (2023 est.)

male: 37.7 years

female: 38.8 years

comparison ranking: total 70

Population growth rate

0.6% (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 143

Birth rate

12.1 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 150

Death rate

6.9 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 126

Net migration rate

0.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 72

Population distribution

more than three-quarters of the population lives on the main island of Mahe; Praslin contains less than 10%; a smaller percent on La Digue and the outer islands as shown in this population distribution map

Urbanization

urban population: 58.8% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.99% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

28,000 VICTORIA (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.14 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

3 deaths/100,000 live births (2020)

comparison ranking: 183

Infant mortality rate

total: 10.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 13.1 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 7.6 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 131

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.4 years (2023 est.)

male: 72 years

female: 80.9 years

comparison ranking: total population 102

Total fertility rate

1.81 children born/woman (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 139

Gross reproduction rate

0.89 (2023 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 96.2% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 3.8% of population (2017 est.)

Current health expenditure

6.4% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

2.25 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

3.6 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

14% (2016)

comparison ranking: 130

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 9.48 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 4.11 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.49 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 4.62 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.25 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 28

Tobacco use

total: 20.2% (2020 est.)

male: 34% (2020 est.)

female: 6.4% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 87

Education expenditures

5.2% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 67

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 95.9%

male: 95.4%

female: 96.4% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 13 years

female: 16 years (2021)

Environment

Environment - current issues

water supply depends on catchments to collect rainwater; water pollution; biodiversity maintainance

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate

tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May)

Land use

agricultural land: 6.5% (2018 est.)

arable land: 2.2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 4.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 88.5% (2018 est.)

other: 5% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 58.8% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.99% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.09% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 116

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 59

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 16.96 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 0.61 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 0.1 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 48,000 tons (2012 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 10 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 3.8 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 900,000 cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

0 cubic meters (2017 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Seychelles

conventional short form: Seychelles

local long form: Republic of Seychelles

local short form: Seychelles

etymology: named by French Captain Corneille Nicholas MORPHEY after Jean Moreau de SECHELLES, the finance minister of France, in 1756

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Victoria

geographic coordinates: 4 37 S, 55 27 E

time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: founded as L'etablissement in 1778 by French colonists, the town was renamed in 1841 by the British after Queen VICTORIA (1819-1901); "victoria" is the Latin word for "victory"

Administrative divisions

27 administrative districts; Anse aux Pins, Anse Boileau, Anse Etoile, Anse Royale, Au Cap, Baie Lazare, Baie Sainte Anne, Beau Vallon, Bel Air, Bel Ombre, Cascade, Glacis, Grand Anse Mahe, Grand Anse Praslin, Ile Perseverance I, Ile Perseverance II, La Digue, La Riviere Anglaise, Les Mamelles, Mont Buxton, Mont Fleuri, Plaisance, Pointe Larue, Port Glaud, Roche Caiman, Saint Louis, Takamaka

Independence

29 June 1976 (from the UK)

National holiday

Constitution Day, 18 June (1993); Independence Day (National Day), 29 June (1976)

Constitution

history: previous 1970, 1979; latest drafted May 1993, approved by referendum 18 June 1993, effective 23 June 1993

amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the National Assembly; passage of amendments affecting the country’s sovereignty, symbols and languages, the supremacy of the constitution, fundamental rights and freedoms, amendment procedures, and dissolution of the Assembly also requires approval by at least 60% of voters in a referendum; amended several times, last in 2018

Legal system

mixed legal system of English common law, French civil law, and customary law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Seychelles

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Wavel RAMKALAWAN (since 26 October 2020); Vice President Ahmed AFIF (since 27 October 2020); the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Wavel RAMKALAWAN (since 26 October 2020); Vice President Ahmed AFIF (since 27 October 2020)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 to 24 October 2020 (next to be held in 2025)

election results:
2020: Wavel RAMKALAWAN elected president; Wavel RAMKALAWAN (LDS) 54.9%, Danny FAURE (US) 43.5%, other 1.6%

2015:  President James Alix MICHEL reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - James Alix MICHEL (PL) 47.8%, Wavel RAMKALAWAN (SNP) 35.3%, other 16.9%; percent of vote in second round - James Alix MICHEL 50.2%, Wavel RAMKALAWAN 49.8%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (35 seats in the 2020-25 term; 26 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and up to 9 members elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 22-24 October 2020 (next to be held in October 2025); note - the election was originally scheduled for 2021 but was moved up a year and held alongside the presidential election in order to cut election costs

election results: percent of vote by party - LDS 54.8%, US 42.3%, other 2.9%; seats by party - LDS 25, US 10; composition - men 27, women 8, percent of women 22.9%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Seychelles Court of Appeal (consists of the court president and 4 justices); Supreme Court of Seychelles (consists of the chief justice and 9 puisne judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 3 Supreme Court judges)

judge selection and term of office: all judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the Constitutional Appointments Authority, a 3-member body, with 1 member appointed by the president of the republic, 1 by the opposition leader in the National Assembly, and 1 by the other 2 appointees; judges serve until retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: Magistrates' Courts of Seychelles; Family Tribunal for issues such as domestic violence, child custody, and maintenance; Employment Tribunal for labor-related disputes

Political parties and leaders

Seychelles Party for Social Justice and Democracy or SPSJD [Vesna RAKIC]
Seychellois Democratic Alliance or LDS (Linyon Demokratik Seselwa/Union Démocratique Seychelloise) (coalition includes SNP and SPSJD) [Roger MANCIENNE]
Seychelles National Party or SNP [Wavel RAMKALAWAN]
United Seychelles or US [Patrick HERMINIE]

note: only parties with seats in the National Assembly listed

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AOSIS, AU, C, CD, COMESA, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Ian Dereck Joseph MADELEINE (since 1 December 2021)
note - also Permanent Representative to the UN

chancery: 685 Third Avenue, Suite 1107, 11th Floor, New York, NY 10017

telephone: [1] (212) 972-1785

FAX: [1] (212) 972-1786

email address and website:
seychelles@un.int; seychellesmission@sycun.org

Foreign Affairs Department Republic of Seychelles » United States of America (mfa.gov.sc)

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Henry V. JARDINE (since 22 February 2023); Chargé d’Affaires Adham LOUTFI (since 6 October 2023) note - Ambassador JARDINE is posted in Mauritius and is accredited to Seychelles, and Chargé d’Affaires LOUTFI is posted in Victoria, Seychelles to manage the expanding policy interests

embassy: 2nd Floor, Oliaji Trade Center, Victoria Mahe, Seychelles; note - US Embassy in Seychelles reopened on 1 June 2023 after having been closed in 1996

telephone: [248] 422 5256

Flag description

five oblique bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, red, white, and green (bottom) radiating from the bottom of the hoist side; the oblique bands are meant to symbolize a dynamic new country moving into the future; blue represents sky and sea, yellow the sun giving light and life, red the peoples' determination to work for the future in unity and love, white social justice and harmony, and green the land and natural environment

National symbol(s)

coco de mer (sea coconut); national colors: blue, yellow, red, white, green

National anthem

name: "Koste Seselwa" (Seychellois Unite)

lyrics/music: David Francois Marc ANDRE and George Charles Robert PAYET

note: adopted 1996

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 2 (both natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Aldabra Atoll; Vallée de Mai Nature Reserve

Economy

Economic overview

high-income Indian Ocean island economy; rapidly growing tourism sector; major tuna exporter; offshore financial hub; environmentally fragile and investing in ocean rise mitigation; recently discovered offshore oil potential; successful anticorruption efforts

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$3.022 billion (2022 est.)
$2.772 billion (2021 est.)
$2.629 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 192

Real GDP growth rate

9% (2022 est.)
5.43% (2021 est.)
-7.73% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 19

Real GDP per capita

$25,200 (2022 est.)
$27,900 (2021 est.)
$26,700 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 80

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1.588 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

8.28% (2020 est.)
2.07% (2019 est.)
3.7% (2018 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 135

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: B+ (2020)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2.5% (2017 est.)

industry: 13.8% (2017 est.)

services: 83.7% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 23; industry 188; agriculture 160

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 52.7% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 34.4% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 26.7% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 79.4% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -93.2% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

coconuts, vegetables, bananas, fruit, eggs, poultry, tomatoes, pork, tropical fruit, cassava

Industries

fishing, tourism, beverages

Industrial production growth rate

3.7% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 103

Labor force

51,000 (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 194

Unemployment rate

3% (2017 est.)
2.7% (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 41

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 16.5% (2020 est.)

male: 17.5%

female: 15.6%

comparison ranking: total 104

Population below poverty line

25.3% (2018 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

32.1 (2018 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

comparison ranking: 131

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.6%

highest 10%: 23.9% (2018 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population

Remittances

0.68% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.74% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.84% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Budget

revenues: $601 million (2019 est.)

expenditures: $586 million (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-0.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 63

Public debt

63.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
69.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
62.71% of GDP (2015 est.)

note: central government debt as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 69

Taxes and other revenues

30.58% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 26

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$142.526 million (2022 est.)
-$154.259 million (2021 est.)
-$173.236 million (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 91

Exports

$2.247 billion (2022 est.)
$1.751 billion (2021 est.)
$1.24 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 159

Exports - partners

United Arab Emirates 17%, United Kingdom 13%, France 12%, British Virgin Islands 11%, Zambia 9%, Mauritius 5%, Japan 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, fish, recreational boats, cigarettes, animal meal (2019)

Imports

$2.298 billion (2022 est.)
$1.821 billion (2021 est.)
$1.332 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 169

Imports - partners

United Arab Emirates 21%, Qatar 13%, British Virgin Islands 7%, Germany 6%, France 6%, China 5%, Spain 5%, South Africa 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

recreational boats, refined petroleum, fish, aircraft, cars (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$638.961 million (2022 est.)
$702.585 million (2021 est.)
$559.682 million (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 157

Debt - external

$4.802 billion (2019 est.)
$4.613 billion (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 135

Exchange rates

Seychelles rupees (SCR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
14.273 (2022 est.)
16.921 (2021 est.)
17.617 (2020 est.)
14.033 (2019 est.)
13.911 (2018 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 157,000 kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 463.894 million kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 30 million kWh (2019 est.)

comparison rankings: imports 164; exports 152; installed generating capacity 177; transmission/distribution losses 36; consumption 173

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 99.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 7,500 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 215

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 216

Refined petroleum products - imports

7,225 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 155

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

1.156 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 1.156 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 171

Energy consumption per capita

163.06 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 29

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 19,027 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 18 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 175

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 205,140 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 192 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 183

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: effective system; direct international calls to over 100 countries; radiotelephone communications between islands in the archipelago; 3 ISPs; use of Internet cafes' for access to Internet; 4G services and 5G pending (2020)

domestic: fixed-line  is 18 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity is 173 telephones per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 248; landing points for the PEACE and the SEAS submarine cables providing connectivity to Europe, the Middle East, Africa and Asia; direct radiotelephone communications with adjacent island countries and African coastal countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2019)

Broadcast media

the national broadcaster, Seychelles Broadcasting Corporation (SBC), which is funded by taxpayer money, operates the only terrestrial TV station, which provides local programming and airs broadcasts from international services; a privately owned Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) channel also provides local programming multi-channel cable and satellite TV are available through 2 providers; the national broadcaster operates 1 AM and 1 FM radio station; there are 2 privately operated radio stations; transmissions of 2 international broadcasters are accessible in Victoria

(2019)

Internet users

total: 90,200 (2021 est.)

percent of population: 82% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 190

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 34,966 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 36 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 148

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 7

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 455,201 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 7.79 million (2018) mt-km

Airports

16 (2024)

comparison ranking: 148

Heliports

6 (2024)

Roadways

total: 526 km

paved: 514 km

unpaved: 12 km (2015)

comparison ranking: total 196

Merchant marine

total: 30 (2023)

by type: general cargo 6, oil tanker 6, other 18

comparison ranking: total 134

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Victoria

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Seychelles Defense Forces (SDF): Army (includes infantry, special forces, and a presidential security unit), Coast Guard, and Air Force

Ministry of Internal Affairs: Seychelles Police Force (includes unarmed police and an armed paramilitary Police Special Support Wing, and the Marine Police Unit) (2024)

note: the SDF reports to the president, who acts as minister of defense  

Military expenditures

1.4% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.5% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.6% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2019 est.)
1.4% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 98

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 500-1,000 personnel (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the SDF's inventory primarily consists of Soviet-era equipment delivered in the 1970s and 1980s; in recent years, the SDF has received limited amounts of more modern equipment, mostly donations of patrol boats and aircraft, from several suppliers led by China and India (2023)

Military service age and obligation

18-28 (18-25 for officers) years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; 6-year initial commitment; no conscription (2023)

Military - note

formed in 1977, the SDF is one of the World's smallest militaries; its primary responsibility is maritime security, particularly countering illegal fishing, piracy, and drug smuggling; it was given police powers in 2022; the Seychelles has close security ties with India (2023)

Transnational Issues