Photos of Slovakia



Slovakia traces its roots to the 9th century state of Great Moravia. Subsequently, the Slovaks became part of the Hungarian Kingdom, where they remained for the next 1,000 years. After the formation of the dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1867, backlash to language and education policies favoring the use of Hungarian (Magyarization) encouraged the strengthening of Slovak nationalism and a cultivation of cultural ties with the closely related Czechs, who fell administratively under the Austrian half of the empire. After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the close of World War I, the Slovaks joined the Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. The new state was envisioned as a nation with Czech and Slovak branches. During the interwar period, Slovak nationalist leaders pushed for autonomy within Czechoslovakia, and in 1939 Slovakia became an independent state created by and allied with Nazi Germany. Following World War II, Czechoslovakia was reconstituted and came under communist rule within Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of Czechoslovakia's leaders to liberalize communist rule and create "socialism with a human face," ushering in a period of repression known as "normalization." The peaceful "Velvet Revolution" swept the Communist Party from power at the end of 1989 and inaugurated a return to democratic rule and a market economy. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia underwent a nonviolent "velvet divorce" into its two national components, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. Slovakia joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004 and the euro zone on 1 January 2009.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Central Europe, south of Poland

Geographic coordinates

48 40 N, 19 30 E


total: 49,035 sq km

land: 48,105 sq km

water: 930 sq km

comparison ranking: total 130

Area - comparative

about one and a half times the size of Maryland; about twice the size of New Hampshire

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 1,587 km

border countries (5): Austria 105 km; Czechia 241 km; Hungary 627 km; Poland 517 km; Ukraine 97 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)


temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters


rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south


highest point: Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m

lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m

mean elevation: 458 m

Natural resources

lignite, small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 40.1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 28.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 10.8% (2018 est.)

forest: 40.2% (2018 est.)

other: 19.7% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

211 sq km (2015)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Dunaj (Danube) (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country; slightly larger concentration in the west in proximity to the Czech border

Geography - note

landlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys

People and Society


5,425,319 (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 121


noun: Slovak(s)

adjective: Slovak

Ethnic groups

Slovak 83.8%, Hungarian 7.8%, Romani 1.2%, other 1.8% (includes Czech, Ruthenian, Ukrainian, Russian, German, Polish), unspecified 5.4% (2021 est.)

note: data represent population by nationality; Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 7–11% of Slovakia's population


Slovak (official) 81.8%, Hungarian 8.5%, Roma 1.8%, other 2.2%, unspecified 5.7% (2021 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Svetova Kniha Faktov, nenahraditelny zdroj zakladnej informacie. (Slovak)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Slovakian audio sample:


Roman Catholic 55.8%, Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession 5.3%, Greek Catholic 4%, Reformed Christian 1.6%, other 3%, none 23.8%, unspecified 6.5% (2021 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.87% (male 415,224/female 391,397)

15-64 years: 66.49% (male 1,811,919/female 1,795,499)

65 years and over: 18.64% (2023 est.) (male 404,979/female 606,301)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 49.5

youth dependency ratio: 23.7

elderly dependency ratio: 25.8

potential support ratio: 3.9 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 41.8 years

male: 40.1 years

female: 43.6 years (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 42

Population growth rate

-0.12% (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 205

Birth rate

8.78 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 206

Death rate

10.18 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 32

Net migration rate

0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 77

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country; slightly larger concentration in the west in proximity to the Czech border


urban population: 54% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.17% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

441,000 BRATISLAVA (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

27.2 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

5 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 171

Infant mortality rate

total: 4.74 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 5.4 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: total 178

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 78.55 years

male: 75.09 years

female: 82.25 years (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: total population 74

Total fertility rate

1.46 children born/woman (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 208

Gross reproduction rate

0.71 (2023 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

7.2% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

3.57 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

5.7 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.9% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.1% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

20.5% (2016)

comparison ranking: 98

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 10.3 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 4.14 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 2.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 4.14 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 21

Tobacco use

total: 31.5% (2020 est.)

male: 37.4% (2020 est.)

female: 25.6% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 25

Education expenditures

4.6% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 94


total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 14 years

female: 15 years (2020)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 21.5%

male: 19.6%

female: 24.6% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 74


Environment - current issues

air pollution and acid rain present human health risks and damage forests; land erosion caused by agricultural and mining practices; water pollution

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protection


temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Land use

agricultural land: 40.1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 28.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 10.8% (2018 est.)

forest: 40.2% (2018 est.)

other: 19.7% (2018 est.)


urban population: 54% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.17% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.22% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 89

Revenue from coal

0.01% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 48

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 17.54 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 32.42 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 4.43 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 1.784 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 135,941 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 7.6% (2015 est.)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Dunaj (Danube) (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 290 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 230 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 30 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

50.1 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Slovak Republic

conventional short form: Slovakia

local long form: Slovenska republika

local short form: Slovensko

etymology: may derive from the medieval Latin word "Slavus" (Slav), which had the local form "Sloven", used since the 13th century to refer to the territory of Slovakia and its inhabitants

Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Bratislava

geographic coordinates: 48 09 N, 17 07 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the name was adopted in 1919 after Czechoslovakia gained its independence and may derive from later transliterations of the 9th century military commander, Braslav, or the 11th century Bohemian Duke BRETISLAV I; alternatively, the name may derive from the Slovak words brat (brother) and slava (glory)

Administrative divisions

8 regions (kraje, singular - kraj); Banska Bystrica, Bratislava, Kosice, Nitra, Presov, Trencin, Trnava, Zilina


1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)

National holiday

Constitution Day, 1 September (1992)


history: several previous (preindependence); latest passed by the National Council 1 September 1992, signed 3 September 1992, effective 1 October 1992

amendments: proposed by the National Council; passage requires at least three-fifths majority vote of Council members; amended many times, last in 2020

Legal system

civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; note - legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Slovakia

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Zuzana CAPUTOVA (since 15 June 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister and Minister of Interior Ľudovít ÓDOR (since 15 May 2023); Deputy Prime Ministers Stefan HOLY, Veronika REMISOVA, Richard SULIK (all since 21 March 2020)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 16 March and 30 March 2019 (next to be held March 2024); following National Council elections (every 4 years), the president designates a prime minister candidate, usually the leader of the party or coalition that wins the most votes, who must win a vote of confidence in the National Council

election results:
Zuzana CAPUTOVA elected president in second round; percent of vote - Zuzana CAPUTOVA (PS) 58.4%, Maros SEFCOVIC (independent) 41.6%

2014: Andrej KISKA elected president in second round; percent of vote - Andrej KISKA (independent) 59.4%, Robert FICO (Smer-SD) 40.6%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Council or Narodna Rada (150 seats; members directly elected in a single- and multi-seat constituencies by closed, party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 29 February 2020 (next to be held in September 2023)

election results: percent of vote by party - OLaNO-NOVA 25%, Smer-SD 18.3%, Sme-Rodina or SR 8.2%, LSNS 8%, SaS 6.2%, Za Ludi or ZL 5.8%, other 28.5%; seats by party - OLaNO-NOVA 53, Smer-SD 38, Sme-Rodina 17, LSNS 17, SaS 13, Za Ludi 12; composition (as of April 2023) - men 117, women 33, percent of women 22%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of the Slovak Republic (consists of the court president, vice president, and approximately 80 judges organized into criminal, civil, commercial, and administrative divisions with 3- and 5-judge panels); Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic (consists of 13 judges organized into 3-judge panels)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judge candidates nominated by the Judicial Council of the Slovak Republic, an 18-member self-governing body that includes the Supreme Court chief justice and presidential, governmental, parliamentary, and judiciary appointees; judges appointed by the president serve for life subject to removal by the president at age 65; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the National Council of the Republic and appointed by the president; judges serve 12-year terms

subordinate courts: regional and district civil courts; Special Criminal Court; Higher Military Court; military district courts; Court of Audit;

Political parties and leaders

Alliance-Szovetseg or A-S [Krisztian FORRO]
Democrats [Eduard HEGER]
Direction-Social Democracy or Smer-SD [Robert FICO]
For the People or Za Ludi [Veronika REMISOVA]
Freedom and Solidarity or SaS [Richard SULIK]
Kotleba-People's Party Our Slovakia or LSNS [Marian KOTLEBA]
Ordinary People and Independent Personalities - New Majority or OLaNO-NOVA [Igor MATOVIC]
Slovak National Party or SNS [Andrej DANKO]
Voice - Social Democracy or Hlas-SD [Petr PELLIGRINI]
We Are Family or Sme-Rodina [Boris KOLLAR] (formerly Party of Citizens of Slovakia)

International organization participation

Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Radovan JAVORCIK (since 18 January 2021)

chancery: 3523 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 237-1054

FAX: [1] (202) 237-6438

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Gautam A. RANA (since 28 September 2022)

embassy: P.O. Box 309, 814 99 Bratislava

mailing address: 5840 Bratislava Place, Washington DC  20521-5840

telephone: [421] (2) 5443-3338

FAX: [421] (2) 5441-8861

email address and website:

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red derive from the Pan-Slav colors; the Slovakian coat of arms (consisting of a red shield bordered in white and bearing a white double-barred cross of St. Cyril and St. Methodius surmounting three blue hills) is centered over the bands but offset slightly to the hoist side

note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia

National symbol(s)

double-barred cross (Cross of St. Cyril and St. Methodius) surmounting three peaks; national colors: white, blue, red

National anthem

name: "Nad Tatrou sa blyska" (Lightning Over the Tatras)

lyrics/music: Janko MATUSKA/traditional

note: adopted 1993, in use since 1844; music based on the Slovak folk song "Kopala studienku" (She was digging a well)

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 8 (6 cultural, 2 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Historic Town of Banská Štiavnica (c); Levoča, Spišský Hrad, and the Associated Cultural Monuments (c); Vlkolínec (c); Caves of Aggtelek Karst and Slovak Karst (n); Bardejov Town (c); Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians (n); Wooden Churches of the Slovak Carpathians (c); Frontiers of the Roman Empire - The Danube Limes (Western Segment) (c)


Economic overview

high-income, EU-member European economy; major electronics and automobile exporter; new anticorruption and judiciary reforms; low unemployment; low regional innovation; strong financial sector

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$173.582 billion (2021 est.)
$168.503 billion (2020 est.)
$174.388 billion (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 72

Real GDP growth rate

3.01% (2021 est.)
-3.37% (2020 est.)
2.52% (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 145

Real GDP per capita

$31,900 (2021 est.)
$30,900 (2020 est.)
$32,000 (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 67

GDP (official exchange rate)

$105.388 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

3.15% (2021 est.)
1.94% (2020 est.)
2.66% (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 118

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: A (2020)

Moody's rating: A2 (2012)

Standard & Poors rating: A+ (2015)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 3.8% (2017 est.)

industry: 35% (2017 est.)

services: 61.2% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 113; industry 47; agriculture 142

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 54.7% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 19.2% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 21.2% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.2% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 96.3% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -92.9% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

wheat, maize, sugar beets, milk, barley, rapeseed, potatoes, sunflower seeds, soybeans, pork


automobiles; metal and metal products; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals, synthetic fibers, wood and paper products; machinery; earthenware and ceramics; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products; food and beverages; pharmaceutical

Industrial production growth rate

2.46% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: 129

Labor force

2.766 million (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: 113

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 3.9%

industry: 22.7%

services: 73.4% (2015)

Unemployment rate

6.74% (2021 est.)
6.69% (2020 est.)
5.75% (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 116

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 21.5%

male: 19.6%

female: 24.6% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 74

Average household expenditures

on food: 18.4% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 5% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.3%

highest 10%: 19.3% (2015 est.)


revenues: $43.495 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $44.914 billion (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 74

Public debt

77.36% of GDP (2020 est.)
61.99% of GDP (2019 est.)
62.29% of GDP (2018 est.)

note: data cover general Government Gross Debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by Government entities, including sub-sectors of central, state, local government, and social security funds

comparison ranking: 44

Taxes and other revenues

18.5% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 106

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$2.875 billion (2021 est.)
$671.914 million (2020 est.)
-$3.532 billion (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 170


$107.43 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$90.546 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$96.859 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

comparison ranking: 42

Exports - partners

Germany 22%, Czechia 11%, Poland 7%, France 7%, Hungary 6%, Austria 5%, United Kingdom 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, video displays, broadcasting equipment, tires, refined petroleum (2019)


$107.358 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$88.214 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$96.755 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

comparison ranking: 43

Imports - partners

Germany 18%, Czechia 18%, Poland 8%, Hungary 7%, Russia 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, broadcasting equipment, crude petroleum, natural gas, insulated wiring (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$9.61 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$9.344 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$7.169 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 84

Debt - external

$115.853 billion (2019 est.)
$114.224 billion (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 52

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)
0.885 (2017 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)


installed generating capacity: 7.868 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 26.503 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 12.97 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 13.288 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 1.589 billion kWh (2020 est.)

comparison rankings: transmission/distribution losses 96; imports 19; exports 17; consumption 67; installed generating capacity 73

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 19.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 55.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 2.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 16.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 5.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Nuclear energy

Number of operational nuclear reactors: 5 (2023)

Number of nuclear reactors under construction: 1

Net capacity of operational nuclear reactors: 2.31GW (2023)

Percent of total electricity production: 52.3% (2021)

Percent of total energy produced: 70.4% (2021)

Number of nuclear reactors permanently shut down: 1


production: 2.148 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 5.371 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 1,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 3.111 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 135 million metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 3,800 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 85,200 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 100 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 109,800 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 9 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

131,300 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 64

Refined petroleum products - exports

81,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 46

Refined petroleum products - imports

38,340 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 91

Natural gas

production: 62.495 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

consumption: 4.928 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2020 est.)

imports: 4.361 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 14.158 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

32.506 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 11.521 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 11.747 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 9.238 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 74

Energy consumption per capita

129.665 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 42


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 577,390 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 11 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 87

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 7,362,325 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 135 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 105

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: the broadband market has shown steady growth in recent years; fiber has become the principal platform for fixed broadband services, followed by DSL; the cable sector is a distant third in terms of subscribers, though cable is particularly strong in urban areas; mobile broadband access and content services are developing rapidly in line with operators having upgraded their networks; the regulator prepared the groundwork for 5G services in line with European Union requirements, with concessions in the 3.5GHz range followed by those in the 700MHz, 900MHz and 1800MHz bands; 5G was launched in late 2021 and is expected to cover about a fifth of the population by the end of 2022 (2021)

domestic: fixed-line is 11 per 100 and mobile-cellular is 135 per 100 teledensity (2021)

international: country code - 421; 3 international exchanges (1 in Bratislava and 2 in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services; connects to DREAM cable (2017)

Broadcast media

state-owned public broadcaster, Radio and Television of Slovakia (RTVS), operates 2 national TV stations and multiple national and regional radio networks; roughly 50 privately owned TV stations operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 40% of households are connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV; 32 privately owned radio stations

Internet users

total: 4.806 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 89% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 97

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 1,701,561 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 31 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 63


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 4 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 45


35 (2021)

comparison ranking: total 110

Airports - with paved runways


note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports - with unpaved runways


note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control


1 (2021)


2,270 km gas transmission pipelines, 6,278 km high-pressure gas distribution pipelines, 27,023 km mid- and low-pressure gas distribution pipelines (2016), 510 km oil (2015) (2016)


total: 3,627 km (2020) 1,585 km electrified

comparison ranking: total 53


total: 56,926 km (2016) (includes local roads, national roads, and 464 km of highways)

comparison ranking: total 80


172 km (2012) (on Danube River)

comparison ranking: 109

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Bratislava, Komarno (Danube)

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic (Ozbrojene Sily Slovenskej Republiky): Land Forces (Slovenské Pozemné Sily), Air Forces (Slovenské Vzdušné Sily), Special Operations Forces (Sily Pre Speciálne Operácie)

Ministry of Interior: Slovak Police Force (SPF or Policajný Zbor) (2023)

note: the SPF has sole responsibility for internal and border security

Military expenditures

2% of GDP (2023 est.)
1.8% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.7% of GDP (2021)
1.9% of GDP (2020)
1.7% of GDP (2019)

comparison ranking: 58

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 14,000 active-duty personnel (8,000 Land Forces; 4,000 Air Forces; 2,000 other, including staff, special operations, and support forces) (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory consists mostly of Soviet-era platforms; in recent years, it has imported limited quantities of more modern equipment, particularly from Italy and the US (2023)

Military service age and obligation

18-30 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; conscription in peacetime suspended in 2004 (2023)

note: as of 2019, women made up around 12% of the military's full-time personnel

Military deployments

240 Cyprus (UNFICYP); up to 150 Latvia (NATO) (2023)

note: in response to Russia’s 2022 invasion of Ukraine, some NATO countries, including Slovakia, have sent additional troops and equipment to the battlegroups deployed in NATO territory in eastern Europe

Military - note

the Slovak military was created from the Czechoslovak Army after the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in January 1993; it is a small and professional force responsible for external defense and fulfilling Slovakia’s commitments to European and international security; Slovakia has been a member of both the EU and NATO since 2004; a key focus of the Slovak military is fulfilling the country’s security responsibilities to NATO, including modernizing and acquiring NATO-compatible equipment, participating in training exercises, and providing forces for security missions such as NATO’s Enhanced Forward Presence in the Baltic States; since 2022, Slovakia has hosted a NATO ground force battlegroup comprised of troops from Czechia, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, and the US as part of the NATO effort to boost the defenses of Eastern Europe since the Russian invasion of Ukraine; Slovakia also contributes to EU and UN peacekeeping missions

the military operates under a General Staff and a Joint Operations Command; the combat units of the subordinate Land Forces are two mechanized infantry brigades, plus separate battalions of artillery and reconnaissance forces; the separate Special Operations Forces include special forces and airborne units; the Air Force has only a handful of fighter aircraft and is assisted by NATO’s air policing mission over Slovakia, which includes fighter aircraft from Czechia and Poland; in 2022, Slovakia signed a defense agreement with the US that allows the US to use two Slovak military air bases; as a landlocked country, Slovakia does not have a naval force (2023)


Space agency/agencies

no national government agency; the Slovak Space Office is responsible for inter-ministerial political coordination and multilateral international cooperation; it serves as the official national contact point for international cooperation between space agencies, offices, associations, businesses, and research entities, and is part of the Ministry of Education, Science, Research, and Sport (2023)

Space program overview

focused on the development of satellites, satellite subcomponents, and other space-related technologies; as a member state of the EU, it is actively involved in all key components of the EU space program, and Slovak researchers actively participate in a variety of EU and/or European Space Agency (ESA) space missions including the Galileo global navigational system program, Copernicus Earth observation satellite program, Rosetta comet probe, BepiColombo (Mercury planetary orbiter), and Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission; has more than 40 established companies actively involved in the space sector (2023)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Slovakia-Austria: none identified

Slovakia-Czechia: none identified

Slovakia-Hungary: initiated by the 1977 Budapest Treaty, Hungary and formerly Czechoslovakia agreed to a hydroelectric dam project on the Danube with dams to be constructed at Gabcikovo (Slovakia) and Nagymaros (Hungary) to prevent floods, improve river navigability, and to generate electricity; when Hungary suspended work on the project until its environmental impact could be assessed, Slovakia continued working on it and adopted a pared down strategy to divert the Danube so that all construction was within Czechoslovakian territory; Hungary terminated the project on environmental and economic grounds in 1989, and in 1992 both countries took the matter to the International Court of Justice (ICJ); the ICJ found largely in favor of then Slovakia, finding Hungary had breached their agreement; however, then Czechoslovakia should not have begun the alternative plan before the ICJ ruled on the case; in 2017, Hungary and Slovakia agreed to discontinue the ICJ proceedings

Slovakia-Poland: none identified

Slovakia-Ukraine: tens of thousands of Ukrainian refugees are crossing the border to Slovakia to escape the Russian invasion in their country

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 107,415 (Ukraine) (as of 27 August 2023)

stateless persons: 2,940 (2022)

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for regional market; consumer of MDMA (ecstasy)