A street scene in the Slovakian town of Levoca.
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Introduction

Background

Slovakia traces its roots to the 9th century state of Great Moravia. Subsequently, the Slovaks became part of the Hungarian Kingdom, where they remained for the next 1,000 years. After the formation of the dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1867, backlash to language and education policies favoring the use of Hungarian (Magyarization) encouraged the strengthening of Slovak nationalism and a cultivation of cultural ties with the closely related Czechs, who fell administratively under the Austrian half of the empire. After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the close of World War I, the Slovaks joined the Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. The new state was envisioned as a nation with Czech and Slovak branches. During the interwar period, Slovak nationalist leaders pushed for autonomy within Czechoslovakia, and in 1939 Slovakia became an independent state created by and allied with Nazi Germany. Following World War II, Czechoslovakia was reconstituted and came under communist rule within Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of Czechoslovakia's leaders to liberalize communist rule and create "socialism with a human face," ushering in a period of repression known as "normalization." The peaceful "Velvet Revolution" swept the Communist Party from power at the end of 1989 and inaugurated a return to democratic rule and a market economy. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia underwent a nonviolent "velvet divorce" into its two national components, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. Slovakia joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004 and the euro zone on 1 January 2009.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Central Europe, south of Poland

Geographic coordinates

48 40 N, 19 30 E

Area

total: 49,035 sq km

land: 48,105 sq km

water: 930 sq km

country comparison to the world: 130

Area - comparative

about one and a half times the size of Maryland; about twice the size of New Hampshire

Area comparison map
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 1,587 km

border countries (5): Austria 105 km; Czechia 241 km; Hungary 627 km; Poland 517 km; Ukraine 97 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain

rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south

Elevation

highest point: Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m

lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m

mean elevation: 458 m

Natural resources

lignite, small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 40.1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 28.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 10.8% (2018 est.)

forest: 40.2% (2018 est.)

other: 19.7% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

869 sq km (2012)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Danube (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country; slightly larger concentration in the west in proximity to the Czech border

Geography - note

landlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys

Map description

Slovakia map showing major cities as well as parts of surrounding countries.

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Slovak(s)

adjective: Slovak

Ethnic groups

Slovak 83.8%, Hungarian 7.8%, Romani 1.2%, other 1.8% (includes Czech, Ruthenian, Ukrainian, Russian, German, Polish), unspecified 5.4% (2021 est.)

note: data represent population by nationality; Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 7–11% of Slovakia's population

Languages

Slovak (official) 81.8%, Hungarian 8.5%, Roma 1.8%, other 2.2%, unspecified 5.7% (2021 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Svetova Kniha Faktov, nenahraditelny zdroj zakladnej informacie. (Slovak)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Slovakian audio sample:

Religions

Roman Catholic 55.8%, Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession 5.3%, Greek Catholic 4%, Reformed Christian 1.6%, other 3%, none 23.8%, unspecified 6.5% (2021 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.13% (male 423,180/female 400,128)

15-24 years: 10.06% (male 280,284/female 266,838)

25-54 years: 44.61% (male 1,228,462/female 1,198,747)

55-64 years: 13.15% (male 342,124/female 373,452)

65 years and over: 17.05% (2020 est.) (male 366,267/female 561,120)

2022 population pyramid
2022 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 47.6

youth dependency ratio: 23

elderly dependency ratio: 24.6

potential support ratio: 4.1 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 41.8 years

male: 40.1 years

female: 43.6 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 41

Birth rate

8.94 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 204

Death rate

10.13 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 36

Net migration rate

0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 78

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country; slightly larger concentration in the west in proximity to the Czech border

Urbanization

urban population: 53.9% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 0.17% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

439,000 BRATISLAVA (capital) (2022)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.53 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

27.2 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

5 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 170

Infant mortality rate

total: 4.82 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 5.48 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 178

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 78.31 years

male: 74.83 years

female: 82.04 years (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 75

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Physicians density

3.57 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

5.7 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.9% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.1% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

(2018 est.) <100

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 10.3 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 4.14 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 2.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 4.14 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 21

Tobacco use

total: 31.5% (2020 est.)

male: 37.4% (2020 est.)

female: 25.6% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 25

Literacy

total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 14 years

female: 15 years (2019)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 19.4%

male: 18.3%

female: 21.2% (2020 est.)

Environment

Environment - current issues

air pollution and acid rain present human health risks and damage forests; land erosion caused by agricultural and mining practices; water pollution

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protection

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 17.54 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 32.42 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 4.43 megatons (2020 est.)

Climate

temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Land use

agricultural land: 40.1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 28.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 10.8% (2018 est.)

forest: 40.2% (2018 est.)

other: 19.7% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 53.9% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 0.17% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0.01% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 52

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 1.784 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 135,941 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 7.6% (2015 est.)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Danube (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 293.5 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 231.2 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 31.6 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

50.1 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Slovak Republic

conventional short form: Slovakia

local long form: Slovenska republika

local short form: Slovensko

etymology: may derive from the medieval Latin word "Slavus" (Slav), which had the local form "Sloven", used since the 13th century to refer to the territory of Slovakia and its inhabitants

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Bratislava

geographic coordinates: 48 09 N, 17 07 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the name was adopted in 1919 after Czechoslovakia gained its independence and may derive from later transliterations of the 9th century military commander, Braslav, or the 11th century Bohemian Duke BRETISLAV I; alternatively, the name may derive from the Slovak words "brat" (brother) and "slava" (glory)

Administrative divisions

8 regions (kraje, singular - kraj); Banska Bystrica, Bratislava, Kosice, Nitra, Presov, Trencin, Trnava, Zilina

Independence

1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)

National holiday

Constitution Day, 1 September (1992)

Constitution

history: several previous (preindependence); latest passed by the National Council 1 September 1992, signed 3 September 1992, effective 1 October 1992

amendments: proposed by the National Council; passage requires at least three-fifths majority vote of Council members; amended many times, last in 2020

Legal system

civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; note - legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Slovakia

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Zuzana CAPUTOVA (since 15 June 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister Eduard HEGER (since 1 April 2021); Deputy Prime Ministers Stefan HOLY, Veronika REMISOVA, Richard SULIK (all since 21 March 2020)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 16 March and 30 March 2019 (next to be held March 2024); following National Council elections (every 4 years), the president designates a prime minister candidate, usually the leader of the party or coalition that wins the most votes, who must win a vote of confidence in the National Council

election results:
2019:
Zuzana CAPUTOVA reelected president in second round; percent of vote - Zuzana CAPUTOVA (PS) 58.4%, Maros SEFCOVIC (independent) 41.6%

2014: Andrej KISKA elected president in second round; percent of vote - Andrej KISKA (independent) 59.4%, Robert FICO (Smer-SD) 40.6%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Council or Narodna Rada (150 seats; members directly elected in a single- and multi-seat constituencies by closed, party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 29 February 2020 (next to be held in February 2024)

election results: percent of vote by party - OLaNO-NOVA 25%, Smer-SD 18.3%, Sme-Rodina 8.2%, LSNS 8%, PS-SPOLU 7%, SaS 6.2%, Za Ludi 5.8%, other 21.5%; seats by party - OLaNO-NOVA 53, Smer-SD 38, Sme-Rodina 17, LSNS 17, SaS 13, Za Ludi 12, PS-SPOLU 0; composition (as of mid-2022) - men 118, women 32, percent of women 21.3%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court of the Slovak Republic (consists of the court president, vice president, and approximately 80 judges organized into criminal, civil, commercial, and administrative divisions with 3- and 5-judge panels); Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic (consists of 13 judges organized into 3-judge panels)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judge candidates nominated by the Judicial Council of the Slovak Republic, an 18-member self-governing body that includes the Supreme Court chief justice and presidential, governmental, parliamentary, and judiciary appointees; judges appointed by the president serve for life subject to removal by the president at age 65; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the National Council of the Republic and appointed by the president; judges serve 12-year terms

subordinate courts: regional and district civil courts; Special Criminal Court; Higher Military Court; military district courts; Court of Audit;

Political parties and leaders

Alliance-Szovetseg [Krisztian FORRO]
Direction-Social Democracy or Smer-SD [Robert FICO]
For the People or Za Ludi [Veronika REMISOVA]
Freedom and Solidarity or SaS [Richard SULIK]
Kotleba-People's Party Our Slovakia or LSNS [Marian KOTLEBA]
Ordinary People and Independent Personalities - New Majority or OLaNO-NOVA [Igor MATOVIC]
Slovak National Party or SNS [Andrej DANKO]
Voice or Hlas-SD [Petr PELLIGRINI]
We Are Family or Sme-Rodina [Boris KOLLAR]

International organization participation

Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Radovan JAVORCIK (since 18 January 2021)

chancery: 3523 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 237-1054

FAX: [1] (202) 237-6438

email address and website:
emb.washington@mzv.sk

https://www.mzv.sk/web/washington-en

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Nicholas NAMBA (since May 2022)

embassy: P.O. Box 309, 814 99 Bratislava

mailing address: 5840 Bratislava Place, Washington DC  20521-5840

telephone: [421] (2) 5443-3338

FAX: [421] (2) 5441-8861

email address and website:
consulbratislava@state.gov

https://sk.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red derive from the Pan-Slav colors; the Slovakian coat of arms (consisting of a red shield bordered in white and bearing a white double-barred cross of St. Cyril and St. Methodius surmounting three blue hills) is centered over the bands but offset slightly to the hoist side

note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia

National symbol(s)

double-barred cross (Cross of St. Cyril and St. Methodius) surmounting three peaks; national colors: white, blue, red

National anthem

name: "Nad Tatrou sa blyska" (Lightning Over the Tatras)

lyrics/music: Janko MATUSKA/traditional

note: adopted 1993, in use since 1844; music based on the Slovak folk song "Kopala studienku" (She was digging a well)

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 8 (6 cultural, 2 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Historic Town of Banská Štiavnica (c); Levoča, Spišský Hrad, and the Associated Cultural Monuments (c); Vlkolínec (c); Caves of Aggtelek Karst and Slovak Karst (n); Bardejov Town (c); Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians (n); Wooden Churches of the Slovak Carpathians (c); Frontiers of the Roman Empire - The Danube Limes (Western Segment) (c)

Economy

Economic overview

Slovakia’s economy suffered from a slow start in the first years after its separation from the Czech Republic in 1993, due to the country’s authoritarian leadership and high levels of corruption, but economic reforms implemented after 1998 have placed Slovakia on a path of strong growth. With a population of 5.4 million, the Slovak Republic has a small, open economy driven mainly by automobile and electronics exports, which account for more than 80% of GDP. Slovakia joined the EU in 2004 and the euro zone in 2009. The country’s banking sector is sound and predominantly foreign owned.

 

Slovakia has been a regional FDI champion for several years, attractive due to a relatively low-cost yet skilled labor force, and a favorable geographic location in the heart of Central Europe. Exports and investment have been key drivers of Slovakia’s robust growth in recent years. The unemployment rate fell to historical lows in 2017, and rising wages fueled increased consumption, which played a more prominent role in 2017 GDP growth. A favorable outlook for the Eurozone suggests continued strong growth prospects for Slovakia during the next few years, although inflation is also expected to pick up.

 

Among the most pressing domestic issues potentially threatening the attractiveness of the Slovak market are shortages in the qualified labor force, persistent corruption issues, and an inadequate judiciary, as well as a slow transition to an innovation-based economy. The energy sector in particular is characterized by unpredictable regulatory oversight and high costs, in part driven by government interference in regulated tariffs. Moreover, the government’s attempts to maintain low household energy prices could harm the profitability of domestic energy firms while undercutting energy efficiency initiatives.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$165.57 billion (2020 est.)

$173.83 billion (2019 est.)

$169.57 billion (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 72

Real GDP growth rate

2.4% (2019 est.)

3.9% (2018 est.)

3.04% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 116

Real GDP per capita

$30,300 (2020 est.)

$31,900 (2019 est.)

$31,100 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 65

GDP (official exchange rate)

$105.388 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

2.6% (2019 est.)

2.5% (2018 est.)

1.3% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 132

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: A (2020)

Moody's rating: A2 (2012)

Standard & Poors rating: A+ (2015)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 3.8% (2017 est.)

industry: 35% (2017 est.)

services: 61.2% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 54.7% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 19.2% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 21.2% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.2% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 96.3% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -92.9% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

wheat, maize, sugar beet, milk, barley, rapeseed, potatoes, sunflower seed, soybeans, pork

Industries

automobiles; metal and metal products; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals, synthetic fibers, wood and paper products; machinery; earthenware and ceramics; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products; food and beverages; pharmaceutical

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 3.9%

industry: 22.7%

services: 73.4% (2015)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 19.4%

male: 18.3%

female: 21.2% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 81

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.3%

highest 10%: 19.3% (2015 est.)

Budget

revenues: 37.79 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 38.79 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

50.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

51.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general Government Gross Debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by Government entities, including sub-sectors of central, state, local government, and social security funds

country comparison to the world: 98

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$3.026 billion (2019 est.)

-$2.635 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 173

Exports

$89.92 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$97.04 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$100.76 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 43

Exports - partners

Germany 22%, Czechia 11%, Poland 7%, France 7%, Hungary 6%, Austria 5%, United Kingdom 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, video displays, broadcasting equipment, tires, refined petroleum (2019)

Imports

$87.95 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$96.75 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$99.92 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 44

Imports - partners

Germany 18%, Czechia 18%, Poland 8%, Hungary 7%, Russia 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, broadcasting equipment, crude petroleum, natural gas, insulated wiring (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$3.622 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$2.892 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 102

Debt - external

$115.853 billion (2019 est.)

$114.224 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 52

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.82771 (2020 est.)

0.90338 (2019 est.)

0.87789 (2018 est.)

0.885 (2014 est.)

0.7634 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 7.868 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 26.503 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 12.97 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 13.288 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 1.589 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 19.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 55.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 2.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 16.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 5.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 2.148 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 5.371 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 1,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 3.111 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 135 million metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 3,800 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 85,200 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 100 barrels/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 109,800 barrels/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 9 million barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 62.495 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

consumption: 4,928,199,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2020 est.)

imports: 4,361,410,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 14.158 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

32.506 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 11.521 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 11.747 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 9.238 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 74

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 648,462 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 86

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 7,399,530 (2019)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 135.6 (2019)

country comparison to the world: 101

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Slovakia’s incumbent telco Slovak Telekom retains its dominance of the fixed-line voice and broadband sector, though there is effective competition in the mobile market, where most investment is being channeled; the main operators including O2 Slovakia and Orange Slovakia have expanded into offering bundled fixed and mobile services; the broadband market has shown steady growth in recent years; DSL remains the principal technology though in early 2020 it was eclipsed by the fast-developing fiber sector, which has been supported by sympathetic regulatory measures and considerable investment among operators; the cable sector is a distant third in terms of subscribers, though cable is particularly strong in urban areas; the main telco UPC Slovakia has gained customers steadily in recent years (reaching 144,000 by the end of 2020) on the back of its widely available 1Gb/s service offering; Slovakia’s mobile market is served by four MNOs, two of which are the local units of operators with a pan-European reach (Deutsche Telekom and Orange Group), O2 Slovakia was once the local unit of Telefónica Group before being sold to an investment concern; mobile broadband access and content services are developing rapidly in line with operators having upgraded their networks; the regulator prepared the groundwork for 5G services in line with European Union requirements, with concessions in the 3.5GHz range followed by those in the 700MHz, 900MHz and 1800MHz bands; commercial services by the first quarter of 2021 were limited, licensees have invested in 5G infrastructure and also have considerable coverage obligations. (2021)

domestic: four companies have a license to operate cellular networks and provide nationwide cellular services; a few other companies provide services but do not have their own networks; fixed-line roughly 11 per 100 and mobile-cellular over 133 per 100 teledensity (2020)

international: country code - 421; 3 international exchanges (1 in Bratislava and 2 in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services; connects to DREAM cable (2017)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced a downturn, particularly in mobile device production; progress towards 5G implementation has resumed, as well as upgrades to infrastructure; consumer spending on telecom services has increased due to the surge in demand for capacity and bandwidth; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home is still evident, and the spike in this area has seen growth opportunities for development of new tools and increased services

Broadcast media

state-owned public broadcaster, Radio and Television of Slovakia (RTVS), operates 2 national TV stations and multiple national and regional radio networks; roughly 50 privately owned TV stations operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 40% of households are connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV; 32 privately owned radio stations

Internet users

total: 4,917,528 (July 2022 est.)

percent of population: 90% (July 2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 91

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 1,701,561 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 31 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 63

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 4 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 45

Airports - with paved runways

total: 19

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 9 (2021)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 15

914 to 1,523 m: 10

under 914 m: 5 (2021)

Heliports

1 (2021)

Pipelines

2,270 km gas transmission pipelines, 6,278 km high-pressure gas distribution pipelines, 27,023 km mid- and low-pressure gas distribution pipelines (2016), 510 km oil (2015) (2016)

Railways

total: 3,580 km (2016)

standard gauge: 3,435 km (2016) 1.435-m gauge (1,587 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 46 km (2016) 1.000-m or 0.750-m gauge

broad gauge: 99 km (2016) 1.520-m gauge

country comparison to the world: 56

Roadways

total: 56,926 km (2016) (includes local roads, national roads, and 464 km of highways)

country comparison to the world: 80

Waterways

172 km (2012) (on Danube River)

country comparison to the world: 109

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Bratislava, Komarno (Danube)

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic (Ozbrojene Sily Slovenskej Republiky): Land Forces (Slovenské Pozemné Sily), Air Forces (Slovenské Vzdušné Sily), Special Operations Forces (Sily Pre Speciálne Operácie) (2022)

Military expenditures

1.7% of GDP (2021 est.)

2% of GDP (2020)

1.7% of GDP (2019) (approximately $2.34 billion)

1.2% of GDP (2018) (approximately $1.72 billion)

1.1% of GDP (2017) (approximately $1.51 billion)

country comparison to the world: 80

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 14,000 active duty personnel (8,000 Land Forces; 4,000 Air Forces; 2,000 other, including staff, special operations, and support forces) (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory consists mostly of Soviet-era platforms; since 2010, it has imported limited quantities of equipment, particularly from Italy and the US (2021)

Military service age and obligation

18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription in peacetime suspended in 2004; women are eligible to serve (2021)

note: as of 2019, women made up around 12% of the military's full-time personnel

Military deployments

240 Cyprus (UNFICYP); up to 150 Latvia (NATO) (2022)

note: in response to Russia’s 2022 invasion of Ukraine, some NATO countries, including Slovakia, have sent additional troops and equipment to the battlegroups deployed in NATO territory in eastern Europe

Military - note

Slovakia became a member of NATO in 2004

in 2022, Slovakia agreed to host a NATO ground force battlegroup comprised of troops from Czechia, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, and the US; Czechia and Poland also provide the NATO air policing mission for Slovakia

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Slovakia-Austria: none identified

Slovakia-Czechia: none identified

Slovakia-Hungary: initiated by the 1977 Budapest Treaty, Hungary and formerly Czechoslovakia agreed to a hydroelectric dam project on the Danube with dams to be constructed at Gabcikovo (Slovakia) and Nagymaros (Hungary) to prevent floods, improve river navigability, and to generate electricity; when Hungary suspended work on the project until its environmental impact could be assessed, Slovakia continued working on it and adopted a pared down strategy to divert the Danube so that all construction was within Czechoslovakian territory; Hungary terminated the project on environmental and economic grounds in 1989, and in 1992 both countries took the matter to the International Court of Justice (ICJ); the ICJ found largely in favor of then Slovakia, finding Hungary had breached their agreement; however, then Czechoslovakia should not have begun the alternative plan before the ICJ ruled on the case; in 2017, Hungary and Slovakia agreed to discontinue the ICJ proceedings

Slovakia-Poland: none identified

Slovakia-Ukraine: tens of thousands of Ukrainian refugees are crossing the border to Slovakia to escape the Russian invasion in their country

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 93,384 (Ukraine) (as of 13 September 2022)

stateless persons: 1,532 (mid-year 2021)

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for regional market; consumer of MDMA (ecstasy)