Photos of Sweden



A military power during the 17th century, Sweden maintained a policy of military non-alignment until it applied to join NATO in May 2022. Stockholm preserved and armed neutrality in both World Wars. Since then, Sweden has pursued a successful economic formula consisting of a capitalist system intermixed with substantial welfare elements. Sweden joined the EU in 1995, but the public rejected the introduction of the euro in a 2003 referendum. The share of Sweden’s population born abroad increased from 11.3% in 2000 to 20% in 2021.


Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway

Geographic coordinates

62 00 N, 15 00 E


total: 450,295 sq km

land: 410,335 sq km

water: 39,960 sq km

comparison ranking: total 58

Area - comparative

almost three times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than California

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 2,211 km

border countries (2): Finland 545 km; Norway 1,666 km


3,218 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)

exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation


temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north


mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west


highest point: Kebnekaise South 2,100 m

lowest point: reclaimed bay of Lake Hammarsjon, near Kristianstad -2.4 m

mean elevation: 320 m

Natural resources

iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 7.5% (2018 est.)

arable land: 6.4% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 1.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 68.7% (2018 est.)

other: 23.8% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

519 sq km (2013)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Vanern - 5,580 sq km; Vattern - 1,910 sq km; Malaren - 1,140 sq km

Population distribution

most Swedes live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the Baltic coast in the east; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated

Natural hazards

ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic

Geography - note

strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas; Sweden has almost 100,000 lakes, the largest of which, Vanern, is the third largest in Europe

People and Society


10,536,338 (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 88


noun: Swede(s)

adjective: Swedish

Ethnic groups

Swedish 80.3%, Syrian 1.9%, Iraqi 1.4%, Finnish 1.4%, other 15%

(2020 est.)

note: data represent the population by country of birth; the indigenous Sami people are estimated to number between 20,000 and 40,000


Swedish (official)

major-language sample(s):
The World Factbook, den obestridliga källan för grundläggande information. (Swedish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

note: Finnish, Sami, Romani, Yiddish, and Meankieli are official minority languages

Swedish audio sample:


Church of Sweden (Lutheran) 57.6%, other (includes Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist) 8.9%, none or unspecified 33.5% (2019 est.)

note: estimates reflect registered members of faith communities eligible for state funding (not all religions are state-funded and not all people who identify with a particular religion are registered members) and the Church of Sweden

Demographic profile

Sweden, the largest Nordic country in terms of size and population, is also Europe’s most sparsely populated.  Most Swedish men and women agree that both partners should contribute to household income. Swedish society is very gender equal, which is reflected in the country’s public policies.  A generous leave policy and high-quality subsidized childcare allows mothers and fathers to balance work and family life. Sweden’s income-replacement-based parental leave policy encourages women to establish themselves in the workforce before having children.  In fact, Swedish women have one of the highest labor participation rates in Europe and one of its highest total fertility rates (TFR), the number of children women have in their lifetime.  Postponement of parenthood has increased steadily.  Since the late 1960s, marriage and divorce rates have declined, while non-marital cohabitation and births out of wedlock have increased rapidly. Sweden’s TFR has hovered for decades around 2, which is close to replacement level and among Europe’s highest.

Sweden experienced “the great emigration” between 1850 and the 1930s when, faced with famines, approximately 1.5 million Swedes sought a better life in the Americas and Australia.  However, since World War II, Sweden has been a country of immigration. During World War II, thousands of refugees from neighboring countries worked in Swedish factories, agriculture, and forestry, replacing Swedish men who were called up for military service.  During the 1950s and 1960s, Sweden joined the Geneva Convention and granted permanent residence to refugees from the USSR and the Warsaw Pact countries. During this period, Sweden also welcomed labor migrants, mainly from Finland and other Nordic countries, who bolstered the tax base needed to fund the country’s welfare programs.

Until 1971, labor migrants, particularly from Finland, southern Europe (including then Yugoslavia, Italy, and Greece) the Baltics, and Turkey, came to Sweden as its industries flourished.  Companies recruited many of the workers, but others came on their own. Sweden’s labor demand eventually decreased, and the job market became saturated. The government restricted the flow of labor migrants, putting an end to labor migration from non-Nordic countries in 1972. From then until the 1990s, inflows consisted largely of asylum seekers from the Middle East, the Balkans, and South America, as well as persons looking to reunite with family members already in Sweden.  The country began a new era of labor immigration in 2008, as companies were encouraged to hire non-EU workers.  Among the largest source countries have been India, Thailand, and China. As of 2020, over a quarter of Sweden’s population had a migrant background.

Age structure

0-14 years: 17.26% (male 936,274/female 882,347)

15-64 years: 62.05% (male 3,346,891/female 3,190,608)

65 years and over: 20.69% (2023 est.) (male 1,021,707/female 1,158,511)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 60.8

youth dependency ratio: 28.5

elderly dependency ratio: 32.3

potential support ratio: 3.1 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 41.1 years

male: 40.1 years

female: 42.1 years (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 46

Population growth rate

0.51% (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 151

Birth rate

10.76 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 174

Death rate

9.5 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 47

Net migration rate

3.79 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 30

Population distribution

most Swedes live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the Baltic coast in the east; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated


urban population: 88.7% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.89% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

1.700 million STOCKHOLM (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.7 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

5 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 170

Infant mortality rate

total: 2.28 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: total 220

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 82.8 years

male: 81.05 years

female: 84.66 years (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: total population 18

Total fertility rate

1.67 children born/woman (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 172

Gross reproduction rate

0.81 (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

70.3% (2017)

note: percent of women aged 16-49

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.8% of population

rural: 99.7% of population

total: 99.8% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.2% of population

rural: 0.3% of population

total: 0.2% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

11.4% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

7.09 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

2.1 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

20.6% (2016)

comparison ranking: 96

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 7.1 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 2.6 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 3.4 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 1 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.1 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 59

Tobacco use

total: 24% (2020 est.)

male: 29.8% (2020 est.)

female: 18.2% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 57

Education expenditures

7.2% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 18


total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 20 years

male: 18 years

female: 21 years (2020)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 24.5%

male: 26.1%

female: 23% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 64


Environment - current issues

marine pollution (Baltic Sea and North Sea); acid rain damage to soils and lakes; air pollution; inappropriate timber harvesting practices

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements


temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north

Land use

agricultural land: 7.5% (2018 est.)

arable land: 6.4% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 1.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 68.7% (2018 est.)

other: 23.8% (2018 est.)


urban population: 88.7% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.89% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.21% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 91

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 161

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 5.89 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 43.25 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 4.42 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 4.377 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 1,416,835 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 32.4% (2015 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Vanern - 5,580 sq km; Vattern - 1,910 sq km; Malaren - 1,140 sq km

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 700 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 1.27 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 100 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

174 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden

conventional short form: Sweden

local long form: Konungariket Sverige

local short form: Sverige

etymology: name ultimately derives from the North Germanic Svear tribe, which inhabited central Sweden and is first mentioned in the first centuries A.D.

Government type

parliamentary constitutional monarchy


name: Stockholm

geographic coordinates: 59 20 N, 18 03 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: stock and holm literally mean "log" and "islet" in Swedish, but there is no consensus as to what the words refer to

Administrative divisions

21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarna, Gavleborg, Gotland, Halland, Jamtland, Jonkoping, Kalmar, Kronoberg, Norrbotten, Orebro, Ostergotland, Skane, Sodermanland, Stockholm, Uppsala, Varmland, Vasterbotten, Vasternorrland, Vastmanland, Vastra Gotaland


6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king of Sweden, marking the abolishment of the Kalmar Union between Denmark, Norway, and Sweden)

National holiday

National Day, 6 June (1983); note - from 1916 to 1982 this date was celebrated as Swedish Flag Day


history: Sweden has four fundamental laws which together make up the Constitution: The Instrument of Government (several previous; latest 1974); The Act of Succession (enacted 1810; changed in 1937 and 1980); The Freedom of the Press Act (many previous; latest in 1949); The Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression (adopted 1991)

amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires simple majority vote in two consecutive parliamentary terms with an intervening general election; passage also requires approval by simple majority vote in a referendum if Parliament approves a motion for a referendum by one third of its members; The Instrument of Government - amended several times, last in 2018; The Act of Succession - changed in 1937, 1980; The Freedom of the Press Act - amended several times, last in 2019; The Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression - amended several times, last in 2018

Legal system

civil law system influenced by Roman-Germanic law and customary law

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Sweden; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen of Sweden and the father unknown

dual citizenship recognized: no, unless the other citizenship was acquired involuntarily

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 15 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree (daughter of the monarch, born 14 July 1977)

head of government: Prime Minister Ulf KRISTERSSON (since 18 October 2022); Deputy Prime Minister Ebba BUSCH (since 18 October 2022)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; 310 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by open party-list proportional representation vote and 39 members in "at-large" seats directly elected by open party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 11 September 2022

election results: percent of vote by party - S/SAP 30.3%, M 19.1%, SD 20.5%, C 6.7%, V 6.7%, KD 5.3%, L 4.6%, MP 5.1%, other 1.7%; seats by party - S/SAP 107, M 68, SD 73, C 24, V 24, KD 19, L 16, MP 18; composition as of mid-2022 - men 188, women 161, percent of women 46%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Sweden (consists of 16 justices, including the court chairman); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 18 justices, including the court president)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court justices nominated by the Judges Proposal Board, a 9-member nominating body consisting of high-level judges, prosecutors, and members of Parliament; justices appointed by the Government; following a probationary period, justices' appointments are permanent

subordinate courts: first instance, appellate, general, and administrative courts; specialized courts that handle cases such as land and environment, immigration, labor, markets, and patents

Political parties and leaders

Center Party (Centerpartiet) or C [Muharrem DEMIROK]
Christian Democrats (Kristdemokraterna) or KD [Ebba BUSCH]
Green Party (Miljopartiet de Grona) or MP [Marta STEVENI and Per BOLUND]
Left Party (Vansterpartiet) or V [Nooshi DADGOSTAR]
Moderate Party (Moderaterna) or M [Ulf KRISTERSSON]
Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna) or SD [Jimmie AKESSON]
Swedish Social Democratic Party (Socialdemokraterna) or S/SAP [Magdalena ANDERSSON]
The Liberals (Liberalerna) or L [Johan PEHRSON]

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UN Security Council (temporary), UNSOM, UNTSO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Karin Ulrika OLOFSDOTTER (since 8 September 2017)

chancery: 2900 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 467-2600

FAX: [1] (202) 467-2699

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Erik D. RAMANATHAN (since 20 January 2022)

embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Vag 31, SE-115 89 Stockholm

mailing address: 5750 Stockholm Place, Washington, DC  20521-5750

telephone: [46] (08) 783-53-00

FAX: [46] (08) 661-19-64

email address and website:

Flag description

blue with a golden yellow cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors reflect those of the Swedish coat of arms - three gold crowns on a blue field

National symbol(s)

three crowns, lion; national colors: blue, yellow

National anthem

name: "Du Gamla, Du Fria" (Thou Ancient, Thou Free)

lyrics/music: Richard DYBECK/traditional

note: in use since 1844; also known as "Sang till Norden" (Song of the North), is based on a Swedish folk tune; it has never been officially adopted by the government; "Kungssangen" (The King's Song) serves as the royal anthem and is played in the presence of the royal family and during certain state ceremonies

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 15 (13 cultural, 1 natural, 1 mixed)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Royal Domain of Drottningholm (c); Laponian Area (m); High Coast/Kvarken Archipelago (n); Birka and Hovgården (c); Hanseatic Town of Visby (c); Church Town of Gammelstad, Luleå (c); Naval Port of Karlskrona (c); Rock Carvings in Tanum (c); Engelsberg Ironworks (c); Mining Area of the Great Copper Mountain in Falun (c)


Economic overview

small, open, competitive, and thriving economy that remains outside of the euro zone; has achieved an enviable standard of living, with its combination of free-market capitalism and extensive welfare benefits

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$558.427 billion (2021 est.)
$531.455 billion (2020 est.)
$543.245 billion (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 39

Real GDP growth rate

5.08% (2021 est.)
-2.17% (2020 est.)
1.99% (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 89

Real GDP per capita

$53,600 (2021 est.)
$51,300 (2020 est.)
$52,900 (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 24

GDP (official exchange rate)

$531.35 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

2.16% (2021 est.)
0.5% (2020 est.)
1.78% (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 152

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: AAA (2004)

Moody's rating: Aaa (2002)

Standard & Poors rating: AAA (2004)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 1.6% (2017 est.)

industry: 33% (2017 est.)

services: 65.4% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: agriculture 186; industry 58; services 93

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 44.1% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 26% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 24.9% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.8% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 45.3% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -41.1% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

wheat, milk, sugar beets, barley, potatoes, oats, rapeseed, pork, rye, triticale


iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate

5.72% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: 75

Labor force

5.556 million (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: 75

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 2%

industry: 12%

services: 86% (2014 est.)

Unemployment rate

8.66% (2021 est.)
8.29% (2020 est.)
6.83% (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 86

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 24.5%

male: 26.1%

female: 23% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 64

Average household expenditures

on food: 12.4% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 3.4% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.4%

highest 10%: 24% (2012)


revenues: $259.17 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $256.454 billion (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

1.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 25

Public debt

44% of GDP (2020 est.)
38.69% of GDP (2019 est.)
42.28% of GDP (2018 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

comparison ranking: 127

Taxes and other revenues

26.58% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 39

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

$34.075 billion (2021 est.)
$32.372 billion (2020 est.)
$29.361 billion (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 17


$290.793 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$241.94 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$257.293 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

comparison ranking: 27

Exports - partners

Germany 10%, Norway 9%, United States 8%, Denmark 8%, Finland 6% (2021)

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, packaged medicines, lumber, iron, broadcasting equipment (2021)


$263.269 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$217.165 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$233.648 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

comparison ranking: 28

Imports - partners

Germany 18%, Netherlands 9%, Norway 8%, China 7%, Denmark 7% (2021)

Imports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, crude petroleum, refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment, computers (2021)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$62.053 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$58.26 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$55.51 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 38

Debt - external

$911.317 billion (2019 est.)
$1,012,171,000,000 (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 18

Exchange rates

Swedish kronor (SEK) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
8.577 (2021 est.)
9.21 (2020 est.)
9.458 (2019 est.)
8.693 (2018 est.)
8.549 (2017 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)


installed generating capacity: 43.499 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 124.609 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 36.824 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 11.827 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 10.434 billion kWh (2020 est.)

comparison rankings: installed generating capacity 28; consumption 27; exports 4; imports 22; transmission/distribution losses 30

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 29.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 17.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 44.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 6.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Nuclear energy

Number of operational nuclear reactors: 6 (2023)

Number of nuclear reactors under construction: 0

Net capacity of operational nuclear reactors: 6.94GW (2023)

Percent of total electricity production: 30.8% (2021)

Percent of total energy produced: 34% (2021)

Number of nuclear reactors permanently shut down: 4


production: 1.07 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 3.328 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 24,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 2.144 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 1 million metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 10,600 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 295,800 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 403,200 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

413,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 36

Refined petroleum products - exports

371,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 23

Refined petroleum products - imports

229,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 29

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 1,275,785,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 34.886 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

imports: 1,310,671,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

48.144 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 7.38 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 38.406 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 2.359 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 59

Energy consumption per capita

210.882 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 21


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 1,382,146 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 13 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 63

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 12,843,683 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 123 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 77

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Sweden’s telecom market includes mature mobile and broadband sectors which have been stimulated by the progressive investment of the main telcos in developing new technologies; the country retains one of the best developed LTE infrastructures in the region, while its MNOs have benefited from the January 2021 auction of spectrum in the 3.5GHz band which will enable them to expand services nationally; the country also has one of the highest fiber broadband penetration rates in Europe; the focus of FttP is aimed at fulfilling the government’s target of providing a 1Gb/s service to 98% of the population by 2025; the methodology to achieve this has rested on regulatory measures supported by public funds, as well as on the auction of spectrum in different bands; in the fixed-line broadband segment, the number of DSL subscribers is falling steadily as customers continue to migrate to fiber networks; there is also competition from HFC infrastructure, offering fiber-based broadband and investing in services based on the DOCSIS3.1 standard; this report assesses key aspects of the Swedish telecom market, providing data on fixed network services and profiling the main players; it also reviews the key regulatory issues, including interconnection, local loop unbundling, number portability, carrier preselection and NGN open access; the report also analyses the mobile market, providing data on network operators and their strategies in a highly competitive environment; in addition, the report considers the fixed and fixed-wireless broadband markets, including analyses of market dynamics and the main operators, as well as providing subscriber forecasts (2021)

domestic: fixed-line is 13 per 100 and mobile-cellular is 123 per 100 (2021)

international: country code - 46; landing points for Botina, SFL, SFS-4, Baltic Sea Submarine Cable, Eastern Light, Sweden-Latvia, BCS North-Phase1, EE-S1, LV-SE1, BCS East-West Interlink, NordBalt, Baltica, Denmark-Sweden-15,-17,-18, Scandinavian Ring -North,-South, IP-Only Denmark-Sweden, Donica North, Kattegate-1,-2, Energinet Laeso-Varberg and GC2 submarine cables providing links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway) (2019)

Broadcast media

publicly owned TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial networks plus regional stations; multiple privately owned TV broadcasters operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 50 local TV stations; widespread access to pan-Nordic and international broadcasters through multi-channel cable and satellite TV; publicly owned radio broadcaster operates 3 national stations and a network of 25 regional channels; roughly 100 privately owned local radio stations with some consolidating into near national networks; an estimated 900 community and neighborhood radio stations broadcast intermittently

Internet users

total: 8.8 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 88% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 65

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 4,179,574 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 41 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 36


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 11 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 316


231 (2021)

comparison ranking: total 25

Airports - with paved runways


note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports - with unpaved runways


note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control


2 (2021)


1626 km gas (2013)


total: 10,910 km (2020) 8,184 km electrified

narrow gauge: 65 km

comparison ranking: total 22


total: 573,134 km (2016) (includes 2,050 km of expressways)

paved: 140,100 km (2016)

unpaved: 433,034 km (2016)

note: includes 98,500 km of state roads, 433,034 km of private roads, and 41,600 km of municipal roads

comparison ranking: total 14


2,052 km (2010)

comparison ranking: 42

Merchant marine

total: 368

by type: general cargo 46, oil tanker 21, other 301 (2022)

comparison ranking: total 50

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Brofjorden, Goteborg, Helsingborg, Karlshamn, Lulea, Malmo, Stockholm, Trelleborg, Visby

LNG terminal(s) (import): Brunnsviksholme, Lysekil

Transportation - note

Sweden operates four PC 3 or 4 class medium icebreakers in the Baltic Sea
note - PC indicates a Polar Class vessel: PC 3 - year-round operation in second-year ice which may include multi-year ice inclusions (ice thickness up to 2.5 m); PC 4 - year-round operation in thick first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions (ice thickness up to 120 cm)

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Swedish Armed Forces (Forsvarsmakten): Army, Navy, Air Force, Home Guard (2023)

Military expenditures

1.3% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2021)
1.2% of GDP (2020)
1.1% of GDP (2019)
1% of GDP (2018)

comparison ranking: 126

Military and security service personnel strengths

the SAF has about 46,000 military personnel: approximately 14,000 continuous service/full-time; approximately 11,000 temporary service; approximately 21,000 Home Guard (some on active duty) (2023)

note 1: SAF personnel are divided into continuously serving (full-time) and temporary service troops (part-timers who serve periodically and have another main employer or attend school); additional personnel have signed service agreements with the SAF and mostly serve in the Home Guard; the SAF also has about 9,000 civilian employees

note 2: in 2021, Sweden announced plans that increase the total size of the armed forces to about 100,000 personnel by 2030

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the SAF's inventory is comprised of domestically produced and imported Western weapons systems; in recent years, the US has been the leading supplier of military hardware to Sweden; Sweden has a large and sophisticated defense industry that produces a range of air, land, and naval systems (2023)

Military service age and obligation

18-47 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; service obligation: 7.5 months (Army), 7-15 months (Navy), 8-12 months (Air Force); after completing initial service, soldiers have a reserve commitment until age 47; compulsory military service, abolished in 2010, was reinstated in January 2018; conscription is selective, includes both men and women (age 18), and requires 9-12 months of service (2023)

note 1: Sweden conscripts about 5,500 men and women each year; it plans to increase this number to 8,000 by 2025

note 2: as of 2021, women made up about 11% of the military's full-time personnel

note 3: conscientious objectors in Sweden have the right to choose alternative service (called vapenfri tjänst); after completing alternative service, the conscript then belongs to the civilian reserve

Military deployments

the Swedish military has small numbers of personnel deployed on multiple EU-, NATO-, and UN-led missions (2023)

Military - note

the Swedish military is responsible for the defense of the country and its territories against armed attack, supporting Sweden’s national security interests, providing societal support, such as humanitarian aid, and contributing to international peacekeeping and peacemaking operations; it has a relatively small active duty force that is designed to be rapidly mobilized in a crisis; it is equipped with modern, mostly Swedish-made weapons, exercises regularly, and is backed up by a trained reserve and a large Home Guard; the military’s main focus is maintaining itself as a credible and visible deterrent through training and exercises, sustaining high levels of readiness, cooperating and collaborating with both domestic and foreign partners

Sweden maintained a policy of military non-alignment for over 200 years before applying for NATO membership in May 2022 following Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine; before then, Stockholm joined NATO’s Partnership for Peace program in 1994 and contributed to NATO-led missions, including those in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Kosovo; the military cooperates closely with the forces of other Nordic countries through the Nordic Defense Cooperation (NORDEFCO; established 2009), which consists of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden; areas of cooperation include armaments, education, human resources, training and exercises, and operations; Sweden is a signatory of the EU’s Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP) and contributes to CSDP missions and operations, including EU battlegroups;
it also participates in UN-led missions; Sweden has close bilateral security relations with some NATO member states, particularly Finland, the UK, and the US

the military is headed by the Supreme Commander, who leads and supervises the force through Armed Forces Headquarters, which is the highest level of command and control of the military; the Army’s principal active combat arms units are approximately 14 battalions of armor, artillery, reconnaissance, security, and infantry forces, which include airborne/rangers, light, mechanized, and motorized infantry; in a crisis, the battalions would be filled out by reservists and formed into battlegroups/task forces and brigades; they are backed up by 40 Home Guard battalions comprised of locally based rapid-response units with mostly part-time but experienced soldiers; the Navy is organized into flotillas and an amphibious/naval infantry battalion; its principal warships are seven corvettes and four attack submarines; other combat vessels include patrol boats, fast attack craft, and minesweepers; all of the Navy’s warships are produced by Sweden; the Swedish Air Force has about 70 Swedish-made multirole fighter aircraft organized into wings with an additional 60 on order; the military also has a joint service special operations group directly under the Supreme Commander (2023)


Space agency/agencies

Swedish National Space Agency (SNSA; established 1972; known until 2018 as the Swedish National Space Board) (2023)

Space launch site(s)

Esrange Space Center (Kiruna); Esrange is slated to become a new European launch site for small satellites in 2023; Esrange also accommodates one of the world’s largest civilian satellite ground stations and acts as a hub for Sweden’s satellite station network (2023)

Space program overview

member of the European Space Agency (ESA) and program is integrated within the framework of the ESA; produces and operates satellites; builds and launches sounding rockets; involved in the research, development, production, and operations of a wide variety of other space-related areas and capabilities, including astronomy, atmospheric monitoring, geographic information systems, infrared imaging, meteorology, propulsion systems, remote sensing, satellite subsystems, spacecraft systems and structures, space physics, scientific research, stratospheric balloons, and telecommunications; conducts extensive bilateral and multilateral international cooperation, in particular through the ESA and EU and their member states, as well as with the US; has a robust commercial space industry with more than 30 companies involved in a broad range of space-related capabilities (2023)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S


Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 113,213 (Syria), 26,857 (Afghanistan), 25,849 (Eritrea), 10,464 (Iraq), 9,315 (Somalia), 7,146 (Iran) (mid-year 2022); 41,055 (Ukraine) (as of 7 September 2023)

stateless persons: 46,515 (2022); note - the majority of stateless people are from the Middle East and Somalia