Photos of Austria

The sanctuary of the Maria am Gestade church in Vienna. Some of the stained glass in the windows dates back to medieval times.

Introduction

Background

Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. The Soviet Union's collapse in 1991 and Austria's entry into the EU in 1995 have altered the meaning of this neutrality. A prosperous, democratic country, Austria entered the EU Economic and Monetary Union in 1999.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates

47 20 N, 13 20 E

Area

total: 83,871 sq km

land: 82,445 sq km

water: 1,426 sq km

country comparison to the world: 114

Area - comparative

about the size of South Carolina; slightly more than two-thirds the size of Pennsylvania

<p>about the size of South Carolina; slightly more than two-thirds the size of Pennsylvania</p>

Land boundaries

total: 2,524 km

border countries (8): Czech Republic 402 km, Germany 801 km, Hungary 321 km, Italy 404 km, Liechtenstein 34 km, Slovakia 105 km, Slovenia 299 km, Switzerland 158 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers

Terrain

mostly mountains (Alps) in the west and south; mostly flat or gently sloping along the eastern and northern margins

Elevation

highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m

lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m

mean elevation: 910 m

Natural resources

oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 38.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 16.5% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 21.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 47.2% (2018 est.)

other: 14.4% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

1,170 sq km (2012)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Rhine-Maas (198,735 sq km), (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Population distribution

the northern and eastern portions of the country are more densely populated; nearly two-thirds of the populace lives in urban areas

Natural hazards

landslides; avalanches; earthquakes

Geography - note

note 1: landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere

note 2: the world's largest and longest ice cave system at 42 km (26 mi) is the Eisriesenwelt (Ice Giants World) inside the Hochkogel mountain near Werfen, about 40 km south of Salzburg; ice caves are bedrock caves that contain year-round ice formations; they differ from glacial caves, which are transient and are formed by melting ice and flowing water within and under glaciers

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Austrian(s)

adjective: Austrian

Ethnic groups

Austrian 80.8%, German 2.6%,  Bosnian and Herzegovinian 1.9%, Turkish 1.8%, Serbian 1.6%, Romanian 1.3%, other 10% (2018 est.)

note: data represent population by country of birth

Languages

German (official nationwide) 88.6%, Turkish 2.3%, Serbian 2.2%, Croatian (official in Burgenland) 1.6%, other (includes Slovene, official in southern Carinthia, and Hungarian, official in Burgenland) 5.3% (2001 est.)

major-language sample(s):
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German audio sample:

Religions

Catholic 57%, Eastern Orthodox 8.7%, Muslim 7.9%, Evangelical Christian 3.3%, other/none/unspecified 23.1% (2018 est.)

note:  data on Muslim is a 2016 estimate; data on other/none/unspecified are from 2012-2018 estimates

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.01% (male 635,803/female 605,065)

15-24 years: 10.36% (male 466,921/female 451,248)

25-54 years: 41.35% (male 1,831,704/female 1,831,669)

55-64 years: 14.41% (male 635,342/female 641,389)

65 years and over: 19.87% (male 768,687/female 991,621) (2020 est.)

This is the population pyramid for Austria. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends. <br/><br/>For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 50.6

youth dependency ratio: 21.7

elderly dependency ratio: 28.9

potential support ratio: 3.5 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 44.5 years

male: 43.1 years

female: 45.8 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 14

Birth rate

9.48 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 194

Death rate

9.85 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 36

Net migration rate

3.57 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 33

Population distribution

the northern and eastern portions of the country are more densely populated; nearly two-thirds of the populace lives in urban areas

Urbanization

urban population: 59% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.68% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

1.945 million VIENNA (capital) (2021)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.7 years (2019 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

5 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 163

Infant mortality rate

total: 3.29 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 3.7 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.86 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 205

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 82.07 years

male: 79.42 years

female: 84.85 years (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 25

Contraceptive prevalence rate

79% (2019)

note: percent of women aged 16-49

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

Physicians density

5.17 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density

7.4 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

<100 (2017 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years

male: 16 years

female: 16 years (2018)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 8.5%

male: 9.2%

female: 7.8% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 145

Environment

Environment - current issues

some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe; water pollution; the Danube, as well as some of Austria’s other rivers and lakes, are threatened by pollution

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Antarctic-Environmental Protection

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 12.43 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 61.45 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 6.34 megatons (2020 est.)

Climate

temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers

Land use

agricultural land: 38.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 16.5% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 21.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 47.2% (2018 est.)

other: 14.4% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 59% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.68% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 59

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 4.836 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 1,240,918 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 25.7% (2015 est.)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Rhine-Maas (198,735 sq km), (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 720 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 2.695 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 77.1 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

77.7 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Austria

conventional short form: Austria

local long form: Republik Oesterreich

local short form: Oesterreich

etymology: the name Oesterreich means "eastern realm" or "eastern march" and dates to the 10th century; the designation refers to the fact that Austria was the easternmost extension of Bavaria, and, in fact, of all the Germans; the word Austria is a Latinization of the German name

Government type

federal parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Vienna

geographic coordinates: 48 12 N, 16 22 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the origin of the name is disputed but may derive from earlier settlements of the area; a Celtic town of Vedunia, established about 500 B.C., came under Roman dominance around 15 B.C. and became known as Vindobona; archeological remains of the latter survive at many sites in the center of Vienna

Administrative divisions

9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten (Carinthia), Niederoesterreich (Lower Austria), Oberoesterreich (Upper Austria), Salzburg, Steiermark (Styria), Tirol (Tyrol), Vorarlberg, Wien (Vienna)

Independence

no official date of independence: 976 (Margravate of Austria established); 17 September 1156 (Duchy of Austria founded); 6 January 1453 (Archduchy of Austria acknowledged); 11 August 1804 (Austrian Empire proclaimed); 30 March 1867 (Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy established); 12 November 1918 (First Republic proclaimed); 27 April 1945 (Second Republic proclaimed)

National holiday

National Day (commemorates passage of the law on permanent neutrality), 26 October (1955)

Constitution

history: several previous; latest adopted 1 October 1920, revised 1929, replaced May 1934, replaced by German Weimar constitution in 1938 following German annexation, reinstated 1 May 1945

amendments: proposed through laws designated "constitutional laws" or through the constitutional process if the amendment is part of another law; approval required by at least a two-thirds majority vote by the National Assembly and the presence of one half of the members; a referendum is required only if requested by one third of the National Council or Federal Council membership; passage by referendum requires absolute majority vote; amended many times, last in 2020

Legal system

civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Austria

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage

16 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Alexander VAN DER BELLEN (since 26 January 2017)

head of government: Chancellor Alexander SCHALLENBERG (since 9 October 2021); note - Chancellor Sebastian KURZ (since 2 January 2020) resigned on 9 October 2021

cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held on 24 April 2016 (first round), 22 May 2016 (second round, which was annulled), and 4 December 2016 (second round re-vote) (next election to be held in April 2022); chancellor appointed by the president but determined by the majority coalition parties in the Federal Assembly; vice chancellor appointed by the president on the advice of the chancellor

election results: Alexander VAN DER BELLEN elected in second round; percent of vote in first round - Norbert HOFER (FPOe) 35.1%, Alexander VAN DER BELLEN (independent, allied with the Greens) 21.3%, Irmgard GRISS (independent) 18.9%, Rudolf HUNDSTORFER (SPOe) 11.3%, Andreas KHOL (OeVP) 11.1%, Richard LUGNER (independent) 2.3%; percent of vote in second round - Alexander VAN DER BELLEN 53.8%, Norbert HOFER 46.2%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of:
Federal Council or Bundesrat (61 seats; members appointed by state parliaments with each state receiving 3 to 12 seats in proportion to its population; members serve 5- or 6-year terms)
National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections:
Federal Council - last appointed - NA
National Council - last held on 29 September 2019 (next to be held in 2024); note - election was originally scheduled for 2022, but President VAN DER BELLEN called for an early election

election results:
Federal Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition (as of September 2021) - men 39, women 22, percent of women 36.1% 
National Council - percent of vote by party - OeVP 37.5%, SPOe 21.2%, FPOe 16.2%, The Greens 13.9%, NEOS 8.1%, other 3.1%; seats by party - OeVP 71, SPOe 40, FPOe 31, The Greens 26,  NEOS 15; composition (as of September 2021) - men 109, women 74, percent of women 40.4%; note - total Federal Assembly percent of women 39.3%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice or Oberster Gerichtshof (consists of 85 judges organized into 17 senates or panels of 5 judges each); Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof (consists of 20 judges including 6 substitutes; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof - 2 judges plus other members depending on the importance of the case)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by executive branch departments and appointed by the president; judges serve for life; Constitutional Court judges nominated by several executive branch departments and approved by the president; judges serve for life; Administrative Court judges recommended by executive branch departments and appointed by the president; terms of judges and members determined by the president

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (4); Regional Courts (20); district courts (120); county courts

Political parties and leaders

Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Sebastian KURZ]
Communist Party of Austria or KPOe [Mirko MESSNER]
Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Herbert KICKI]
The Greens [Werner KOGLER]
NEOS - The New Austria [Beate MEINL-REISINGER]
NOW-Pilz List (JETZT-Liste Pilz) or PILZ [Maria STERN]
Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Pamela RENDI-WAGNER]

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Martin WEISS (since 6 January 2020)

chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035

telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700

FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750

email address and website:
washington-ka@bmeia.gv.at

https://www.austria.org/

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York, Washington

consulate(s): Chicago

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant), Mario MESQUITA (since 12 July 2021)

embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, 1090, Vienna

mailing address: 9900 Vienna Place, Washington DC  20521-9900

telephone: [43] (1) 31339-0

FAX: [43] (1) 310-06-82

email address and website:
ConsulateVienna@state.gov

https://at.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red; the flag design is certainly one of the oldest - if not the oldest - national banners in the world; according to tradition, in 1191, following a fierce battle in the Third Crusade, Duke Leopold V of Austria's white tunic became completely blood-spattered; upon removal of his wide belt or sash, a white band was revealed; the red-white-red color combination was subsequently adopted as his banner

National symbol(s)

eagle, edelweiss, Alpine gentian; national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "Bundeshymne" (Federal Hymn)

lyrics/music: Paula von PRERADOVIC/Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART or Johann HOLZER (disputed)

note: adopted 1947; the anthem is also known as "Land der Berge, Land am Strome" (Land of the Mountains, Land by the River); Austria adopted a new national anthem after World War II to replace the former imperial anthem composed by Franz Josef HAYDN, which had been appropriated by Germany in 1922 and was thereafter associated with the Nazi regime; a gendered version of the lyrics was adopted by the Austrian Federal Assembly in fall 2011 and became effective 1 January 2012

Economy

Economic overview

Austria is a well-developed market economy with skilled labor force and high standard of living. It is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germany's, but also the US’, its third-largest trade partner. Its economy features a large service sector, a sound industrial sector, and a small, but highly developed agricultural sector.

Austrian economic growth strengthen in 2017, with a 2.9% increase in GDP. Austrian exports, accounting for around 60% of the GDP, were up 8.2% in 2017. Austria’s unemployment rate fell by 0.3% to 5.5%, which is low by European standards, but still at its second highest rate since the end of World War II, driven by an increased number of refugees and EU migrants entering the labor market.

Austria's fiscal position compares favorably with other euro-zone countries. The budget deficit stood at a low 0.7% of GDP in 2017 and public debt declined again to 78.4% of GDP in 2017, after reaching a post-war high 84.6% in 2015. The Austrian government has announced it plans to balance the fiscal budget in 2019. Several external risks, such as Austrian banks' exposure to Central and Eastern Europe, the refugee crisis, and continued unrest in Russia/Ukraine, eased in 2017, but are still a factor for the Austrian economy. Exposure to the Russian banking sector and a deep energy relationship with Russia present additional risks.

Austria elected a new pro-business government in October 2017 that campaigned on promises to reduce bureaucracy, improve public sector efficiency, reduce labor market protections, and provide positive investment incentives.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$463.12 billion note: data are in 2017 dollars (2020 est.)

$495.8 billion note: data are in 2017 dollars (2019 est.)

$488.86 billion note: data are in 2017 dollars (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 43

Real GDP growth rate

1.42% (2019 est.)

2.58% (2018 est.)

2.4% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 155

Real GDP per capita

$51,900 note: data are in 2017 dollars (2020 est.)

$55,800 note: data are in 2017 dollars (2019 est.)

$55,300 note: data are in 2017 dollars (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 25

GDP (official exchange rate)

$445.025 billion (2019 est.)

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: AA+ (2015)

Moody's rating: Aa1 (2016)

Standard & Poors rating: AA+ (2012)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 1.3% (2017 est.)

industry: 28.4% (2017 est.)

services: 70.3% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 52.1% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 19.5% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 23.5% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.6% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 54.2% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -50.7% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, maize, sugar beet, wheat, barley, potatoes, pork, triticale, grapes, apples

Industries

construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, metals, chemicals, lumber and paper, electronics, tourism

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 0.7%

industry: 25.2%

services: 74.1% (2017 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 23.5% (2012 est.)

Budget

revenues: 201.7 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 204.6 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

78.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

83.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: this is general government gross debt, defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year; it covers the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government and social security funds; as a percentage of GDP, the GDP used as a denominator is the gross domestic product in current year prices

country comparison to the world: 37

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

$12.667 billion (2019 est.)

$5.989 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 21

Exports

$226.79 billion note: data are in current year dollars (2020 est.)

$247.17 billion note: data are in current year dollars (2019 est.)

$253.3 billion note: data are in current year dollars (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 28

Exports - partners

Germany 28%, United States 7%, Italy 6%, Switzerland 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

cars, packaged medical supplies, vehicle parts, medical vaccines/cultures, flavored water (2019)

Imports

$211.85 billion note: data are in current year dollars (2020 est.)

$232.8 billion note: data are in current year dollars (2019 est.)

$238.79 billion note: data are in current year dollars (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 29

Imports - partners

Germany 39%, Italy 7%, Czechia 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars, vehicle parts, broadcasting equipment, refined petroleum, packaged medical supplies (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$21.57 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$23.36 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 57

Debt - external

$688.434 billion (2019 est.)

$686.196 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 19

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.82771 (2020 est.)

0.90338 (2019 est.)

0.87789 (2018 est.)

0.885 (2014 est.)

0.7634 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 3,722,128

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 42.17 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 37

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 10.726 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 121.53 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 83

Telecommunication systems

general assessment:

mature telecom market benefitting from effective competition; government and regulator are focused on improving telecom infrastructure; program to provide a national gigabit service by 2030 based on 5G networks; fixed-line broadband market is dominated by DSL sector, while cable broadband enjoys steady share of connections; fiber penetration remains low pending build out network infrastructure; EU-funded projects develop infrastructure to enable an 'Internet of Services; Vienna is a smart city; importer of broadcasting equipment from Vietnam and China

(2021)

domestic: developed and efficient; 41 per 100 fixed-line for households, 174 per 100 for companies; 120 per 100 mobile-cellular; broadband: 138 per 100 on smartphones; 62 per 100 fixed broadband, 54 per 100 mobile broadband (2019)

international: country code - 43; earth stations available in the Astra, Intelsat, Eutelsat satellite systems (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

Broadcast media

worldwide cable and satellite TV are available; the public incumbent ORF competes with three other major, several regional domestic, and up to 400 international TV stations; TV coverage is in principle 100%, but only 90% use broadcast media; Internet streaming not only complements, but increasingly replaces regular TV stations (2019)

Internet users

total: 7,712,665

percent of population: 87.71% (July 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 63

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 2.519 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 28.54 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 49

Communications - note

note 1: the Austrian National Library contains important collections of the Imperial Library of the Holy Roman Empire and of the Austrian Empire, as well as of the Austrian Republic; among its more than 12 million items are outstanding holdings of rare books, maps, globes, papyrus, and music; its Globe Museum is the only one in the world

note 2: on 1 October 1869, Austria-Hungary introduced the world's first postal card - postal stationery with an imprinted stamp indicating the prepayment of postage; simple and cheap (sent for a fraction of the cost of a regular letter), postal cards became an instant success, widely produced in the millions worldwide

note 3: Austria followed up with the creation of the world's first commercial picture postcards - cards bearing a picture or photo to which postage is affixed - in May 1871; sent from Vienna, the image served as a souvenir of the city; together, postal cards and post cards served as the world's e-mails of the late 19th and early 20th centuries

note 4: Austria was also an airmail pioneer; from March to October of 1918, it conducted the world's first regular (daily) airmail service - between the imperial cities of Vienna, Krakow, and Lemberg - a combined distance of some 650 km (400 mi) (earlier airmail services had been set up in a few parts of the world, but only for short stretches and none lasted beyond a few days or weeks); an expansion of the route in June of 1918 allowed private mail to be flown to Kyiv, in newly independent Ukraine, which made the route the world's first regular international airmail service (covering a distance of some 1,200 km; 750 mi)

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 11 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 130

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 12,935,505 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 373.51 million mt-km (2018)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 24

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 13 (2017)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 28

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 24 (2013)

Heliports

1 (2013)

Pipelines

1888 km gas, 594 km oil, 157 km refined products (2017)

Railways

total: 5,800 km (2017)

standard gauge: 5,300 km 1.435-m gauge (3,826 km electrified) (2016)

country comparison to the world: 33

Roadways

total: 137,039 km (2018)

paved: 137,039 km (includes 2,232 km of expressways) (2018)

country comparison to the world: 39

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna (Danube)

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Austrian Armed Forces: Land Forces, Air Forces, Cyber Forces, Special Forces (2021)

Military expenditures

0.8% of GDP (2021 est.)

0.7% of GDP (2020 est.)

0.7% of GDP (2019)

0.7% of GDP (2018)

0.8% of GDP (2017)

country comparison to the world: 139

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Austrian Armed Forces have approximately 23,000 total active duty personnel (13,000 Land Forces; 2,500 Air Force; 7,500 other, support forces) (2021)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Austrian military's inventory includes a mix of domestically-produced and imported weapons systems from European countries and the US; since 2010, Germany and Italy are the leading suppliers of armaments to Austria; the Austrian defense industry produces a range of equipment and partners with other countries (2020)

Military deployments

290 Bosnia-Herzegovina (EUFOR stabilization force); 340 Kosovo (NATO); 180 Lebanon (UNIFIL) (Sep 2021)

Military service age and obligation

registration requirement at age 17, the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; 18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service (6 months), or optionally, alternative civil/community service (9 months); males 18 to 50 years old in the militia or inactive reserve are subject to compulsory service; in a January 2012 referendum, a majority of Austrians voted in favor of retaining the system of compulsory military service (with the option of alternative/non-military service) instead of switching to a professional army system (2019)

Military - note

Austria is constitutionally non-aligned, but is an EU member and actively participates in EU peacekeeping and crisis management operations under the Common Security and Defense Policy; Austria is not a member of NATO, but joined NATO’s Partnership for Peace framework in 1995 and participates in NATO-led crisis-management and peacekeeping operations; as of 2021, more than 100,000 Austrian military and civilian personnel have taken part in more than 50 international peace support and humanitarian missions since 1960

Terrorism

Terrorist group(s)

Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 54,903 (Syria), 40,096 (Afghanistan), 9,152 (Iraq), 8,074 (Somalia), 7,513 (Russia), 6,878 (Iran) (2020)

stateless persons: 3,267 (2020)

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; increasing consumption of European-produced synthetic drugs