Photos of Austria



Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Nazi Germany annexed Austria in 1938, and the victorious Allies then occupied the country in 1945. As a result, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade after World War II, until a State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. Austria joined the EU in 1995, but the obligation to remain neutral kept it from joining NATO, although the country became a member of NATO's Partnership for Peace program in 1995. Austria entered the EU Economic and Monetary Union in 1999.

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Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates

47 20 N, 13 20 E


total: 83,871 sq km

land: 82,445 sq km

water: 1,426 sq km

comparison ranking: total 114

Area - comparative

about the size of South Carolina; slightly more than two-thirds the size of Pennsylvania

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 2,524 km

border countries (8): Czech Republic 402 km; Germany 801 km; Hungary 321 km; Italy 404 km; Liechtenstein 34 km; Slovakia 105 km; Slovenia 299 km; Switzerland 158 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)


temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers


mostly mountains (Alps) in the west and south; mostly flat or gently sloping along the eastern and northern margins


highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m

lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m

mean elevation: 910 m

Natural resources

oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 38.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 16.5% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 21.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 47.2% (2018 est.)

other: 14.4% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

382 sq km (2016)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Lake Constance (shared with Switzerland and Germany) - 540 sq km

Major rivers (by length in km)

Donau (Danube) (shared with Germany [s], Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Rhine-Maas (198,735 sq km), (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Population distribution

the northern and eastern portions of the country are more densely populated; nearly two-thirds of the populace lives in urban areas

Natural hazards

landslides; avalanches; earthquakes

Geography - note

note 1: landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere

note 2: the world's largest and longest ice cave system at 42 km (26 mi) is the Eisriesenwelt (Ice Giants World) inside the Hochkogel mountain near Werfen, about 40 km south of Salzburg; ice caves are bedrock caves that contain year-round ice formations; they differ from glacial caves, which are transient and are formed by melting ice and flowing water within and under glaciers

People and Society


8,940,860 (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 99


noun: Austrian(s)

adjective: Austrian

Ethnic groups

Austrian 80.8%, German 2.6%, Bosnian and Herzegovinian 1.9%, Turkish 1.8%, Serbian 1.6%, Romanian 1.3%, other 10% (2018 est.)

note: data represent population by country of birth


German (official nationwide) 88.6%, Turkish 2.3%, Serbian 2.2%, Croatian (official in Burgenland) 1.6%, other (includes Slovene, official in southern Carinthia, and Hungarian, official in Burgenland) 5.3% (2001 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Das World Factbook, die unverzichtbare Quelle für grundlegende Informationen. (German)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

German audio sample:


Roman Catholic 55.2%, Muslim 8.3%, Orthodox 4.9%, Evangelical Christian 3.8%, Jewish 0.1%, other 5.4%, none 22.4% (2021 est.)

note:  data on Muslim is a 2016 estimate; data on other/none/unspecified are from 2012-2018 estimates

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.08% (male 645,660/female 613,399)

15-64 years: 65.11% (male 2,914,056/female 2,907,233)

65 years and over: 20.81% (2023 est.) (male 820,022/female 1,040,490)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 51.1

youth dependency ratio: 21.7

elderly dependency ratio: 29.4

potential support ratio: 3.4 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 44.8 years (2023 est.)

male: 43.5 years

female: 46.2 years

comparison ranking: total 20

Population growth rate

0.31% (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 166

Birth rate

9.4 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 194

Death rate

9.9 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 38

Net migration rate

3.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 36

Population distribution

the northern and eastern portions of the country are more densely populated; nearly two-thirds of the populace lives in urban areas


urban population: 59.5% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.68% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

1.975 million VIENNA (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.7 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

5 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 168

Infant mortality rate

total: 3.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.8 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 200

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 82.5 years (2023 est.)

male: 79.9 years

female: 85.2 years

comparison ranking: total population 24

Total fertility rate

1.51 children born/woman (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 200

Gross reproduction rate

0.74 (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

79% (2019)

note: percent of women aged 16-49

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

11.5% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

5.29 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

7.3 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

20.1% (2016)

comparison ranking: 105

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 11.9 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 6.3 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 3.7 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 1.9 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 5

Tobacco use

total: 26.4% (2020 est.)

male: 27.7% (2020 est.)

female: 25% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 42

Education expenditures

5.1% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 72


total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years

male: 16 years

female: 16 years (2020)


Environment - current issues

some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe; water pollution; the Danube, as well as some of Austria’s other rivers and lakes, are threatened by pollution

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Antarctic-Environmental Protection


temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers

Land use

agricultural land: 38.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 16.5% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 21.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 47.2% (2018 est.)

other: 14.4% (2018 est.)


urban population: 59.5% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.68% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.07% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 123

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 100

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 11.51 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 61.45 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 6.34 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 4.836 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 1,240,918 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 25.7% (2015 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Lake Constance (shared with Switzerland and Germany) - 540 sq km

Major rivers (by length in km)

Donau (Danube) (shared with Germany [s], Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Rhine-Maas (198,735 sq km), (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 720 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 2.7 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 720 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

77.7 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)


total global geoparks and regional networks: 3

global geoparks and regional networks: Ore of the Alps; Styrian Eisenwurzen; Karawanken/Karavanke (includes Slovenia) (2023)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Austria

conventional short form: Austria

local long form: Republik Oesterreich

local short form: Oesterreich

etymology: the name Oesterreich means "eastern realm" and dates to the 10th century; the designation refers to the fact that Austria was the easternmost extension of Bavaria, and, in fact, of all the Germans; the word Austria is a Latinization of the German name

Government type

federal parliamentary republic


name: Vienna

geographic coordinates: 48 12 N, 16 22 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the origin of the name is disputed but may derive from early Celtic settlements of the area; a plausible reconstructed Celtic name from several centuries B.C. is Vedunia (meaning "forest stream"), which in Old High German became uuenia (wenia), and later wien (its current German form) in New High German; another possibility is that the name stems from the Roman settlement Vindobona, established around 15 B.C., and its Celtic-derived name (likely from the Celtic windo, meaning "white, fair, or bright" and bona meaning "base, fortification, or settlement" to give a connotation of "white settlement" or "white fort"); archeological remains of the latter survive at many sites in the center of Vienna

Administrative divisions

9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten (Carinthia), Niederoesterreich (Lower Austria), Oberoesterreich (Upper Austria), Salzburg, Steiermark (Styria), Tirol (Tyrol), Vorarlberg, Wien (Vienna)


no official date of independence: 976 (Margravate of Austria established); 17 September 1156 (Duchy of Austria founded); 6 January 1453 (Archduchy of Austria acknowledged); 11 August 1804 (Austrian Empire proclaimed); 30 March 1867 (Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy established); 12 November 1918 (First Republic proclaimed); 27 April 1945 (Second Republic proclaimed)

National holiday

National Day (commemorates passage of the law on permanent neutrality), 26 October (1955)


history: several previous; latest adopted 1 October 1920, revised 1929, replaced May 1934, replaced by German Weimar constitution in 1938 following German annexation, reinstated 1 May 1945

amendments: proposed through laws designated "constitutional laws" or through the constitutional process if the amendment is part of another law; approval required by at least a two-thirds majority vote by the National Assembly and the presence of one-half of the members; a referendum is required only if requested by one-third of the National Council or Federal Council membership; passage by referendum requires absolute majority vote; amended many times, last in 2020

Legal system

civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Austria

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years


16 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Alexander VAN DER BELLEN (since 26 January 2017)

head of government: Chancellor Karl NEHAMMER (since 6 December 2021)

cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the chancellor and appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 9 October 2022 (next to be held in 2028); chancellor appointed by the president but determined by the majority coalition parties in the Federal Assembly; vice chancellor appointed by the president on the advice of the chancellor

election results:
2022: Alexander VAN DER BELLEN reelected in first round; percent of vote - Alexander VAN DER BELLEN (the Greens) 56.7%, Walter ROSENKRANZ (FPO) 17.7%, Dominik WLAZNY (Beer) 8.3%, Tassilo WALLENTIN (independent) 8.1%, Gerald GROSZ (independent) 5.6%

Alexander VAN DER BELLEN elected in second round; percent of vote in first round - Norbert HOFER (FPOe) 35.1%, Alexander VAN DER BELLEN (independent, allied with the Greens) 21.3%, Irmgard GRISS (independent) 18.9%, Rudolf HUNDSTORFER (SPOe) 11.3%, Andreas KHOL (OeVP) 11.1%, Richard LUGNER (independent) 2.3%; percent of vote in second round - Alexander VAN DER BELLEN 53.8%, Norbert HOFER 46.2%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of:
Federal Council or Bundesrat (61 seats - currently 60; members appointed by state parliaments with each state receiving 3 to 12 seats in proportion to its population; members serve 5- or 6-year terms)
National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

Federal Council - last appointed in 2021
National Council - last held on 29 September 2019 (next to be held by 23 October 2024)

election results:
Federal Council - percent of vote by party - OeVP 42.6%, SPOe 31.2%. FPOe 16.4%, The Greens 8.2%, NEOS 1.6%; seats by party - OeVP 26, SPOe 19, FPOe 10, The Greens 5, NEOS 1; composition as of February 2024 - men 32, women 28, percent of women 46.7%

National Council - percent of vote by party - OeVP 37.5%, SPOe 21.2%, FPOe 16.2%, The Greens 13.9%, NEOS 8.1%, other 3.1%; seats by party - OeVP 71, SPOe 40, FPOe 31, The Greens 26, NEOS 15; composition as of February 2024 - men 109, women 74, percent of women 41%; note - total Federal Assembly percentage of women 42%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Oberster Gerichtshof (consists of 85 judges organized into 17 senates or panels of 5 judges each); Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof (consists of 20 judges including 6 substitutes; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof - 2 judges plus other members depending on the importance of the case)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by executive branch departments and appointed by the president; judges serve for life; Constitutional Court judges nominated by several executive branch departments and approved by the president; judges serve for life; Administrative Court judges recommended by executive branch departments and appointed by the president; terms of judges and members determined by the president

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (4); Regional Courts (20); district courts (120); county courts

Political parties and leaders

Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Karl NEHAMMER]
Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Herbert KICKL]
The Greens - The Green Alternative [Werner KOGLER]
NEOS - The New Austria and Liberal Forum [Beate MEINL-REISINGER]
Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Andreas BABLER]

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Petra SCHNEEBAUER (since 19 APRIL 2023)

chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035

telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700

FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York, Washington

consulate(s): Chicago

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Victoria Reggie KENNEDY (since 12 January 2022)

embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, 1090, Vienna

mailing address: 9900 Vienna Place, Washington DC  20521-9900

telephone: [43] (1) 31339 0

FAX: [43] (1) 31339 2017

email address and website:

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red; the flag design is certainly one of the oldest - if not the oldest - national banners in the world; according to tradition, in 1191, following a fierce battle in the Third Crusade, Duke Leopold V of Austria's white tunic became completely blood-spattered; upon removal of his wide belt or sash, a white band was revealed; the red-white-red color combination was subsequently adopted as his banner

National symbol(s)

eagle, edelweiss, Alpine gentian; national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "Bundeshymne" (Federal Hymn)

lyrics/music: Paula von PRERADOVIC/Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART or Johann HOLZER (disputed)

note 1: adopted 1947; the anthem is also known as "Land der Berge, Land am Strome" (Land of the Mountains, Land by the River); Austria adopted a new national anthem after World War II to replace the former imperial anthem composed by Franz Josef HAYDN, which had been appropriated by Germany in 1922 and was thereafter associated with the Nazi regime; a gender-neutral version of the lyrics was adopted by the Austrian Federal Assembly in fall 2011 and became effective 1 January 2012

note 2: the beloved waltz "The Blue Danube" ("An der schoenen, blauen Donau"), composed in 1866 by the Austrian composer Johann STRAUSS II, is consistently referred to as Austria's unofficial national anthem 

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 12 (11 cultural, 1 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Historic Salzburg (c); Palace and Gardens of Schönbrunn (c); Halstadt–Dachstein/Salzkammergut Cultural Landscape (c); Semmering railway (c); Historic Graz and Schloss Eggenberg (c); Wachau Cultural Landscape (c); Historic Vienna (c); Fertő/Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape (c); Baden bei Wien (c); Primeval Beech Forests - Dürrenstein, Kalkalpen (n)


Economic overview

one of the strongest EU and euro economies; diversified trade portfolios and relations; enormous trade economy; Russian energy dependence, but investing in alternative energy; aging labor force but large refugee population; large government debt

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$505.143 billion (2022 est.)
$481.977 billion (2021 est.)
$462.382 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 43

Real GDP growth rate

4.81% (2022 est.)
4.24% (2021 est.)
-6.63% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 84

Real GDP per capita

$55,900 (2022 est.)
$53,800 (2021 est.)
$51,900 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 22

GDP (official exchange rate)

$470.942 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

8.55% (2022 est.)
2.77% (2021 est.)
1.38% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 142

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: AA+ (2015)

Moody's rating: Aa1 (2016)

Standard & Poors rating: AA+ (2012)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 1.3% (2017 est.)

industry: 28.4% (2017 est.)

services: 70.3% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 66; industry 90; agriculture 191

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 52.1% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 19.5% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 23.5% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.6% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 54.2% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -50.7% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, maize, sugar beet, wheat, barley, potatoes, pork, triticale, grapes, apples


construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, metals, chemicals, lumber and paper, electronics, tourism

Industrial production growth rate

3.03% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 117

Labor force

4.762 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 90

Unemployment rate

4.99% (2022 est.)
6.46% (2021 est.)
5.2% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 101

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 11.4% (2021 est.)

male: 11.5%

female: 11.3%

comparison ranking: total 141

Population below poverty line

14.8% (2021 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

29.8 (2020 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

comparison ranking: 144

Average household expenditures

on food: 9.8% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 3.2% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 23.1% (2020 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population


0.62% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.67% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.7% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities


revenues: $218.48 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $215.485 billion (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-0.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 68

Public debt

94.53% of GDP (2021 est.)
99.91% of GDP (2020 est.)
83.1% of GDP (2019 est.)

note: central government debt as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 25

Taxes and other revenues

25.84% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 44

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$1.29 billion (2022 est.)
$7.77 billion (2021 est.)
$14.913 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 132


$292.012 billion (2022 est.)
$267.791 billion (2021 est.)
$224.242 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 33

Exports - partners

Germany 28%, United States 7%, Italy 6%, Switzerland 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

vaccines and cultures, cars, packaged medicines, vehicle parts, broadcasting equipment (2021)


$290.277 billion (2022 est.)
$264.231 billion (2021 est.)
$209.817 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 28

Imports - partners

Germany 39%, Italy 7%, Czechia 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars, vehicle parts, broadcasting equipment, refined petroleum, packaged medical supplies (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$33.078 billion (2022 est.)
$33.957 billion (2021 est.)
$30.44 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 60

Debt - external

$688.434 billion (2019 est.)
$686.196 billion (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 19

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
0.95 (2022 est.)
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)


installed generating capacity: 28.376 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 69,905,200,000 kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 22,918,265,000 kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 24.522 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 3.192 billion kWh (2020 est.)

comparison rankings: transmission/distribution losses 150; imports 7; exports 10; consumption 41; installed generating capacity 36

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 17.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 2.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 9.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 62.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 7.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)


production: 1.327 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 4.899 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 1,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 3.667 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 20,100 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 278,700 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 168,300 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 35.2 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

186,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 54

Refined petroleum products - exports

49,960 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 55

Refined petroleum products - imports

135,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 42

Natural gas

production: 924.5 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 9.208 billion cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 2.8 billion cubic meters (2019 est.)

imports: 14.11 billion cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 5.04 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

65.54 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 10.508 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 37.336 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 17.695 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 52

Energy consumption per capita

171.299 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 28


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 3,544,263 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 43 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 36

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 10,882,217 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 122 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 89

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: mature telecom market; the mobile market benefits from a growing number of Mobile Virtual Network Operators; the telcos as well as the government and regulator have been focused on delivering improved telecom infrastructure; the government has a program to provide a national gigabit service by 2030, delivered by private enterprise though with some state funding; this is based on fiber networks supported by 5G, with the Mobile Network Operators able to expand the reach of their 5G services following auctions held in March 2019 and September 2020; the fixed-line broadband market is still dominated by the DSL sector, while the cable broadband sector has held a steady share of connections in recent years; the fiber sector was slow to develop, and although fiber remains low there are plans to build out the network infrastructure (2021)

domestic: developed and efficient; 43 per 100 fixed telephone subscriptions; 122 per 100 mobile-cellular subscriptions (2021)

international: country code - 43; earth stations available in the Astra, Intelsat, Eutelsat satellite systems (2019)

Broadcast media

worldwide cable and satellite TV are available; the public incumbent ORF competes with three other major, several regional domestic, and up to 400 international TV stations; TV coverage is in principle 100%, but only 90% use broadcast media; Internet streaming not only complements, but increasingly replaces regular TV stations (2019)

Internet users

total: 8.277 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 93% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 72

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 2.606 million (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 29 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 49

Communications - note

note 1: the Austrian National Library contains important collections of the Imperial Library of the Holy Roman Empire and of the Austrian Empire, as well as of the Austrian Republic; among its more than 12 million items are outstanding holdings of rare books, maps, globes, papyrus, and music; its Globe Museum is the only one in the world

note 2: on 1 October 1869, Austria-Hungary introduced the world's first postal card - postal stationery with an imprinted stamp indicating the prepayment of postage; simple and cheap (sent for a fraction of the cost of a regular letter), postal cards became an instant success, widely produced in the millions worldwide

note 3: Austria followed up with the creation of the world's first commercial picture postcards - cards bearing a picture or photo to which postage is affixed - in May 1871; sent from Vienna, the image served as a souvenir of the city; together, postal cards and post cards served as the world's e-mails of the late 19th and early 20th centuries

note 4: Austria was also an airmail pioneer; from March to October of 1918, it conducted the world's first regular (daily) airmail service - between the imperial cities of Vienna, Krakow, and Lemberg - a combined distance of some 650 km (400 mi) (earlier airmail services had been set up in a few parts of the world but only for short stretches, and none lasted beyond a few days or weeks); an expansion of the route in June of 1918 allowed private mail to be flown to Kyiv, in newly independent Ukraine, which made the route the world's first regular international airmail service (covering a distance of some 1,200 km; 750 mi)


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 11 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 130

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 12,935,505 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 373.51 million (2018) mt-km


61 (2024)

comparison ranking: 77


105 (2024)


1,888 km gas, 594 km oil, 157 km refined products (2017)


total: 6,123 km (2022) 3,523 km electrified

comparison ranking: total 32


total: 126,233 km (2022)

comparison ranking: total 41


358 km (2011)

comparison ranking: 99

Merchant marine

total: 1 (2023)

by type: other 1

comparison ranking: total 181

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna (Danube)

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Austrian Armed Forces (Bundesheer): Land Forces, Air Forces, Cyber Forces, Special Forces, Militia (reserves) (2024)

note: the federal police maintain internal security and report to the Ministry of the Interior

Military expenditures

1% of GDP (2024 est.)
0.9% of GDP (2023 est.)
0.7% of GDP (2022)
0.8% of GDP (2021)
0.7% of GDP (2020)

comparison ranking: 129

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 20-25,000 active-duty personnel (includes conscripts and active militia) (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory includes a mix of domestically produced and imported weapons systems from European countries and the US; the Austrian defense industry produces a range of equipment and partners with other countries (2024)

Military service age and obligation

registration requirement at age 17, the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; men above the age of 18 are subject to compulsory military service; women may volunteer; compulsory service is for 6 months, or optionally, alternative civil/community service (Zivildienst) for 9 months (2024)

note 1: as of 2023, women made up about 4% of the military's full-time personnel

note 2: in a January 2013 referendum, a majority of Austrians voted in favor of retaining the system of compulsory military service (with the option of alternative/non-military service) instead of switching to a professional army system

Military deployments

170 Bosnia-Herzegovina (EUFOR stabilization force); 290 Kosovo (NATO/KFOR); 170 Lebanon (UNIFIL) (2024)

Military - note

the military’s primary responsibilities are national defense and protecting Austria’s neutrality; it also has some domestic security and disaster response responsibilities and contributes to international peacekeeping and humanitarian missions; Austria has been constitutionally militarily non-aligned since 1955 but is an EU member and actively participates in EU peacekeeping and crisis management operations under the EU Common Security and Defense Policy; Austria is not a member of NATO but joined NATO’s Partnership for Peace framework in 1995 and participates in some NATO-led crisis management and peacekeeping operations; it has provided troops to international peacekeeping missions in Bosnia and Herzegovina (EU), Kosovo (NATO), and Lebanon (UN) in recent years; more than 100,000 Austrian military and civilian personnel have taken part in more than 50 international peace support and humanitarian missions since 1960

the Land Forces comprise the bulk of the military, and they are organizationally divided between territorial and operational forces; each of the nine federal states has a military command that provides a link between the military and civil authorities; the main tasks of these commands include providing military assistance during disasters and supporting security police operations; these military commands have an infantry battalion, a militia battalion (Vienna has two), and typically a militia engineer/pioneer company at their disposal; the operational Land Forces are four combat brigades: a rapid reaction/”fast forces” (schnelle kräftewith) brigade with mechanized and motorized forces, an armored/mechanized infantry (panzer grenadier) brigade, a mountain infantry brigade (gebirgsbrigade), and a light infantry brigade (jägerbrigade) that includes airborne and air assault troops; the military also has separate special operations and cyber defense forces; the Air Forces have a small number of European-made multipurpose fighter aircraft

the militia is comprised of men and women who have done their basic military or training service and continue to perform a task in the armed forces; they are integrated into the military but have civilian jobs and only participate in exercises or operations; missions for the militia may include providing disaster relief, assisting security police, and protecting critical infrastructure (energy, water, etc.), as well as deployments on missions abroad (2023)


Space agency/agencies

Aeronautics and Space Agency (established in 1972 as the Austrian Space Agency) (2023)

Space program overview

has a national space program and is a member of the European Space Agency (ESA); develops, builds, operates, and tracks satellites, including remote sensing (RS) and research/scientific satellites; works closely with member states of ESA, the EU, and the commercial sector to develop a range of space capabilities and technologies, including applications for satellite payloads, space flight, and space research; has also cooperated with other foreign space agencies and industries, including those of China, India, Russia, and the US (2023)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S


Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 68,700 (Syria), 43,725 (Afghanistan), 10,110 (Iraq), 8,684 (Somalia), 7,294 (Iran), 6,124 (Russia) (mid-year 2022); 84,135 (Ukraine) (as of 11 March 2024)

stateless persons: 3,219 (2022)

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; increasing consumption of European-produced synthetic drugs