A peacock in the Tiergarten Schoenbrunn (Zoo). Founded originally as an imperial menagerie in 1752 on the grounds of Schoenbrunn Palace, the Tiergarten was opened to the public in 1778 and is today the oldest zoo in the world. In 1996, the zoo became a UNESCO World Heritage site as part of the Schoenbrunn Palace ensemble; it is consistently rated as the best zoo in Europe.
Country Flag
Country Map
Special Country Products
Locator Map

Introduction

Background

Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. The Soviet Union's collapse in 1991 and Austria's entry into the EU in 1995 have altered the meaning of this neutrality. A prosperous, democratic country, Austria entered the EU Economic and Monetary Union in 1999.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates

47 20 N, 13 20 E

Area

total: 83,871 sq km

land: 82,445 sq km

water: 1,426 sq km

country comparison to the world: 114

Area - comparative

about the size of South Carolina; slightly more than two-thirds the size of Pennsylvania

Area comparison map
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 2,524 km

border countries (8): Czech Republic 402 km; Germany 801 km; Hungary 321 km; Italy 404 km; Liechtenstein 34 km; Slovakia 105 km; Slovenia 299 km; Switzerland 158 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers

Terrain

mostly mountains (Alps) in the west and south; mostly flat or gently sloping along the eastern and northern margins

Elevation

highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m

lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m

mean elevation: 910 m

Natural resources

oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 38.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 16.5% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 21.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 47.2% (2018 est.)

other: 14.4% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

1,170 sq km (2012)

Major lakes (area sq km)

Fresh water lake(s): Lake Constance (shared with Switzerland and Germany) - 540 sq km

Major rivers (by length in km)

Danube (shared with Germany [s], Slovakia, Czechia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Rhine-Maas (198,735 sq km), (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Population distribution

the northern and eastern portions of the country are more densely populated; nearly two-thirds of the populace lives in urban areas

Natural hazards

landslides; avalanches; earthquakes

Geography - note

note 1: landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere

note 2: the world's largest and longest ice cave system at 42 km (26 mi) is the Eisriesenwelt (Ice Giants World) inside the Hochkogel mountain near Werfen, about 40 km south of Salzburg; ice caves are bedrock caves that contain year-round ice formations; they differ from glacial caves, which are transient and are formed by melting ice and flowing water within and under glaciers

Map description

Austria map showing major cities as well as parts of surrounding countries.

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Austrian(s)

adjective: Austrian

Ethnic groups

Austrian 80.8%, German 2.6%, Bosnian and Herzegovinian 1.9%, Turkish 1.8%, Serbian 1.6%, Romanian 1.3%, other 10% (2018 est.)

note: data represent population by country of birth

Languages

German (official nationwide) 88.6%, Turkish 2.3%, Serbian 2.2%, Croatian (official in Burgenland) 1.6%, other (includes Slovene, official in southern Carinthia, and Hungarian, official in Burgenland) 5.3% (2001 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Das World Factbook, die unverzichtbare Quelle für grundlegende Informationen. (German)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

German audio sample:

Religions

Catholic 57%, Eastern Orthodox 8.7%, Muslim 7.9%, Evangelical Christian 3.3%, other/none/unspecified 23.1% (2018 est.)

note:  data on Muslim is a 2016 estimate; data on other/none/unspecified are from 2012-2018 estimates

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.01% (male 635,803/female 605,065)

15-24 years: 10.36% (male 466,921/female 451,248)

25-54 years: 41.35% (male 1,831,704/female 1,831,669)

55-64 years: 14.41% (male 635,342/female 641,389)

65 years and over: 19.87% (2020 est.) (male 768,687/female 991,621)

2022 population pyramid
2022 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 50.6

youth dependency ratio: 21.7

elderly dependency ratio: 28.9

potential support ratio: 3.5 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 44.5 years

male: 43.1 years

female: 45.8 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 14

Birth rate

9.45 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 193

Death rate

9.85 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 38

Net migration rate

3.55 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 35

Population distribution

the northern and eastern portions of the country are more densely populated; nearly two-thirds of the populace lives in urban areas

Urbanization

urban population: 59.3% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 0.68% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

1.960 million VIENNA (capital) (2022)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.7 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

5 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 163

Infant mortality rate

total: 3.24 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 3.65 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.81 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 205

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 82.27 years

male: 79.64 years

female: 85.04 years (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 25

Contraceptive prevalence rate

79% (2019)

note: percent of women aged 16-49

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Physicians density

5.29 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

7.3 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

(2017 est.) <100

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 11.9 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 6.3 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 3.7 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 1.9 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 5

Tobacco use

total: 26.4% (2020 est.)

male: 27.7% (2020 est.)

female: 25% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 42

Literacy

total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years

male: 16 years

female: 16 years (2019)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 10.5%

male: 11.3%

female: 9.5% (2020 est.)

Environment

Environment - current issues

some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe; water pollution; the Danube, as well as some of Austria’s other rivers and lakes, are threatened by pollution

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Antarctic-Environmental Protection

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 12.43 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 61.45 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 6.34 megatons (2020 est.)

Climate

temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers

Land use

agricultural land: 38.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 16.5% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 21.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 47.2% (2018 est.)

other: 14.4% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 59.3% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 0.68% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 59

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 4.836 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 1,240,918 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 25.7% (2015 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

Fresh water lake(s): Lake Constance (shared with Switzerland and Germany) - 540 sq km

Major rivers (by length in km)

Danube (shared with Germany [s], Slovakia, Czechia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Rhine-Maas (198,735 sq km), (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 720 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 2.695 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 77.1 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

77.7 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Austria

conventional short form: Austria

local long form: Republik Oesterreich

local short form: Oesterreich

etymology: the name Oesterreich means "eastern realm" or "eastern march" and dates to the 10th century; the designation refers to the fact that Austria was the easternmost extension of Bavaria, and, in fact, of all the Germans; the word Austria is a Latinization of the German name

Government type

federal parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Vienna

geographic coordinates: 48 12 N, 16 22 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the origin of the name is disputed but may derive from early Celtic settlements of the area; a possible reconstructed Celtic name from several centuries B.C. is *Vedunia (meaning "forest stream"); under Roman settlement, beginning around 15 B.C., the name became Vindobona (likely from the Celtic "windo," meaning "white, fair, or bright" and "bona" meaning "base, fortification, or settlement" to give a connotation of "white settlement" or "white fort"); archeological remains of the latter survive at many sites in the center of Vienna

Administrative divisions

9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten (Carinthia), Niederoesterreich (Lower Austria), Oberoesterreich (Upper Austria), Salzburg, Steiermark (Styria), Tirol (Tyrol), Vorarlberg, Wien (Vienna)

Independence

no official date of independence: 976 (Margravate of Austria established); 17 September 1156 (Duchy of Austria founded); 6 January 1453 (Archduchy of Austria acknowledged); 11 August 1804 (Austrian Empire proclaimed); 30 March 1867 (Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy established); 12 November 1918 (First Republic proclaimed); 27 April 1945 (Second Republic proclaimed)

National holiday

National Day (commemorates passage of the law on permanent neutrality), 26 October (1955)

Constitution

history: several previous; latest adopted 1 October 1920, revised 1929, replaced May 1934, replaced by German Weimar constitution in 1938 following German annexation, reinstated 1 May 1945

amendments: proposed through laws designated "constitutional laws" or through the constitutional process if the amendment is part of another law; approval required by at least a two-thirds majority vote by the National Assembly and the presence of one half of the members; a referendum is required only if requested by one third of the National Council or Federal Council membership; passage by referendum requires absolute majority vote; amended many times, last in 2020

Legal system

civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Austria

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage

16 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Alexander VAN DER BELLEN (since 26 January 2017)

head of government: Chancellor Karl NEHAMMER (since 6 December 2021); note - Chancellor Alexander SCHALLENBERG (since 9 October 2021) resigned on 2 December 2021

cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held on 24 April 2016 (first round), 22 May 2016 (second round, which was annulled), and 4 December 2016 (second round re-vote) (next election to be held in October 2022); chancellor appointed by the president but determined by the majority coalition parties in the Federal Assembly; vice chancellor appointed by the president on the advice of the chancellor

election results: 2016: Alexander VAN DER BELLEN elected in second round; percent of vote in first round - Norbert HOFER (FPOe) 35.1%, Alexander VAN DER BELLEN (independent, allied with the Greens) 21.3%, Irmgard GRISS (independent) 18.9%, Rudolf HUNDSTORFER (SPOe) 11.3%, Andreas KHOL (OeVP) 11.1%, Richard LUGNER (independent) 2.3%; percent of vote in second round re-vote - Alexander VAN DER BELLEN 53.8%, Norbert HOFER 46.2%

2010:  Heinz Fischer re-elected; percent of vote - Heinz Fischer 79.3%, Barbara Rosenkranz 15.2%, Rudolf Gehring 5.4%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of:
Federal Council or Bundesrat (61 seats; members appointed by state parliaments with each state receiving 3 to 12 seats in proportion to its population; members serve 5- or 6-year terms)
National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections:
Federal Council - last appointed in 2021
National Council - last held on 29 September 2019 (next to be held in 2024); note - election was originally scheduled for 2022, but President VAN DER BELLEN called for an early election

election results:
Federal Council - percent of vote by party - OeVP 42.6%, SPOe 31.2%. FPOe 16.4%, The Greens 8.2%, NEOS 1.6%; seats by party - OeVP 26, SPOe 19, FPOe 10, The Greens 5, NEOS 1; composition (as of March 2022) - men 36, women 25, percent of women 41% 
National Council - percent of vote by party - OeVP 37.5%, SPOe 21.2%, FPOe 16.2%, The Greens 13.9%, NEOS 8.1%, other 3.1%; seats by party - OeVP 71, SPOe 40, FPOe 31, The Greens 26,  NEOS 15; composition (as of March 2022) - men 107, women 76, percent of women 41.5%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice or Oberster Gerichtshof (consists of 85 judges organized into 17 senates or panels of 5 judges each); Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof (consists of 20 judges including 6 substitutes; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof - 2 judges plus other members depending on the importance of the case)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by executive branch departments and appointed by the president; judges serve for life; Constitutional Court judges nominated by several executive branch departments and approved by the president; judges serve for life; Administrative Court judges recommended by executive branch departments and appointed by the president; terms of judges and members determined by the president

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (4); Regional Courts (20); district courts (120); county courts

Political parties and leaders

Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Karl NEHAMMER]
Communist Party of Austria or KPOe [Mirko MESSNER]
Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Herbert KICKI]
The Greens - The Green Alternative [Werner KOGLER]
NEOS - The New Austria and Liberal Forum [Beate MEINL-REISINGER]
Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Pamela RENDI-WAGNER]

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Martin WEISS (since 6 January 2020)

chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035

telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700

FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750

email address and website:
washington-ka@bmeia.gv.at

https://www.austria.org/

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York, Washington

consulate(s): Chicago

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Victoria Reggie KENNEDY (since 12 January 2022)

embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, 1090, Vienna

mailing address: 9900 Vienna Place, Washington DC  20521-9900

telephone: [43] (1) 31339-0

FAX: [43] (1) 310-06-82

email address and website:
ConsulateVienna@state.gov

https://at.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red; the flag design is certainly one of the oldest - if not the oldest - national banners in the world; according to tradition, in 1191, following a fierce battle in the Third Crusade, Duke Leopold V of Austria's white tunic became completely blood-spattered; upon removal of his wide belt or sash, a white band was revealed; the red-white-red color combination was subsequently adopted as his banner

National symbol(s)

eagle, edelweiss, Alpine gentian; national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "Bundeshymne" (Federal Hymn)

lyrics/music: Paula von PRERADOVIC/Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART or Johann HOLZER (disputed)

note 1: adopted 1947; the anthem is also known as "Land der Berge, Land am Strome" (Land of the Mountains, Land by the River); Austria adopted a new national anthem after World War II to replace the former imperial anthem composed by Franz Josef HAYDN, which had been appropriated by Germany in 1922 and was thereafter associated with the Nazi regime; a gendered version of the lyrics was adopted by the Austrian Federal Assembly in fall 2011 and became effective 1 January 2012

note 2: the beloved waltz "The Blue Danube" ("An der schoenen, blauen Donau"), composed in 1866 by the Austrian composer Johann STRAUSS II, is consistently referred to as Austria's unofficial national anthem 

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 12 (11 cultural, 1 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Historic Salzburg (c); Palace and Gardens of Schönbrunn (c); Halstadt–Dachstein/Salzkammergut Cultural Landscape (c); Semmering railway (c); Historic Graz and Schloss Eggenberg (c); Wachau Cultural Landscape (c); Historic Vienna (c); Fertő/Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape (c); Baden bei Wien (c); Primeval Beech Forests - Dürrenstein, Kalkalpen (n)

Economy

Economic overview

Austria is a well-developed market economy with skilled labor force and high standard of living. It is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germany's, but also the US’, its third-largest trade partner. Its economy features a large service sector, a sound industrial sector, and a small, but highly developed agricultural sector.

 

Austrian economic growth strengthen in 2017, with a 2.9% increase in GDP. Austrian exports, accounting for around 60% of the GDP, were up 8.2% in 2017. Austria’s unemployment rate fell by 0.3% to 5.5%, which is low by European standards, but still at its second highest rate since the end of World War II, driven by an increased number of refugees and EU migrants entering the labor market.

 

Austria's fiscal position compares favorably with other euro-zone countries. The budget deficit stood at a low 0.7% of GDP in 2017 and public debt declined again to 78.4% of GDP in 2017, after reaching a post-war high 84.6% in 2015. The Austrian government has announced it plans to balance the fiscal budget in 2019. Several external risks, such as Austrian banks' exposure to Central and Eastern Europe, the refugee crisis, and continued unrest in Russia/Ukraine, eased in 2017, but are still a factor for the Austrian economy. Exposure to the Russian banking sector and a deep energy relationship with Russia present additional risks.

 

Austria elected a new pro-business government in October 2017 that campaigned on promises to reduce bureaucracy, improve public sector efficiency, reduce labor market protections, and provide positive investment incentives.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$463.12 billion (2020 est.)

$495.8 billion (2019 est.)

$488.86 billion (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 43

Real GDP growth rate

1.42% (2019 est.)

2.58% (2018 est.)

2.4% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 155

Real GDP per capita

$51,900 (2020 est.)

$55,800 (2019 est.)

$55,300 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 25

GDP (official exchange rate)

$445.025 billion (2019 est.)

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: AA+ (2015)

Moody's rating: Aa1 (2016)

Standard & Poors rating: AA+ (2012)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 1.3% (2017 est.)

industry: 28.4% (2017 est.)

services: 70.3% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 52.1% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 19.5% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 23.5% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.6% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 54.2% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -50.7% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, maize, sugar beet, wheat, barley, potatoes, pork, triticale, grapes, apples

Industries

construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, metals, chemicals, lumber and paper, electronics, tourism

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 0.7%

industry: 25.2%

services: 74.1% (2017 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 10.5%

male: 11.3%

female: 9.5% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 136

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 23.5% (2012 est.)

Budget

revenues: 201.7 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 204.6 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

78.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

83.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: this is general government gross debt, defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year; it covers the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government and social security funds; as a percentage of GDP, the GDP used as a denominator is the gross domestic product in current year prices

country comparison to the world: 37

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

$12.667 billion (2019 est.)

$5.989 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 21

Exports

$226.79 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$247.17 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$253.3 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 28

Exports - partners

Germany 28%, United States 7%, Italy 6%, Switzerland 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

cars, packaged medical supplies, vehicle parts, medical vaccines/cultures, flavored water (2019)

Imports

$211.85 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$232.8 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$238.79 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 29

Imports - partners

Germany 39%, Italy 7%, Czechia 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars, vehicle parts, broadcasting equipment, refined petroleum, packaged medical supplies (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$21.57 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$23.36 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 57

Debt - external

$688.434 billion (2019 est.)

$686.196 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 19

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.82771 (2020 est.)

0.90338 (2019 est.)

0.87789 (2018 est.)

0.885 (2014 est.)

0.7634 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 28.376 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 69,905,200,000 kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 22,918,265,000 kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 24.522 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 3.192 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 17.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 2.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 9.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 62.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 7.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 1.327 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 4.899 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 1,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 3.667 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 20,100 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 278,700 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 barrels/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 168,300 barrels/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 35.2 million barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 924.515 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 9,207,632,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 2,800,248,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

imports: 14,114,028,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 5.04 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

65.54 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 10.508 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 37.336 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 17.695 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 52

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 3,786,725 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 42 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 35

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 10,717,445 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 119 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 85

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: mature telecom market, dominated by Telekom Austria, Magenta Telekom (formed from the merger of T-Mobile Austria and the cableco UPC Austria), and 3 Austria; the mobile market benefits from a growing number of MVNOs; the telcos as well as the government and regulator have been focused on delivering improved telecom infrastructure; the government has a program to provide a national gigabit service by 2030, delivered by private enterprise though with some state funding; this is based on fibrer networks supported by 5G, with the MNOs able to expand the reach of their 5G services following auctions held in March 2019 and September 2020; the fixed-line broadband market is still dominated by the DSL sector, while the cable broadband sector has held a steady share of connections in recent years; the fiber sector was slow to develop, and although fiber remains low there are plans to build out the network infrastructure; by February 2021, A1 Telekom’s fibre network reached more than 2.3 million premises; Magenta Telekom continues to invest in DOCSIS3.1 technology, and by mid-2021 about a third of premises (some 1.4 million) nationally could access the company’s gigabit service. (2021)

domestic: developed and efficient; 42 per 100 fixed-line for households, 174 per 100 for companies; roughly 119 per 100 mobile-cellular; broadband: 138 per 100 on smartphones; roughly 29 per 100 fixed broadband and 107 per 100 mobile broadband (2020)

international: country code - 43; earth stations available in the Astra, Intelsat, Eutelsat satellite systems (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced a downturn, particularly in mobile device production; progress towards 5G implementation has resumed, as well as upgrades to infrastructure; consumer spending on telecom services has increased due to the surge in demand for capacity and bandwidth; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home is still evident, and the spike in this area has seen growth opportunities for development of new tools and increased services

Broadcast media

worldwide cable and satellite TV are available; the public incumbent ORF competes with three other major, several regional domestic, and up to 400 international TV stations; TV coverage is in principle 100%, but only 90% use broadcast media; Internet streaming not only complements, but increasingly replaces regular TV stations (2019)

Internet users

total: 7,846,840 (2020 est.)

percent of population: 88% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 73

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 2.606 million (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 29 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 49

Communications - note

note 1: the Austrian National Library contains important collections of the Imperial Library of the Holy Roman Empire and of the Austrian Empire, as well as of the Austrian Republic; among its more than 12 million items are outstanding holdings of rare books, maps, globes, papyrus, and music; its Globe Museum is the only one in the world

note 2: on 1 October 1869, Austria-Hungary introduced the world's first postal card - postal stationery with an imprinted stamp indicating the prepayment of postage; simple and cheap (sent for a fraction of the cost of a regular letter), postal cards became an instant success, widely produced in the millions worldwide

note 3: Austria followed up with the creation of the world's first commercial picture postcards - cards bearing a picture or photo to which postage is affixed - in May 1871; sent from Vienna, the image served as a souvenir of the city; together, postal cards and post cards served as the world's e-mails of the late 19th and early 20th centuries

note 4: Austria was also an airmail pioneer; from March to October of 1918, it conducted the world's first regular (daily) airmail service - between the imperial cities of Vienna, Krakow, and Lemberg - a combined distance of some 650 km (400 mi) (earlier airmail services had been set up in a few parts of the world, but only for short stretches and none lasted beyond a few days or weeks); an expansion of the route in June of 1918 allowed private mail to be flown to Kyiv, in newly independent Ukraine, which made the route the world's first regular international airmail service (covering a distance of some 1,200 km; 750 mi)

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 11 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 130

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 12,935,505 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 373.51 million (2018) mt-km

Airports - with paved runways

total: 24

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 13 (2021)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 28

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 24 (2021)

Heliports

1 (2021)

Pipelines

1,888 km gas, 594 km oil, 157 km refined products (2017)

Railways

total: 5,300 km (2018) (2017)

standard gauge: 5,300 km 1.435-m gauge (3,826 km electrified) (2016)

country comparison to the world: 36

Roadways

total: 137,039 km (2018)

paved: 137,039 km (2018) (includes 2,232 km of expressways)

country comparison to the world: 39

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna (Danube)

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Austrian Armed Forces: Land Forces, Air Forces, Cyber Forces, Special Forces (2022)

Military expenditures

0.9% of GDP (2021 est.)

0.7% of GDP (2020)

0.7% of GDP (2019) (approximately $3.78 billion)

0.7% of GDP (2018) (approximately $3.82 billion)

0.8% of GDP (2017) (approximately $3.71 billion)

country comparison to the world: 136

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 25,000 active duty personnel (20,000 Army; 5,000 Air Force) (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Austrian military's inventory includes a mix of domestically-produced and imported weapons systems from European countries and the US; the Austrian defense industry produces a range of equipment and partners with other countries (2021)

Military service age and obligation

registration requirement at age 17, the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; men above the age of 18 are subject to compulsory military service; women may volunteer; compulsory service is for 6 months, or optionally, alternative civil/community service (Zivildienst) for 9 months (2022)

note 1: as of 2019, women made up about 4% of the military's full-time personnel

note 2: in a January 2013 referendum, a majority of Austrians voted in favor of retaining the system of compulsory military service (with the option of alternative/non-military service) instead of switching to a professional army system; approximately 40% of those liable to compulsory service have opted in favor of  alternative civil/community service

Military deployments

170 Bosnia-Herzegovina (EUFOR stabilization force); 300 Kosovo (NATO/KFOR); 200 Lebanon (UNIFIL) (Aug 2022)

Military - note

Austria is constitutionally non-aligned but is an EU member and actively participates in EU peacekeeping and crisis management operations under the Common Security and Defense Policy; Austria is not a member of NATO but joined NATO’s Partnership for Peace framework in 1995 and participates in NATO-led crisis management and peacekeeping operations; as of 2022, more than 100,000 Austrian military and civilian personnel had taken part in more than 50 international peace support and humanitarian missions since 1960 (2022)

Terrorism

Terrorist group(s)

Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 57,887 (Syria), 41,037 (Afghanistan), 9,661 (Iraq), 8,212 (Somalia), 7,046 (Iran), 7,003 (Russia) (mid-year 2021); 81,850 (Ukraine) (as of 20 September 2022)

stateless persons: 3,229 (mid-year 2021)

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; increasing consumption of European-produced synthetic drugs