The Canadian maritime province of Nova Scotia can be divided into two separate regions - Cape Breton Island (on the right) and much larger, peninsular mainland Nova Scotia (lower left). Cape Breton Island is joined to the mainland by a causeway and a railroad spanning the narrow Strait of Canso. St. George's Bay is the small bay west of the causeway, and the Northumberland Strait separates Cape Breton Island from the eastern end of Prince Edward Island, another maritime province of Canada (visible along the west margin of the photograph). Photo courtesy of NASA.
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Introduction

Background

A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867, while retaining ties to the British crown. Canada gained legislative independence from Britain in 1931 and formalized its constitutional independence from the UK when it passed the Canada Act in 1982. Economically and technologically, the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across the world's longest international border. Canada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care, education, social services, and economic competitiveness, as well as responding to the particular concerns of predominantly francophone Quebec. Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates

60 00 N, 95 00 W

Map references

North America

Area

total: 9,984,670 sq km

land: 9,093,507 sq km

water: 891,163 sq km

country comparison to the world: 3

Area - comparative

slightly larger than the US

Area comparison map
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 8,891 km

border countries (1): US 8,891 km (includes 2,475 km with Alaska)

note: Canada is the world's largest country that borders only one country

Coastline

202,080 km

note: the Canadian Arctic Archipelago - consisting of 36,563 islands, several of them some of the world's largest - contributes to Canada easily having the longest coastline in the world

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate

varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Terrain

mostly plains with mountains in west, lowlands in southeast

Elevation

highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m

lowest point: Atlantic/Pacific/Arctic Oceans 0 m

mean elevation: 487 m

Natural resources

bauxite, iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, uranium, rare earth elements, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 6.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 4.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.5% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 1.6% (2018 est.)

forest: 34.1% (2018 est.)

other: 59.1% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

8,700 sq km (2012)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Huron* - 35,972 sq km; Great Bear Lake - 31,328 sq km; Superior* - 28,754 sq km; Great Slave Lake - 28,568 sq km; Lake Winnipeg - 24,387 sq km; Erie* - 12,776 sq km; Ontario* - 9,790 sq km; Lake Athabasca - 7,935 sq km; Reindeer Lake - 6,650 sq km; Nettilling Lake - 5,542 sq km
note - Great Lakes* area shown as Canadian waters

Major rivers (by length in km)

Mackenzie - 4, 241 km; Yukon river source (shared with the US [m]) - 3,185 km; Saint Lawrence river mouth (shared with US) - 3,058 km; Nelson - 2,570 km; Columbia river source (shared with the US [m]) - 1,953 km; Churchill - 1,600 km; Fraser - 1,368 km; Ottawa - 1,271 km; Athabasca - 1,231 km; North Saskatchewan - 1,220 km; Liard - 1,115 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Mississippi* (Gulf of Mexico) (3,202,185 sq km, Canada only 32,000 sq km), Nelson (Hudson Bay) (1,093,141 sq km), Saint Lawrence* (1,049,636 sq km, Canada only 839,200 sq km)
Arctic Ocean drainage: Mackenzie (1,706,388 sq km)
Pacific Ocean drainage: Yukon* (847,620 sq km, Canada only 823,800 sq km), Columbia* (657,501 sq km, Canada only 103,000 sq km)
note - watersheds shared with the US shown with *

Major aquifers

Northern Great Plains Aquifer

Population distribution

vast majority of Canadians are positioned in a discontinuous band within approximately 300 km of the southern border with the United States; the most populated province is Ontario, followed by Quebec and British Columbia

Natural hazards

continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains

volcanism: the vast majority of volcanoes in Western Canada's Coast Mountains remain dormant

Geography - note

note 1: second-largest country in world (after Russia) and largest in the Americas; strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km (100 mi) of the US border

note 2: Canada has more fresh water than any other country and almost 9% of Canadian territory is water; Canada has at least 2 million and possibly over 3 million lakes - that is more than all other countries combined

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Canadian(s)

adjective: Canadian

Ethnic groups

Canadian 32.3%, English 18.3%, Scottish 13.9%, French 13.6%, Irish 13.4%, German 9.6%, Chinese 5.1%, Italian 4.6%, North American Indian 4.4%, East Indian 4%, Ukrainian 3.9%, other 47.7% (2016 est.)

note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic origin

Languages

English (official) 58.7%, French (official) 22%, Punjabi 1.4%, Italian 1.3%, Spanish 1.3%, German 1.3%, Cantonese 1.2%, Tagalog 1.2%, Arabic 1.1%, other 10.5% (2011 est.)

major-language sample(s):
The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information. (English)

The World Factbook, une source indispensable d'informations de base. (French)

French audio sample:

Religions

Catholic 39% (includes Roman Catholic 38.8%, other Catholic .2%), Protestant 20.3% (includes United Church 6.1%, Anglican 5%, Baptist 1.9%, Lutheran 1.5%, Pentecostal 1.5%, Presbyterian 1.4%, other Protestant 2.9%), Orthodox 1.6%, other Christian 6.3%, Muslim 3.2%, Hindu 1.5%, Sikh 1.4%, Buddhist 1.1%, Jewish 1%, other 0.6%, none 23.9% (2011 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.99% (male 3,094,008/female 2,931,953)

15-24 years: 11.14% (male 2,167,013/female 2,032,064)

25-54 years: 39.81% (male 7,527,554/female 7,478,737)

55-64 years: 14.08% (male 2,624,474/female 2,682,858)

65 years and over: 18.98% (male 3,274,298/female 3,881,126) (2020 est.)

2022 population pyramid
2022 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 51.2

youth dependency ratio: 23.9

elderly dependency ratio: 27.4

potential support ratio: 3.7 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 41.8 years

male: 40.6 years

female: 42.9 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 40

Birth rate

10.17 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 186

Death rate

8.12 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 81

Net migration rate

5.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 21

Population distribution

vast majority of Canadians are positioned in a discontinuous band within approximately 300 km of the southern border with the United States; the most populated province is Ontario, followed by Quebec and British Columbia

Urbanization

urban population: 81.8% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 0.95% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

6.313 million Toronto, 4.277 million Montreal, 2.632 million Vancouver, 1.611 million Calgary, 1.519 million Edmonton, 1.423 million OTTAWA (capital) (2022)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.4 years (2019 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

10 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 145

Infant mortality rate

total: 4.38 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.66 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 184

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 83.8 years

male: 81.52 years

female: 86.21 years (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 6

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.3% of population

rural: 99.1% of population

total: 99.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.7% of population

rural: 0.9% of population

total: 0.8% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

10.8% of GDP (2019)

Physicians density

2.44 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

2.5 beds/1,000 population (2019)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.1% of population

rural: 98.9% of population

total: 99% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.9% of population

rural: 1.1% of population

total: 1% of population (2020 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 8 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 3.5 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 2 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 2.1 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.4 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 44

Tobacco use

total: 13% (2020 est.)

male: 15.3% (2020 est.)

female: 10.7% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 117

Literacy

total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years

male: 16 years

female: 17 years (2019)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 20.2%

male: 20.9%

female: 19.4% (2020 est.)

Environment

Environment - current issues

metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting agricultural and forest productivity; air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 6.48 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 544.89 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 101.82 megatons (2020 est.)

Climate

varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Land use

agricultural land: 6.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 4.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.5% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 1.6% (2018 est.)

forest: 34.1% (2018 est.)

other: 59.1% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 81.8% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 0.95% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0.08% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 27

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 25,103,034 tons (2014 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 5,168,715 tons (2008 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 20.6% (2008 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Huron* - 35,972 sq km; Great Bear Lake - 31,328 sq km; Superior* - 28,754 sq km; Great Slave Lake - 28,568 sq km; Lake Winnipeg - 24,387 sq km; Erie* - 12,776 sq km; Ontario* - 9,790 sq km; Lake Athabasca - 7,935 sq km; Reindeer Lake - 6,650 sq km; Nettilling Lake - 5,542 sq km
note - Great Lakes* area shown as Canadian waters

Major rivers (by length in km)

Mackenzie - 4, 241 km; Yukon river source (shared with the US [m]) - 3,185 km; Saint Lawrence river mouth (shared with US) - 3,058 km; Nelson - 2,570 km; Columbia river source (shared with the US [m]) - 1,953 km; Churchill - 1,600 km; Fraser - 1,368 km; Ottawa - 1,271 km; Athabasca - 1,231 km; North Saskatchewan - 1,220 km; Liard - 1,115 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Mississippi* (Gulf of Mexico) (3,202,185 sq km, Canada only 32,000 sq km), Nelson (Hudson Bay) (1,093,141 sq km), Saint Lawrence* (1,049,636 sq km, Canada only 839,200 sq km)
Arctic Ocean drainage: Mackenzie (1,706,388 sq km)
Pacific Ocean drainage: Yukon* (847,620 sq km, Canada only 823,800 sq km), Columbia* (657,501 sq km, Canada only 103,000 sq km)
note - watersheds shared with the US shown with *

Major aquifers

Northern Great Plains Aquifer

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 4.888 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 28.07 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 2.639 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

2.902 trillion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Canada

etymology: the country name likely derives from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word "kanata" meaning village or settlement

Government type

federal parliamentary democracy (Parliament of Canada) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm; federal and state authorities and responsibilities regulated in constitution

Capital

name: Ottawa

geographic coordinates: 45 25 N, 75 42 W

time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November

time zone note: Canada has six time zones

etymology: the city lies on the south bank of the Ottawa River, from which it derives its name; the river name comes from the Algonquin word "adawe" meaning "to trade" and refers to the indigenous peoples who used the river as a trade highway

Administrative divisions

10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon*

Independence

1 July 1867 (union of British North American colonies); 11 December 1931 (recognized by UK per Statute of Westminster)

National holiday

Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution

history: consists of unwritten and written acts, customs, judicial decisions, and traditions dating from 1763; the written part of the constitution consists of the Constitution Act of 29 March 1867, which created a federation of four provinces, and the Constitution Act of 17 April 1982

amendments: proposed by either house of Parliament or by the provincial legislative assemblies; there are 5 methods for passage though most require approval by both houses of Parliament, approval of at least two thirds of the provincial legislative assemblies and assent and formalization as a proclamation by the governor general in council; the most restrictive method is reserved for amendments affecting fundamental sections of the constitution, such as the office of the monarch or the governor general, and the constitutional amendment procedures, which require unanimous approval by both houses and by all the provincial assemblies, and assent of the governor general in council; amended 11 times, last in 2011 (Fair Representation Act, 2011)

Legal system

common law system except in Quebec, where civil law based on the French civil code prevails

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: yes

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: minimum of 3 of last 5 years resident in Canada

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General Mary SIMON (since 6 July 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Justin Pierre James TRUDEAU (Liberal Party) (since 4 November 2015)

cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister usually from among members of his/her own party sitting in Parliament

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a 5-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition in the House of Commons generally designated prime minister by the governor general

note: the governor general position is largely ceremonial

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of:
Senate or Senat (105 seats; members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister and can serve until age 75)
House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (338 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote with terms up to 4 years)

elections: Senate - appointed; latest appointments in July 2021
House of Commons - last held on 20 September 2021 (next to be held on or before 20 October 2025)

election results:
Senate - composition as of May 2022 - men 47, women 45, percent of women 48.9%

House of Commons - percent of vote by party - CPC 33.7%, Liberal Party 32.6%, NDP 17.8%, Bloc Quebecois 7.7%, Greens 2.3%, other 5.9%; seats by party - Liberal Party 159, CPC 119, NDP 25, Bloc Quebecois 32, Greens 2, independent 1; composition as of May 2022 - men 235, women 103, percent of women 30.5%; note - total Parliament percent of women 34.4%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Canada (consists of the chief justice and 8 judges); note - in 1949, Canada abolished all appeals beyond its Supreme Court, which prior to that time, were heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)

judge selection and term of office: chief justice and judges appointed by the prime minister in council; all judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 75

subordinate courts: federal level: Federal Court of Appeal; Federal Court; Tax Court; federal administrative tribunals; Courts Martial; provincial/territorial level: provincial superior, appeals, first instance, and specialized courts; note -  in 1999, the Nunavut Court - a circuit court with the power of a provincial superior court, as well as a territorial court - was established to serve isolated settlements

Political parties and leaders

Bloc Quebecois [Yves-Francois BLANCHET]
Conservative Party of Canada or CPC [Candice BERGEN (interim)]
Green Party [Amita KUTTNER (interim)]
Liberal Party [Justin TRUDEAU]
New Democratic Party or NDP [Jagmeet SINGH]
People's Party of Canada [Maxime BERNIER]

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CD, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, EITI (implementing country), FAO, FATF, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAFTA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, USMCA, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Kirsten HILLMAN (since 17 July 2020)

chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001

telephone: [1] (844) 880-6519

FAX: [1] (202) 682-7738

email address and website:
ccs.scc@international.gc.ca

https://www.international.gc.ca/country-pays/us-eu/washington.aspx?lang=eng

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, San Francisco/Silicon Valley, Seattle

trade office(s): Houston, Palo Alto (CA), San Diego; note - there are trade offices in the Consulates General

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador David L. COHEN (since December 2021)

embassy: 490 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1G8

mailing address: 5480 Ottawa Place, Washington DC  20521-5480

telephone: [1] (613) 238-5335

FAX: [1] (613) 241-7845

email address and website:
OttawaNIV@state.gov

https://ca.usembassy.gov/

consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec City, Toronto, Vancouver

consulate(s): Winnipeg

Flag description

two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width) with white square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered in the white square; the maple leaf has long been a Canadian symbol

National symbol(s)

maple leaf, beaver; national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "O Canada"

lyrics/music: Adolphe-Basile ROUTHIER [French], Robert Stanley WEIR [English]/Calixa LAVALLEE

note: adopted 1980; originally written in 1880, "O Canada" served as an unofficial anthem many years before its official adoption; the anthem has French and English versions whose lyrics differ; as a Commonwealth realm, in addition to the national anthem, "God Save the King" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 20 (9 cultural, 10 natural, 1 mixed) (2021)

selected World Heritage Site locales: L'Anse aux Meadows (c); Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks (n); Dinosaur Provincial Park (n); Historic District of Old Quebec (c); Old Town Lunenburg (c); Wood Buffalo National Park (n); Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump (c); Gros Morne National Park (n); Pimachiowin Aki (m)

Economy

Economic overview

Canada resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. Canada has a large oil and natural gas sector with the majority of crude oil production derived from oil sands in the western provinces, especially Alberta. Canada now ranks third in the world in proved oil reserves behind Venezuela and Saudi Arabia and is the world’s seventh-largest oil producer.

 

TThe 1989 Canada-US Free Trade Agreement and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (which includes Mexico) dramatically increased trade and economic integration between the US and Canada. Canada and the US enjoy the world’s most comprehensive bilateral trade and investment relationship, with goods and services trade totaling more than $680 billion in 2017, and two-way investment stocks of more than $800 billion. Over three-fourths of Canada’s merchandise exports are destined for the US each year. Canada is the largest foreign supplier of energy to the US, including oil, natural gas, and electric power, and a top source of US uranium imports.

 

Given its abundant natural resources, highly skilled labor force, and modern capital stock, Canada enjoyed solid economic growth from 1993 through 2007. The global economic crisis of 2007-08 moved the Canadian economy into sharp recession by late 2008, and Ottawa posted its first fiscal deficit in 2009 after 12 years of surplus. Canada's major banks emerged from the financial crisis of 2008-09 among the strongest in the world, owing to the financial sector's tradition of conservative lending practices and strong capitalization. Canada’s economy posted strong growth in 2017 at 3%, but most analysts are projecting Canada’s economic growth will drop back closer to 2% in 2018.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1,742,790,000,000 (2020 est.)

$1,842,330,000,000 (2019 est.)

$1,808,660,000,000 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 15

Real GDP growth rate

1.66% (2019 est.)

2.02% (2018 est.)

3.17% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 148

Real GDP per capita

$45,900 (2020 est.)

$49,000 (2019 est.)

$48,800 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 34

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1,741,865,000,000 (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.9% (2019 est.)

2.2% (2018 est.)

1.5% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 106

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: AA+ (2020)

Moody's rating: Aaa (2002)

Standard & Poors rating: AAA (2002)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 1.6% (2017 est.)

industry: 28.2% (2017 est.)

services: 70.2% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 57.8% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 20.8% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 23% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.7% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 30.9% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -33.2% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

wheat, rapeseed, maize, barley, milk, soybeans, potatoes, oats, peas, pork

Industries

transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum, natural gas

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 2%

industry: 13%

services: 6%

industry and services: 76%

manufacturing: 3% (2006 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 20.2%

male: 20.9%

female: 19.4% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 76

Population below poverty line

9.4% (2008 est.)

note: this figure is the Low Income Cut-Off, a calculation that results in higher figures than found in many comparable economies; Canada does not have an official poverty line

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.6%

highest 10%: 24.8% (2000)

Budget

revenues: 649.6 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 665.7 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

89.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

91.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: figures are for gross general government debt, as opposed to net federal debt; gross general government debt includes both intragovernmental debt and the debt of public entities at the sub-national level

country comparison to the world: 25

Fiscal year

1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

-$35.425 billion (2019 est.)

-$42.862 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 201

Exports

$477.31 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$555.83 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$556.89 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 14

Exports - partners

US 73% (2019)

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, cars and vehicle parts, gold, refined petroleum, natural gas (2019)

Imports

$510.29 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$583.6 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$589.55 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 10

Imports - partners

US 57%, China 11%, Mexico 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, delivery trucks, crude petroleum, refined petroleum (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$86.68 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$82.72 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 28

Debt - external

$2,124,887,000,000 (2019 est.)

$1,949,796,000,000 (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 12

Exchange rates

Canadian dollars (CAD) per US dollar -

1.28035 (2020 est.)

1.3228 (2019 est.)

1.32925 (2018 est.)

1.2788 (2014 est.)

1.0298 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 153.251 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 539.695 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 67.2 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 9.8 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 32.937 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 16.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 14.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 5.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 60.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 1.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 48.328 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 25.642 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 32.026 million metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 7.577 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 6.582 billion metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 5,468,100 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 2,629,300 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 3.177 million bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 793,800 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 170.3 billion barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 178,723,494,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 124,502,315,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 76,094,066,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

imports: 28,026,440,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 2,067,126,000,000 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

612.084 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 56.087 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 311.336 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 244.66 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 9

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 13.34 million (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 35 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 15

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 32.36 million (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 86 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 45

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: the Canadian telecom market continues to show steady development as operators invest in network upgrades; much of the investment among telcos has been channelled into LTE infrastructure to capitalize on consumer demand for mobile data services, while there has also been further investment in 5G; investment programs have also been supported by regulatory efforts to ensure that operators have spectrum available to develop 5G services; an investment in fixed-line infrastructure, focused on FttP and, among cable broadband providers; government policy has encouraged the extension of broadband to rural and regional areas, with the result that services are almost universally available and the emphasis now is on improving service speeds to enable the entire population to benefit from the digital economy and society; cable broadband is the principal access platform, followed by DSL; the mobile rate remains comparatively low by international standards; Canadians have provided for LTE and LTE-A infrastructure; despite topographical challenges and the remoteness of many areas, the major players effectively offer 99% population coverage with LTE; operators now provide up to 70% population coverage with 5G (2022)

domestic: Nearly 37 per 100 fixed-line and 96 per 100 mobile-cellular teledensity; domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations (2020)

international: country code - 1; landing points for the Nunavut Undersea Fiber Optic Network System, Greenland Connect, Persona, GTT Atlantic, and Express, KetchCan 1 Submarine Fiber Cable system, St Pierre and Miquelon Cable submarine cables providing links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean, and 2 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced a downturn, particularly in mobile device production; progress toward 5G implementation has resumed, as well as upgrades to infrastructure; consumer spending on telecom services has increased due to the surge in demand for capacity and bandwidth; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home is still evident, and the spike in this area has seen growth opportunities for development of new tools and increased services

Broadcast media

2 public TV broadcasting networks, 1 in English and 1 in French, each with a large number of network affiliates; several private-commercial networks also with multiple network affiliates; overall, about 150 TV stations; multi-channel satellite and cable systems provide access to a wide range of stations including US stations; mix of public and commercial radio broadcasters with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the public radio broadcaster, operating 4 radio networks, Radio Canada International, and radio services to indigenous populations in the north; roughly 1,119 licensed radio stations (2016)

Internet users

total: 36,896,088 (2020 est.)

percent of population: 97% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 27

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 15,825,813 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 42 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 16

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 51 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 879

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 89.38 million (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 3,434,070,000 (2018) mt-km

Airports - with paved runways

total: 523

over 3,047 m: 21

2,438 to 3,047 m: 19

1,524 to 2,437 m: 147

914 to 1,523 m: 257

under 914 m: 79 (2021)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 944

1,524 to 2,437 m: 75

914 to 1,523 m: 385

under 914 m: 484 (2021)

Heliports

26 (2021)

Pipelines

840,000 km oil and gas (2020)

Railways

total: 49,422 km (2021) note: 129 km electrified (2021)

standard gauge: 49,422 km (2021) 1.435-m gauge

country comparison to the world: 5

Roadways

total: 1,042,300 km (2011)

paved: 415,600 km (2011) (includes 17,000 km of expressways)

unpaved: 626,700 km (2011)

country comparison to the world: 8

Waterways

636 km (2011) (Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared with United States)

country comparison to the world: 85

Merchant marine

total: 679

by type: bulk carrier 22, container ship 1, general cargo 66, oil tanker 15, other 575 (2021)

country comparison to the world: 34

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Halifax, Saint John (New Brunswick), Vancouver

oil terminal(s): Lower Lakes terminal

container port(s) (TEUs): Montreal (1,745,244), Vancouver (3,398,860) (2019)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Saint John

river and lake port(s): Montreal, Quebec City, Sept-Isles (St. Lawrence)

dry bulk cargo port(s): Port-Cartier (iron ore and grain),

Fraser River Port (Fraser) Hamilton (Lake Ontario)

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Canadian Forces: Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force, Canadian Joint Operations Command, Canadian Special Operations Forces Command; Primary Reserve (army, air, naval reserves); Coast Guard (Department of Fisheries and Oceans) (2022)

note: the Army reserves include the Canadian Rangers, which provides a limited presence in Canada's northern, coastal, and isolated areas for sovereignty, public safety, and surveillance roles

Military expenditures

1.4% of GDP (2021 est.)

1.4% of GDP (2020)

1.3% of GDP (2019) (approximately $26 billion)

1.3% of GDP (2018) (approximately $25.7 billion)

1.4% of GDP (2017) (approximately $27.6 billion)

country comparison to the world: 97

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 70,000 active armed forces personnel (23,000 Army; 12,000 Navy; 12,000 Air Force; 23,000 other) (2022)

note: the Army also has approximately 19,000 part-time volunteer soldiers in the Reserve Force, including about 5,500 Rangers

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the CAF's inventory is a mix of domestically-produced equipment and imported weapons systems from Australia, Europe, Israel, and the US; since 2010, the leading supplier has been the US; Canada's defense industry develops, maintains, and produces a range of equipment, including aircraft, combat vehicles, naval vessels, and associated components (2022)

Military service age and obligation

17 years of age for voluntary male and female military service (with parental consent); 16 years of age for Reserve and Military College applicants; Canadian citizenship or permanent residence status required; maximum 34 years of age; service obligation 3-9 years (2022)

note 1: Canada opened up all military occupations to women in 2001; in 2020, women comprised about 16% of the CAF

note 2: the CAF offers waivers to foreign nationals applying for military service only in exceptional cases — to individuals on international military exchanges, for example, or to candidates who have specialized skills in high demand

Military deployments

the CAF has nearly 1,400 military personnel forward deployed for NATO air, land, and sea missions in the European theater, including up to 650 troops in Latvia and 140 in Romania (2022)

note: in response to Russia’s 2022 invasion of Ukraine, some NATO countries, including Canada, have sent additional troops and equipment to the battlegroups deployed in NATO territory in eastern Europe 

Military - note

Canada is a member of NATO and was one of the original 12 countries to sign the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty) in 1949

Canada is part of the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD; established 1958); NORAD is a Canada-US bi-national military command responsible for monitoring and defending North American airspace; traditionally, a Canadian Armed Forces officer has served as the deputy commander of NORAD

Canada’s defense relationship with the US extends back to the Ogdensburg Declaration of 1940, when the two countries formally agreed on military cooperation, including the establishment of the Permanent Joint Board on Defense (PJBD), which continued to be the highest-level bilateral defense forum between Canada and the US as of 2022

British troops withdrew from Canada in 1871 as part of the UK-US Treaty of Washington; following the withdrawal, the first Canadian militia, known as the Royal Canadian Regiment, was organized in 1883 to protect Canadian territory and defend British interests abroad, which it did in the South African War (1899-1902), Canada’s first overseas conflict; militia units formed the backbone of the more than 425,000 Canadian soldiers that went to Europe during World War I in what was called the Canadian Expeditionary Force; the Royal Canadian Navy was created in 1910, while the Canadian Air Force was established in 1920 and became the Royal Canadian Air Force in 1924; the Canadian Army was officially founded in 1942; a unified Canadian Armed Forces was created in 1968

Terrorism

Terrorist group(s)

Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS); Hizballah

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the Gulf of Maine, including the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; Canada and the United States dispute how to divide the Beaufort Sea and the status of the Northwest Passage but continue to work cooperatively to survey the Arctic continental shelf; US works closely with Canada to intensify security measures for monitoring and controlling legal and illegal movement of people, transport, and commodities across the international border; sovereignty dispute with Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland; commencing the collection of technical evidence for submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf in support of claims for continental shelf beyond 200 nm from its declared baselines in the Arctic, as stipulated in Article 76, paragraph 8, of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 22,400 (Venezuela) (refugees and migrants) (2020); 9,883 (Nigeria), 7,571 (Turkey), 7,385 (Iran), 6,965 (Pakistan), 6,287 (China), 5,244 (Colombia) (mid-year 2021)

stateless persons: 3,823 (mid-year 2021)

Illicit drugs

illicit production of fentanyl primarily for Canada's domestic drug market with at least small quantities smuggled to the US; complex laboratories setup for fentanyl production have been found and Mexican traffickers present in the country; Canada legalized marijuana in 2018