Photos of Canada



A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867, while retaining ties to the British crown. Canada gained legislative independence from Britain in 1931 and formalized its constitutional independence from the UK when it passed the Canada Act in 1982. Economically and technologically, the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across the world's longest international border. Canada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care, education, social services, and economic competitiveness, as well as responding to the particular concerns of predominantly francophone Quebec. Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates

60 00 N, 95 00 W

Map references

North America


total: 9,984,670 sq km

land: 9,093,507 sq km

water: 891,163 sq km

comparison ranking: total 3

Area - comparative

slightly larger than the US

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 8,892 km

border countries: US 8,891 km (includes 2,475 km with Alaska); Denmark (Greenland) 1.3 km



202,080 km

note: the Canadian Arctic Archipelago - consisting of 36,563 islands, several of them some of the world's largest - contributes to Canada easily having the longest coastline in the world

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin


varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north


mostly plains with mountains in west, lowlands in southeast


highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m

lowest point: Atlantic/Pacific/Arctic Oceans 0 m

mean elevation: 487 m

Natural resources

bauxite, iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, uranium, rare earth elements, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 6.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 4.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.5% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 1.6% (2018 est.)

forest: 34.1% (2018 est.)

other: 59.1% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

9,045 sq km (2015)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Huron* - 35,972 sq km; Great Bear Lake - 31,328 sq km; Superior* - 28,754 sq km; Great Slave Lake - 28,568 sq km; Lake Winnipeg - 24,387 sq km; Erie* - 12,776 sq km; Ontario* - 9,790 sq km; Lake Athabasca - 7,935 sq km; Reindeer Lake - 6,650 sq km; Nettilling Lake - 5,542 sq km
note - Great Lakes* area shown as Canadian waters

Major rivers (by length in km)

Mackenzie - 4, 241 km; Yukon river source (shared with the US [m]) - 3,185 km; Saint Lawrence river mouth (shared with US) - 3,058 km; Nelson - 2,570 km; Columbia river source (shared with the US [m]) - 1,953 km; Churchill - 1,600 km; Fraser - 1,368 km; Ottawa - 1,271 km; Athabasca - 1,231 km; North Saskatchewan - 1,220 km; Liard - 1,115 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Mississippi* (Gulf of Mexico) (3,202,185 sq km, Canada only 32,000 sq km), Nelson (Hudson Bay) (1,093,141 sq km), Saint Lawrence* (1,049,636 sq km, Canada only 839,200 sq km)
Arctic Ocean drainage: Mackenzie (1,706,388 sq km)
Pacific Ocean drainage: Yukon* (847,620 sq km, Canada only 823,800 sq km), Columbia* (657,501 sq km, Canada only 103,000 sq km)
note - watersheds shared with the US shown with *

Major aquifers

Northern Great Plains Aquifer

Population distribution

vast majority of Canadians are positioned in a discontinuous band within approximately 300 km of the southern border with the United States; the most populated province is Ontario, followed by Quebec and British Columbia

Natural hazards

continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains

volcanism: the vast majority of volcanoes in Western Canada's Coast Mountains remain dormant

Geography - note

note 1: second-largest country in world (after Russia) and largest in the Americas; strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km (100 mi) of the US border

note 2: Canada has more fresh water than any other country and almost 9% of Canadian territory is water; Canada has at least 2 million and possibly over 3 million lakes - that is more than all other countries combined

People and Society


38,516,736 (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 38


noun: Canadian(s)

adjective: Canadian

Ethnic groups

Canadian 15.6%, English 14.7%, Scottish 12.1%, French 11%, Irish 12.1%, German 8.1%, Chinese 4.7%, Italian 4.3%, First Nations 1.7%, Indian 3.7%, Ukrainian 3.5%, Metis 1.5% (2021 est.)

note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic origin


English (official) 87.1%, French (official) 29.1%, Chinese languages 4.2%, Spanish 3.2%, Punjabi 2.6%, Arabic 2.4%, Tagalog 2.3%, Italian 1.5% (2022 est.)

major-language sample(s):
The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information. (English)

The World Factbook, une source indispensable d'informations de base. (French)

French audio sample:


Christian 53.3%, Muslim 4.9%, Hindu 2.3%, Sikh 2.1%, Buddhist 1%, Jewish 0.9%, Traditional (North American Indigenous) 0.2%, other religions and traditional spirituality 0.6%, none 34.6% (2021 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.65% (male 3,097,585/female 2,930,056)

15-64 years: 63.85% (male 12,367,172/female 12,224,077)

65 years and over: 20.5% (2023 est.) (male 3,630,580/female 4,267,266)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 52.1

youth dependency ratio: 23.9

elderly dependency ratio: 28.2

potential support ratio: 3.6 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 41.8 years

male: 40.6 years

female: 42.9 years (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 41

Population growth rate

0.73% (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 122

Birth rate

10.11 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 185

Death rate

8.17 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 83

Net migration rate

5.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 19

Population distribution

vast majority of Canadians are positioned in a discontinuous band within approximately 300 km of the southern border with the United States; the most populated province is Ontario, followed by Quebec and British Columbia


urban population: 81.9% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.95% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

6.372 million Toronto, 4.308 million Montreal, 2.657 million Vancouver, 1.640 million Calgary, 1.544 million Edmonton, 1.437 million OTTAWA (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.4 years (2019 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

11 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 142

Infant mortality rate

total: 4.31 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.6 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: total 184

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 83.99 years

male: 81.72 years

female: 86.39 years (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: total population 6

Total fertility rate

1.57 children born/woman (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 192

Gross reproduction rate

0.77 (2023 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.3% of population

rural: 99.1% of population

total: 99.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.7% of population

rural: 0.9% of population

total: 0.8% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

12.9% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

2.44 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

2.5 beds/1,000 population (2019)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.1% of population

rural: 98.9% of population

total: 99% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.9% of population

rural: 1.1% of population

total: 1% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

29.4% (2016)

comparison ranking: 26

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 8 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 3.5 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 2 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 2.1 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.4 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 44

Tobacco use

total: 13% (2020 est.)

male: 15.3% (2020 est.)

female: 10.7% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 117

Education expenditures

5.2% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 70


total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 17 years

male: 16 years

female: 17 years (2020)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 14%

male: 15%

female: 13.1% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 124


Environment - current issues

metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting agricultural and forest productivity; air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Marine Life Conservation


varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Land use

agricultural land: 6.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 4.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.5% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 1.6% (2018 est.)

forest: 34.1% (2018 est.)

other: 59.1% (2018 est.)


urban population: 81.9% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.95% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.08% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 119

Revenue from coal

0.08% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 27

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 6.48 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 544.89 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 101.82 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 25,103,034 tons (2014 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 5,168,715 tons (2008 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 20.6% (2008 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Huron* - 35,972 sq km; Great Bear Lake - 31,328 sq km; Superior* - 28,754 sq km; Great Slave Lake - 28,568 sq km; Lake Winnipeg - 24,387 sq km; Erie* - 12,776 sq km; Ontario* - 9,790 sq km; Lake Athabasca - 7,935 sq km; Reindeer Lake - 6,650 sq km; Nettilling Lake - 5,542 sq km
note - Great Lakes* area shown as Canadian waters

Major rivers (by length in km)

Mackenzie - 4, 241 km; Yukon river source (shared with the US [m]) - 3,185 km; Saint Lawrence river mouth (shared with US) - 3,058 km; Nelson - 2,570 km; Columbia river source (shared with the US [m]) - 1,953 km; Churchill - 1,600 km; Fraser - 1,368 km; Ottawa - 1,271 km; Athabasca - 1,231 km; North Saskatchewan - 1,220 km; Liard - 1,115 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Mississippi* (Gulf of Mexico) (3,202,185 sq km, Canada only 32,000 sq km), Nelson (Hudson Bay) (1,093,141 sq km), Saint Lawrence* (1,049,636 sq km, Canada only 839,200 sq km)
Arctic Ocean drainage: Mackenzie (1,706,388 sq km)
Pacific Ocean drainage: Yukon* (847,620 sq km, Canada only 823,800 sq km), Columbia* (657,501 sq km, Canada only 103,000 sq km)
note - watersheds shared with the US shown with *

Major aquifers

Northern Great Plains Aquifer

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 4.87 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 27.51 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 3.86 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

2.9 trillion cubic meters (2020 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Canada

etymology: the country name likely derives from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word "kanata" meaning village or settlement

Government type

federal parliamentary democracy (Parliament of Canada) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm; federal and state authorities and responsibilities regulated in constitution


name: Ottawa

geographic coordinates: 45 25 N, 75 42 W

time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November

time zone note: Canada has six time zones

etymology: the city lies on the south bank of the Ottawa River, from which it derives its name; the river name comes from the Algonquin word "adawe" meaning "to trade" and refers to the indigenous peoples who used the river as a trade highway

Administrative divisions

10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon*


1 July 1867 (union of British North American colonies); 11 December 1931 (recognized by UK per Statute of Westminster)

National holiday

Canada Day, 1 July (1867)


history: consists of unwritten and written acts, customs, judicial decisions, and traditions dating from 1763; the written part of the constitution consists of the Constitution Act of 29 March 1867, which created a federation of four provinces, and the Constitution Act of 17 April 1982

amendments: proposed by either house of Parliament or by the provincial legislative assemblies; there are 5 methods for passage though most require approval by both houses of Parliament, approval of at least two thirds of the provincial legislative assemblies and assent and formalization as a proclamation by the governor general in council; the most restrictive method is reserved for amendments affecting fundamental sections of the constitution, such as the office of the monarch or the governor general, and the constitutional amendment procedures, which require unanimous approval by both houses and by all the provincial assemblies, and assent of the governor general in council; amended 11 times, last in 2011 (Fair Representation Act, 2011)

Legal system

common law system except in Quebec, where civil law based on the French civil code prevails

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: yes

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: minimum of 3 of last 5 years resident in Canada


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General Mary SIMON (since 6 July 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Justin Pierre James TRUDEAU (Liberal Party) (since 4 November 2015)

cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister usually from among members of his/her own party sitting in Parliament

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a 5-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition in the House of Commons generally designated prime minister by the governor general

note: the governor general position is largely ceremonial

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of:
Senate or Senat (105 seats; members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister and can serve until age 75)
House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (338 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote with terms up to 4 years)

elections: Senate - appointed; latest appointments in July 2021
House of Commons - last held on 20 September 2021 (next to be held on or before 20 October 2025)

election results:
Senate - composition as of May 2022 - men 47, women 45, percent of women 48.9%

House of Commons - percent of vote by party - CPC 33.7%, Liberal Party 32.6%, NDP 17.8%, Bloc Quebecois 7.7%, Greens 2.3%, other 5.9%; seats by party - Liberal Party 159, CPC 119, NDP 25, Bloc Quebecois 32, Greens 2, independent 1; composition as of May 2022 - men 235, women 103, percent of women 30.5%; note - total Parliament percent of women 34.4%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Canada (consists of the chief justice and 8 judges); note - in 1949, Canada abolished all appeals beyond its Supreme Court, which prior to that time, were heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)

judge selection and term of office: chief justice and judges appointed by the prime minister in council; all judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 75

subordinate courts: federal level: Federal Court of Appeal; Federal Court; Tax Court; federal administrative tribunals; Courts Martial; provincial/territorial level: provincial superior, appeals, first instance, and specialized courts; note - in 1999, the Nunavut Court - a circuit court with the power of a provincial superior court, as well as a territorial court - was established to serve isolated settlements

Political parties and leaders

Bloc Quebecois [Yves-Francois BLANCHET]
Conservative Party of Canada or CPC [Pierre POILIEVRE]
Green Party [Elizabeth MAY]
Liberal Party [Justin TRUDEAU]
New Democratic Party or NDP [Jagmeet SINGH]
People's Party of Canada [Maxime BERNIER]

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CD, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, EITI (implementing country), FAO, FATF, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAFTA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, USMCA, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Kirsten HILLMAN (since 17 July 2020)

chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001

telephone: [1] (844) 880-6519

FAX: [1] (202) 682-7738

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, San Francisco/Silicon Valley, Seattle

trade office(s): Houston, Palo Alto (CA), San Diego; note - there are trade offices in the Consulates General

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador David L. COHEN (since December 2021)

embassy: 490 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1G8

mailing address: 5480 Ottawa Place, Washington DC  20521-5480

telephone: [1] (613) 238-5335

FAX: [1] (613) 241-7845

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec City, Toronto, Vancouver

consulate(s): Winnipeg

Flag description

two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width) with white square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered in the white square; the maple leaf has long been a Canadian symbol

National symbol(s)

maple leaf, beaver; national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "O Canada"

lyrics/music: Adolphe-Basile ROUTHIER [French], Robert Stanley WEIR [English]/Calixa LAVALLEE

note: adopted 1980; originally written in 1880, "O Canada" served as an unofficial anthem many years before its official adoption; the anthem has French and English versions whose lyrics differ; as a Commonwealth realm, in addition to the national anthem, "God Save the King" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 21 (10 cultural, 10 natural, 1 mixed) (2021)

selected World Heritage Site locales: L'Anse aux Meadows (c); Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks (n); Dinosaur Provincial Park (n); Historic District of Old Quebec (c); Old Town Lunenburg (c); Wood Buffalo National Park (n); Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump (c); Gros Morne National Park (n); Pimachiowin Aki (m)


Economic overview

one of the world’s largest economies; leading global financier and macroeconomic partner; largest US trading partner; key timber and oil and gas industries; Canada sends over half its development aid to the World Bank; key “blue economy” developer

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.832 trillion (2021 est.)
$1.752 trillion (2020 est.)
$1.849 trillion (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 15

Real GDP growth rate

4.54% (2021 est.)
-5.23% (2020 est.)
1.88% (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 104

Real GDP per capita

$47,900 (2021 est.)
$46,100 (2020 est.)
$49,200 (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 33

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1,741,865,000,000 (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

3.4% (2021 est.)
0.72% (2020 est.)
1.95% (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 110

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: AA+ (2020)

Moody's rating: Aaa (2002)

Standard & Poors rating: AAA (2002)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 1.6% (2017 est.)

industry: 28.2% (2017 est.)

services: 70.2% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: agriculture 187; industry 93; services 68

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 57.8% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 20.8% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 23% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.7% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 30.9% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -33.2% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

wheat, rapeseed, maize, barley, milk, soybeans, potatoes, oats, peas, pork


transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum, natural gas

Industrial production growth rate

4.74% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: 95

Labor force

21.017 million (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: 32

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 2%

industry: 13%

services: 6%

industry and services: 76%

manufacturing: 3% (2006 est.)

Unemployment rate

7.51% (2021 est.)
9.46% (2020 est.)
5.66% (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 104

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 14%

male: 15%

female: 13.1% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 124

Population below poverty line

9.4% (2008 est.)

note: this figure is the Low Income Cut-Off, a calculation that results in higher figures than found in many comparable economies; Canada does not have an official poverty line

Average household expenditures

on food: 9.1% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 3.3% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.6%

highest 10%: 24.8% (2000)


revenues: $686.718 billion (2020 est.)

expenditures: $861.955 billion (2020 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 76

Public debt

72.09% of GDP (2020 est.)
48.01% of GDP (2019 est.)
48.18% of GDP (2018 est.)

note: figures are for gross general government debt, as opposed to net federal debt; gross general government debt includes both intragovernmental debt and the debt of public entities at the sub-national level

comparison ranking: 54

Taxes and other revenues

13.3% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 165

Fiscal year

1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

$826.662 million (2021 est.)
-$29.216 billion (2020 est.)
-$35.434 billion (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 52


$611.146 billion (2021 est.)
$484.226 billion (2020 est.)
$561.63 billion (2019 est.)

note: Data are in current year dollars and do not include illicit exports or re-exports.

comparison ranking: 13

Exports - partners

US 73% (2019)

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, cars and vehicle parts, natural gas, gold, lumber (2021)


$609.256 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$517.964 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$589.037 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

comparison ranking: 12

Imports - partners

US 57%, China 11%, Mexico 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, delivery trucks, crude petroleum, refined petroleum (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$106.615 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$90.428 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$85.297 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 29

Debt - external

$2,124,887,000,000 (2019 est.)
$1,949,796,000,000 (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 12

Exchange rates

Canadian dollars (CAD) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
1.254 (2021 est.)
1.341 (2020 est.)
1.327 (2019 est.)
1.296 (2018 est.)
1.298 (2017 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)


installed generating capacity: 153.251 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 539.695 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 67.2 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 9.8 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 32.937 billion kWh (2020 est.)

comparison rankings: installed generating capacity 8; consumption 7; exports 1; imports 26; transmission/distribution losses 12

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 16.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 14.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 5.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 60.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 1.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Nuclear energy

Number of operational nuclear reactors: 19 (2023)

Number of nuclear reactors under construction: 0

Net capacity of operational nuclear reactors: 13.62GW (2023)

Percent of total electricity production: 15% (2021)

Percent of total energy produced: 4% (2021)

Number of nuclear reactors permanently shut down: 2


production: 48.328 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 25.642 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 32.026 million metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 7.577 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 6.582 billion metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 5,468,100 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 2,629,300 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 3.177 million bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 793,800 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 170.3 billion barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

2.009 million bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 10

Refined petroleum products - exports

1.115 million bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 8

Refined petroleum products - imports

405,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 21

Natural gas

production: 178,723,494,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 124,502,315,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 76,094,066,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

imports: 28,026,440,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 2,067,126,000,000 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

612.084 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 56.087 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 311.336 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 244.66 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 9

Energy consumption per capita

403.7 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 6


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 12.928 million (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 34 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 16

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 32.723 million (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 86 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 44

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: the Canadian telecom market continues to show steady development as operators invest in network upgrades; much of the investment among telcos has been channeled into LTE infrastructure to capitalize on consumer demand for mobile data services, while there has also been further investment in 5G; investment programs have also been supported by regulatory efforts to ensure that operators have spectrum available to develop 5G services; an investment in fixed-line infrastructure, focused on FttP and, among cable broadband providers; government policy has encouraged the extension of broadband to rural and regional areas, with the result that services are almost universally available and the emphasis now is on improving service speeds to enable the entire population to benefit from the digital economy and society; cable broadband is the principal access platform, followed by DSL; the mobile rate remains comparatively low by international standards; Canadians have provided for LTE and LTE-A infrastructure; despite topographical challenges and the remoteness of many areas, the major players effectively offer 99% population coverage with LTE; operators now provide up to 70% population coverage with 5G (2022)

domestic: Nearly 34 per 100 fixed-line and 86 per 100 mobile-cellular teledensity (2021)

international: country code - 1; landing points for the Nunavut Undersea Fiber Optic Network System, Greenland Connect, Persona, GTT Atlantic, and Express, KetchCan 1 Submarine Fiber Cable system, St Pierre and Miquelon Cable submarine cables providing links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean, and 2 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region) (2019)

Broadcast media

2 public TV broadcasting networks, 1 in English and 1 in French, each with a large number of network affiliates; several private-commercial networks also with multiple network affiliates; overall, about 150 TV stations; multi-channel satellite and cable systems provide access to a wide range of stations including US stations; mix of public and commercial radio broadcasters with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the public radio broadcaster, operating 4 radio networks, Radio Canada International, and radio services to indigenous populations in the north; roughly 1,119 licensed radio stations (2016)

Internet users

total: 35.34 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 93% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 28

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 15,825,813 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 42 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 16


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 51 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 879

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 89.38 million (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 3,434,070,000 (2018) mt-km


1,467 (2021)

comparison ranking: total 4

Airports - with paved runways


civil airports: 123

military airports: 8

joint use (civil-military) airports: 3

other airports: 389

note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports - with unpaved runways


note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control


26 (2021)


840,000 km oil and gas (2020)


total: 49,422 km (2021) note: 129 km electrified (2021)

standard gauge: 49,422 km (2021) 1.435-m gauge

comparison ranking: total 5


total: 1,042,300 km (2011)

paved: 415,600 km (2011) (includes 17,000 km of expressways)

unpaved: 626,700 km (2011)

comparison ranking: total 8


636 km (2011) (Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared with United States)

comparison ranking: 85

Merchant marine

total: 689

by type: bulk carrier 21, container ship 1, general cargo 65, oil tanker 15, other 587 (2022)

comparison ranking: total 33

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Halifax, Saint John (New Brunswick), Vancouver

oil terminal(s): Lower Lakes terminal

container port(s) (TEUs): Montreal (1,585,465), Vancouver (3,678,952) (2021)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Saint John

river and lake port(s): Montreal, Quebec City, Sept-Isles (St. Lawrence)

dry bulk cargo port(s): Port-Cartier (iron ore and grain),

Fraser River Port (Fraser) Hamilton (Lake Ontario)

Transportation - note

Canada operates a fleet of 12 icebreakers including two PC 3 or 4 class medium icebreakers and ten PC 5 or 6 class light icebreakers
note - PC indicates a Polar Class vessel: PC 3 - year-round operation in second-year ice which may include multi-year ice inclusions (ice thickness up to 2.5 m); PC 4 - year-round operation in thick first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions (ice thickness up to 120 cm); PC 5 - year-round operation in medium first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions (ice thickness up to 70-120 cm); PC 6 - summer/autumn operation in medium first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions (ice thickness up to 30-70 cm)

Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent:
Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Canadian Forces: Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force; Department of Fisheries and Oceans: Coast Guard (2023)

note 1: the CAF is comprised of both a Regular Force and a Reserve Force; the Reserve Force is part of all three services (Army, Navy, and Air Force) and is considered an integral component of the CAF; reservists are primarily part-time service positions; they may volunteer for full-time employment or deployment on operations; they typically serve one or more evenings a week and/or during weekends at locations close to home; the Reserve Force is comprised of the Primary Reserve, Canadian Rangers, Cadet Organizations Administration and Training Service, and the Supplementary Reserve; the Canadian Rangers are part of the Army Reserve Force and provide a limited presence in Canada's northern, coastal, and isolated areas for sovereignty, public safety, and surveillance roles 

note 2: the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP or "Mounties") are under the Department of Public Safety; only Ontario, Quebec, and Newfoundland and Labrador have provincial police forces, but the Royal Newfoundland Constabulary contracts policing in regions of the province to the RCMP; the RCMP and municipal forces provide coverage for other provinces and territories; some Indigenous reserves provide Indigenous policing; provincial and municipal police report to their respective provincial authorities

Military expenditures

1.4% of GDP (2023)
1.2% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2021)
1.4% of GDP (2020)
1.3% of GDP (2019)

comparison ranking: 115

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 70,000 active armed forces personnel (23,000 Army; 12,000 Navy; 12,000 Air Force; 23,000 other) (2023)

note: the Army also has approximately 19,000 part-time volunteer soldiers in the Reserve Force, including about 5,500 Rangers

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the CAF's inventory is a mix of domestically produced equipment and imported weapons systems from Australia, Europe, Israel, and the US; in recent years, the leading supplier has been the US; Canada's defense industry develops, maintains, and produces a range of equipment, including aircraft, combat vehicles, naval vessels, and associated components (2023)

Military service age and obligation

17 years of age for voluntary male and female military service (with parental consent); 16 years of age for Reserve and Military College applicants; Canadian citizenship or permanent residence status required; maximum 34 years of age; service obligation 3-9 years (2023)

note 1: Canada opened up all military occupations to women in 2001; women currently comprise about 16% of the CAF

note 2: the CAF offers waivers to foreign nationals applying for military service only in exceptional cases — to individuals on international military exchanges, for example, or to candidates who have specialized skills in high demand

Military deployments

the CAF has approximately 1,000 military personnel forward deployed for NATO air, land, and sea missions in the European theater, including a ground task force in Latvia (2023)

note: in response to Russia’s 2022 invasion of Ukraine, some NATO countries, including Canada, have sent additional troops and equipment to the battlegroups deployed in NATO territory in eastern Europe 

Military - note

the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) are a professional volunteer force responsible for external security; the CAF’s core missions include detecting, deterring, and defending against threats to or attacks on Canada; the military also provides assistance to civil authorities and law enforcement as needed for such missions as counterterrorism, search and rescue, and responding to natural disasters or other major emergencies; it regularly participates in bilateral and multinational training exercises with a variety of partners, including NATO (Canada is one of the original members) and the US; the CAF also contributes to international peacekeeping, stability, humanitarian, combat, and capacity building operations with the UN, NATO, and other security partners

the Canadian Joint Operations Command (CJOC) plans, directs, and leads most CAF operations in Canada, North America, and around the world; it has 6 standing regional Joint Task Force (JTF) headquarters across Canada, as well as other JTFs deployed overseas; the CJOC is assisted by air, ground, and naval components; the Canadian Army is the land component of the CAF and its largest element; it has 4 divisional headquarters (plus 1 under the CJOC), 3 Regular Force combined arms mechanized brigade groups, and 10 brigade groups in the Reserve Force; the Navy’s principal warships are 12 frigates and 4 attack submarines, which are supported by 6 Arctic/offshore patrol ships and 12 coastal defense vessels; the Air Force has over 400 fixed wing aircraft and helicopters, including about 100 US-made F/A-18 multirole fighters; Canada has ordered more than 80 US-made F-35 stealth multirole fighter aircraft which the Air Force expects to start receiving in 2026; the CAF also has a separate Special Operations Forces Command with a special operations regiment and a joint task force, plus air, incident response, and training units

Canada is part of the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD; established 1958); NORAD is a Canada-US bi-national military command responsible for monitoring and defending North American airspace; traditionally, a Canadian Armed Forces officer has served as the deputy commander of NORAD; Canada’s defense relationship with the US extends back to the Ogdensburg Declaration of 1940, when the two countries formally agreed on military cooperation, including the establishment of the Permanent Joint Board on Defense (PJBD), which continues to be the highest-level bilateral defense forum between Canada and the US

British troops withdrew from Canada in 1871 as part of the UK-US Treaty of Washington; following the withdrawal, the first Canadian militia, known as the Royal Canadian Regiment, was organized in 1883 to protect Canadian territory and defend British interests abroad, which it did in the South African War (1899-1902), Canada’s first overseas conflict; militia units formed the backbone of the more than 425,000 Canadian soldiers that went to Europe during World War I in what was called the Canadian Expeditionary Force; the Royal Canadian Navy was created in 1910, while the Canadian Air Force was established in 1920 and became the Royal Canadian Air Force in 1924; the Canadian Army was officially founded in 1942; a unified Canadian Armed Forces was created in 1968 (2023)


Space agency/agencies

Canadian Space Agency (CSA; established 1989) (2023)

Space launch site(s)

Churchill Rocket Research Range (sounding rockets; Manitoba); constructing a private, commercial space launch site in Nova Scotia (2023)

Space program overview

has a substantial program, a national space strategy, and a long history of developing space-related technologies; designs, builds, operates, and tracks communications, remote sensing (RS), multi-mission, and scientific/testing satellites; has an astronaut program (train in the US); designs, builds, or contributes to a variety of other space-related programs, including space telescopes, planetary probes, sensors, and robotic systems (such as the Canadian-made robotic arms used on the US Space Shuttle and the International Space Station); participates in international space efforts and cooperates with a variety of foreign space agencies and commercial entities, including those of Argentina, Brazil, the European Space Agency (ESA)/EU (and their member states), India, and particularly the US; ESA Cooperating State since 1979; has a robust commercial space sector that is involved in satellite communications, optics, space exploration, navigation, and space science (2023)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S


Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS); Hizballah

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the Gulf of Maine, including the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; Canada and the United States dispute how to divide the Beaufort Sea and the status of the Northwest Passage but continue to work cooperatively to survey the Arctic continental shelf; US works closely with Canada to intensify security measures for monitoring and controlling legal and illegal movement of people, transport, and commodities across the international border; commencing the collection of technical evidence for submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf in support of claims for continental shelf beyond 200 nm from its declared baselines in the Arctic, as stipulated in Article 76, paragraph 8, of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 22,400 (Venezuela) (refugees and migrants) (2020); 5,254 (Iran) (mid-year 2021)

stateless persons: 4,323 (2022)

Illicit drugs

transnational criminal organizations trafficked cocaine, opium, methamphetamine, other synthetic drugs, and prescription drugs (some of which transited the United States) to Canada for domestic consumption; a source of synthetic drugs (including synthetic opioids), cannabis, and MDMA trafficked to the United States;  a major source of precursor or essential chemicals used in the production of illicit narcotics