A view in Plitvice Lakes National Park looking down into the gorge where the largest waterfalls in the park - draining from one lake to the next - are located. The park has been added to the UNESCO World Heritage Register.
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Introduction

Background

The lands that today comprise Croatia were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the close of World War I. In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia became a federal independent communist state consisting of six socialist republics under the strong hand of Marshal Josip Broz, aka TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting before occupying Yugoslav forces, dominated by Serb officers, were mostly cleared from Croatian lands, along with a majority of Croatia's ethnic Serb population. Under UN supervision, the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998. The country joined NATO in April 2009 and the EU in July 2013.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates

45 10 N, 15 30 E

Area

total: 56,594 sq km

land: 55,974 sq km

water: 620 sq km

country comparison to the world: 127

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than West Virginia

Area comparison map
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 2,237 km

border countries (5): Bosnia and Herzegovina 956 km; Hungary 348 km; Montenegro 19 km; Serbia 314 km; Slovenia 600 km

Coastline

5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate

Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast

Terrain

geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands

Elevation

highest point: Dinara 1,831 m

lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 331 m

Natural resources

oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 23.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 16% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.5% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 6.2% (2018 est.)

forest: 34.4% (2018 est.)

other: 41.9% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

240 sq km (2012)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Danube (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Czechia, Hungary, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Population distribution

more of the population lives in the northern half of the country, with approximately a quarter of the populace residing in and around the capital of Zagreb; many of the islands are sparsely populated

Natural hazards

destructive earthquakes

Geography - note

controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits; most Adriatic Sea islands lie off the coast of Croatia - some 1,200 islands, islets, ridges, and rocks

Map description

Croatia map showing major cities as well as parts of surrounding countries and the Adriatic Sea.

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Croat(s), Croatian(s)

adjective: Croatian

note: the French designation of "Croate" to Croatian mercenaries in the 17th century eventually became "Cravate" and later came to be applied to the soldiers' scarves - the cravat; Croatia celebrates Cravat Day every 18 October

Ethnic groups

Croat 90.4%, Serb 4.4%, other 4.4% (including Bosniak, Hungarian, Slovene, Czech, and Romani), unspecified 0.8% (2011 est.)

Languages

Croatian (official) 95.6%, Serbian 1.2%, other 3% (including Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and Albanian), unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Knjiga svjetskih činjenica, nužan izvor osnovnih informacija. (Croatian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Croatian audio sample:

Religions

Roman Catholic 86.3%, Orthodox 4.4%, Muslim 1.5%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.5%, not religious or atheist 3.8% (2011 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.16% (male 308,668/female 289,996)

15-24 years: 10.76% (male 233,602/female 221,495)

25-54 years: 39.77% (male 841,930/female 839,601)

55-64 years: 14.24% (male 290,982/female 310,969)

65 years and over: 21.06% (2020 est.) (male 364,076/female 526,427)

2022 population pyramid
2022 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 55.7

youth dependency ratio: 22.6

elderly dependency ratio: 33.1

potential support ratio: 3 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 43.9 years

male: 42 years

female: 45.9 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 18

Birth rate

8.65 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 210

Death rate

12.88 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 10

Net migration rate

-0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 125

Population distribution

more of the population lives in the northern half of the country, with approximately a quarter of the populace residing in and around the capital of Zagreb; many of the islands are sparsely populated

Urbanization

urban population: 58.2% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 0.05% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

684,000 ZAGREB (capital) (2022)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

8 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 150

Infant mortality rate

total: 8.74 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 8.52 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 8.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 143

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 77.22 years

male: 74.1 years

female: 80.53 years (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 91

Drinking water source

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Physicians density

3.47 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

5.5 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.5% of population

rural: 98.4% of population

total: 99% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.5% of population

rural: 1.6% of population

total: 1% of population (2020 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

1,700 (2020 est.)

note: estimate does not include children

country comparison to the world: 137

HIV/AIDS - deaths

(2020 est.) <100

note: estimate does not include children

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: intermediate (2020)

vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 9.64 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 4.75 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 3.52 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 1.37 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.36 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 25

Tobacco use

total: 36.9% (2020 est.)

male: 37.6% (2020 est.)

female: 36.1% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 11

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.3%

male: 99.7%

female: 98.9% (2015)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 14 years

female: 16 years (2019)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 21.1%

male: 18.7%

female: 25% (2020 est.)

Environment

Environment - current issues

air pollution improving but still a concern in urban settings and in emissions arriving from neighboring countries; surface water pollution in the Danube River Basin

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 17.03 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 17.49 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 3.98 megatons (2020 est.)

Climate

Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast

Land use

agricultural land: 23.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 16% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.5% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 6.2% (2018 est.)

forest: 34.4% (2018 est.)

other: 41.9% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 58.2% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 0.05% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 84

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: intermediate (2020)

vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 1.654 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 269,933 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 16.3% (2015 est.)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Danube (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Czechia, Hungary, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 455 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 184 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 76 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

105.5 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Croatia

conventional short form: Croatia

local long form: Republika Hrvatska

local short form: Hrvatska

former: People's Republic of Croatia, Socialist Republic of Croatia

etymology: name derives from the Croats, a Slavic tribe who migrated to the Balkans in the 7th century A.D.

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Zagreb

geographic coordinates: 45 48 N, 16 00 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the name seems to be related to "digging"; archeologists suggest that the original settlement was established beyond a water-filled hole or "graba" and that the name derives from this; "za" in Slavic means "beyond"; the overall meaning may be "beyond the trench (fault, channel, ditch)"

Administrative divisions

20 counties (zupanije, zupanija - singular) and 1 city* (grad - singular) with special county status; Bjelovarsko-Bilogorska (Bjelovar-Bilogora), Brodsko-Posavska (Brod-Posavina), Dubrovacko-Neretvanska (Dubrovnik-Neretva), Istarska (Istria), Karlovacka (Karlovac), Koprivnicko-Krizevacka (Koprivnica-Krizevci), Krapinsko-Zagorska (Krapina-Zagorje), Licko-Senjska (Lika-Senj), Medimurska (Medimurje), Osjecko-Baranjska (Osijek-Baranja), Pozesko-Slavonska (Pozega-Slavonia), Primorsko-Goranska (Primorje-Gorski Kotar), Sibensko-Kninska (Sibenik-Knin), Sisacko-Moslavacka (Sisak-Moslavina), Splitsko-Dalmatinska (Split-Dalmatia), Varazdinska (Varazdin), Viroviticko-Podravska (Virovitica-Podravina), Vukovarsko-Srijemska (Vukovar-Syrmia), Zadarska (Zadar), Zagreb*, Zagrebacka (Zagreb county)

Independence

25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia); note - 25 June 1991 was the day the Croatian parliament voted for independence; following a three-month moratorium to allow the European Community to solve the Yugoslav crisis peacefully, parliament adopted a decision on 8 October 1991 to sever constitutional relations with Yugoslavia; notable earlier dates: ca. 925 (Kingdom of Croatia established); 1 December 1918 (Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (Yugoslavia) established)

National holiday

Statehood Day (National Day), 30 May (1990); note - marks the day in 1990 that the first modern multi-party Croatian parliament convened

Constitution

history: several previous; latest adopted 22 December 1990

amendments: proposed by at least one fifth of the Assembly membership, by the president of the republic, by the Government of Croatia, or through petition by at least 10% of the total electorate; proceedings to amend require majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; passage by petition requires a majority vote in a referendum and promulgation by the Assembly; amended several times, last in 2014

Legal system

civil law system influenced by legal heritage of Austria-Hungary; note - Croatian law was fully harmonized with the European Community acquis as of the June 2010 completion of EU accession negotiations

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Croatia

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Zoran MILANOVIC (since 18 February 2020)

head of government: Prime Minister Andrej PLENKOVIC (since 19 October 2016); Deputy Prime Ministers Damir KRSTICEVIC (since 19 October 2016), Predrag STROMAR (since 9 June 2017), Marija Pejcinovic BURIC (since 19 June 2017), and Tomislav TOLUSIC (since 25 May 2018)

cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the Assembly

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 December 2019 with a runoff on 5 January 2020 (next to be held in 2024); the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president and approved by the Assembly

election results:
2019: Zoran MILANOVIC elected president in second round; percent of vote in second round - Zoran MILANOVIC (SDP) 52.7%, Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC (HDZ) 47.3%

2015: Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC elected president in second round; percent of vote in second round - Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC (HDZ) 50.7%, Ivo JOSIPOVIC (Forward Croatia Progressive Alliance) 49.3%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly or Hrvatski Sabor (151 seats; 140 members in 10 multi-seat constituencies and 3 members in a single constituency for Croatian diaspora directly elected by proportional representation vote using the D'Hondt method with a 5% threshold; an additional 8 members elected from a nationwide constituency by simple majority by voters belonging to minorities recognized by Croatia; the Serb minority elects 3 Assembly members, the Hungarian and Italian minorities elect 1 each, the Czech and Slovak minorities elect 1 jointly, and all other minorities elect 2; all members serve 4-year terms

elections: early election held on 5 July 2020 (next to be held by 2024)

election results: percent of vote by coalition/party - HDZ-led coalition 37.3%, Restart coalition 24.9%, DPMS-led coalition 10.9%, MOST 7.4%, Green-Left coalition 7%, P-F-SSIP 4%, HNS-LD 1.3%, NS-R 1%, other 6.2%; number of seats by coalition/party - HDZ-led coalition 66, Restart coalition 41, DPMS-led coalition 16, MOST 8, Green-Left coalition 7, P-F-SSIP 3, HNS-LD 1, NS-R 1, national minorities 8; composition as of January 2021 - men 103, women 48, percent of women 31.8%

note: seats by party as of March 2021 - HDZ 62, SDP 33, DP 9, Most 6, Croatian Sovereignists 4, We Can! 4, IDS 3, SDSS 3, HSS 2, HSLS 2, BZH 1, Center 1, FOKUS 1, GLAS 1, HDS 1, HSU 1, NL 1, Reformists 1, SSIP 1, RF 1, independent 12

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the court president and vice president, 25 civil department justices, and 16 criminal department justices)

judge selection and term of office: president of Supreme Court nominated by the president of Croatia and elected by the Sabor for a 4-year term; other Supreme Court justices appointed by the National Judicial Council; all judges serve until age 70

subordinate courts: Administrative Court; county, municipal, and specialized courts; note - there is an 11-member Constitutional Court with jurisdiction limited to constitutional issues but is outside of the judicial system

Political parties and leaders

Bloc for Croatia or BLOK or BZH [Zlatko HASANBEGOVIC]
The Bridge or Most [Bozo PETROV] (formerly the Bridge of Independent Lists)
Center or Centar [Ivica PULJAK] (formerly Pametno and Party with a First and Last Name or SSIP) 
Civic Liberal Alliance or GLAS [Ankar Mrak TARITAS]
Croatian Demochristian Party or HDS [Goran DODIG]
Croatian Democratic Alliance of Slavonia and Baranja or HDSSB [Branimir GLAVAS]
Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Andrej PLENKOVIC]
Croatian Democratic Union-led coalition (includes HSLS, HDS, HDSSB)
Croatian Party of Pensioners or HSU [Veselko GABRICEVIC]
Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Kreso BELJAK]
Croatian People's Party - Liberal Democrats or HNS-LD [Stjepan CURAJ]
Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Dario HREBAK]
Croatian Sovereignists or HS [Marijan PAVLICEK]
Focus on the Important or Focus [Davor NADI]
Green-Left coalition [collective leadership] (includes MOZEMO!, NL)
Homeland Movement or DP [Ivan PENAVA] (also known as Miroslav Škoro Homeland Movement or DPMS)
Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Milorad PUPOVAC]
Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Dalibor PAUS]
New Left or NL [Ivana KEKIN]
People's Party - Reformists or NS-R [Radimir CACIC]
Restart Coalition (includes SDP, HSS, HSU, GLAS, IDS, NS-R)
Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Peda GRBIN]
We Can! or Mozemo! [collective leadership]
Workers' Front or RF [collective leadership]

International organization participation

Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EMU, EU, FAO, G-11, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (observer), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Pjer SIMUNOVIC (since 8 September 2017)

chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899

FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936; [1] (202) 588-8937

email address and website:
washington@mvep.hr

http://us.mvep.hr/en/

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Seattle (WA), Washington, DC

consulate(s): Anchorage (AL), Houston, Kansas City (MO), New Orleans, Pittsburgh (PA)

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Mark FLEMING (since May 2021)

embassy: Ulica Thomasa Jeffersona 2, 10010 Zagreb

mailing address: 5080 Zagreb Place, Washington DC  20521-5080

telephone: [385] (1) 661-2200

FAX: [385] (1) 661-8933

email address and website:
ZagrebACS@state.gov

https://hr.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue - the Pan-Slav colors - superimposed by the Croatian coat of arms; the coat of arms consists of one main shield (a checkerboard of 13 red and 12 silver (white) fields) surmounted by five smaller shields that form a crown over the main shield; the five small shields represent five historic regions (from left to right): Croatia, Dubrovnik, Dalmatia, Istria, and Slavonia

note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia

National symbol(s)

red-white checkerboard; national colors: red, white, blue

National anthem

name: "Lijepa nasa domovino" (Our Beautiful Homeland)

lyrics/music: Antun MIHANOVIC/Josip RUNJANIN

note: adopted in 1972 while still part of Yugoslavia; "Lijepa nasa domovino," whose lyrics were written in 1835, served as an unofficial anthem beginning in 1891

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 10 (8 cultural, 2 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Plitvice Lakes National Park (n); Historic Split (c); Old City of Dubrovnik (c); Euphrasian Basilica; Historic Trogir (c); Šibenik Cathedral (c); Stari Grad Plain (c); Zadar and Fort St. Nikola Venetian Defense Works (c); Primeval Beech Forests (n); Stećci Medieval Tombstones Graveyards (c)

Economy

Economic overview

Though still one of the wealthiest of the former Yugoslav republics, Croatia’s economy suffered badly during the 1991-95 war. The country's output during that time collapsed, and Croatia missed the early waves of investment in Central and Eastern Europe that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Between 2000 and 2007, however, Croatia's economic fortunes began to improve with moderate but steady GDP growth between 4% and 6%, led by a rebound in tourism and credit-driven consumer spending. Inflation over the same period remained tame and the currency, the kuna, stable.

 

Croatia experienced an abrupt slowdown in the economy in 2008; economic growth was stagnant or negative in each year between 2009 and 2014, but has picked up since the third quarter of 2014, ending 2017 with an average of 2.8% growth. Challenges remain including uneven regional development, a difficult investment climate, an inefficient judiciary, and loss of educated young professionals seeking higher salaries elsewhere in the EU. In 2016, Croatia revised its tax code to stimulate growth from domestic consumption and foreign investment. Income tax reduction began in 2017, and in 2018 various business costs were removed from income tax calculations. At the start of 2018, the government announced its economic reform plan, slated for implementation in 2019.

 

Tourism is one of the main pillars of the Croatian economy, comprising 19.6% of Croatia’s GDP. Croatia is working to become a regional energy hub, and is undertaking plans to open a floating liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification terminal by the end of 2019 or early in 2020 to import LNG for re-distribution in southeast Europe.

 

Croatia joined the EU on July 1, 2013, following a decade-long accession process. Croatia has developed a plan for Eurozone accession, and the government projects Croatia will adopt the Euro by 2024. In 2017, the Croatian government decreased public debt to 78% of GDP, from an all-time high of 84% in 2014, and realized a 0.8% budget surplus - the first surplus since independence in 1991. The government has also sought to accelerate privatization of non-strategic assets with mixed success. Croatia’s economic recovery is still somewhat fragile; Croatia’s largest private company narrowly avoided collapse in 2017, thanks to a capital infusion from an American investor. Restructuring is ongoing, and projected to finish by mid-July 2018.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$107.11 billion (2020 est.)

$116.89 billion (2019 est.)

$113.64 billion (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 85

Real GDP growth rate

2.94% (2019 est.)

2.7% (2018 est.)

3.14% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 100

Real GDP per capita

$26,500 (2020 est.)

$28,800 (2019 est.)

$27,800 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 71

GDP (official exchange rate)

$60.687 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

0.7% (2019 est.)

1.4% (2018 est.)

1.1% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 51

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BBB- (2019)

Moody's rating: Ba1 (2020)

Standard & Poors rating: BBB- (2019)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 3.7% (2017 est.)

industry: 26.2% (2017 est.)

services: 70.1% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 57.3% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 19.5% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 20% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 51.1% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -48.8% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

maize, wheat, sugar beet, milk, barley, soybeans, potatoes, pork, grapes, sunflower seed

Industries

chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages, tourism

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 1.9%

industry: 27.3%

services: 70.8% (2017 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 21.1%

male: 18.7%

female: 25% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 69

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.7%

highest 10%: 23% (2015 est.)

Budget

revenues: 25.24 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 24.83 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

77.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

82.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 38

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

$1.597 billion (2019 est.)

$1 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 45

Exports

$23.66 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$31.07 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$30.71 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 75

Exports - partners

Italy 13%, Germany 13%, Slovenia 10%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 9%, Austria 6%, Serbia 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, packaged medicines, cars, medical cultures/vaccines, lumber (2019)

Imports

$27.59 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$31.39 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$31.32 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 72

Imports - partners

Italy 14%, Germany 14%, Slovenia 11%, Hungary 7%, Austria 6% (2019)

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, cars, refined petroleum, packaged medicines, electricity (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$18.82 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$14.24 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 60

Debt - external

$48.263 billion (2019 est.)

$51.176 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 70

Exchange rates

kuna (HRK) per US dollar -

6.2474 (2020 est.)

6.72075 (2019 est.)

6.48905 (2018 est.)

6.8583 (2014 est.)

5.7482 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 4.94 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 16,790,680,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 5.852 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 10.491 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 1.659 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 41% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 16.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 31.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 9.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 643,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 2,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 644,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 12,200 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 71,500 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 barrels/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 65,200 barrels/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 71 million barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 851.005 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

consumption: 3,009,113,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 34.462 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

imports: 2,131,802,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 24.919 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

16.752 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 1.674 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 9.4 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 5.678 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 93

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 1,299,329 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 32 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 67

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 4,375,699 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 107 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 125

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Croatia’s telecom market is dominated by the incumbent telco Hrvatski Telekom and the local units of United Group and Telekom Austria, there is effective competition from a number of smaller operators; the regulator has helped promote competition via measures encouraging network access, as well as regional licensing; this has been seen most recently with two 5G licenses having been reserved for regional rather than national operations; the mobile market is served by three MNOs, supplemented by a number of MVNOs; the network operators have focused on improving ARPU by encouraging prepaid subscribers to migrate to postpaid plans, and on developing revenue from mobile data services; 5G services are widely available, though the sector will only show its full potential later in 2021 following the award of licenses in several bands; this will contribute towards the government’s national broadband plan to 2027, which is tied to the EC’s two allied projects aimed at providing gigabit connectivity by the end of 2025; the broadband sector benefits from effective competition between the DSL and cable platforms, while there are also numerous fiber deployments in urban areas; the number of FttP subscribers broached 134,000 in March 2021. (2021)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity has dropped somewhat to about 32 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions are about 107 per 100 (2020)

international: country code - 385;  the ADRIA-1 submarine cable provides connectivity to Albania and Greece; digital international service is provided through the main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic project, which consists of 2 fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced a downturn, particularly in mobile device production; progress towards 5G implementation has resumed, as well as upgrades to infrastructure; consumer spending on telecom services has increased due to the surge in demand for capacity and bandwidth; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home is still evident, and the spike in this area has seen growth opportunities for development of new tools and increased services

Broadcast media

the national state-owned public broadcaster, Croatian Radiotelevision, operates 4 terrestrial TV networks, a satellite channel that rebroadcasts programs for Croatians living abroad, and 6 regional TV centers; 2 private broadcasters operate national terrestrial networks; 29 privately owned regional TV stations; multi-channel cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; state-owned public broadcaster operates 4 national radio networks and 23 regional radio stations; 2 privately owned national radio networks and 117 local radio stations (2019)

Internet users

total: 3,157,190 (2020 est.)

percent of population: 78% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 110

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 1,030,973 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 25 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 73

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 18

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,093,577 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 530,000 (2018) mt-km

Airports - with paved runways

total: 24

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 10 (2021)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 45

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 38 (2021)

Heliports

1 (2021)

Pipelines

2,410 km gas, 610 km oil (2011)

Railways

total: 2,722 km (2014)

standard gauge: 2,722 km (2014) 1.435-m gauge (980 km electrified)

country comparison to the world: 64

Roadways

total: 26,958 km (2015) (includes 1,416 km of expressways)

country comparison to the world: 100

Waterways

4,714 km (2022) Danube 2,859 km, Sava 562 km, Drava 505 km, Neretva 20 km, Bosut 151 km, Kupa 296 km, Mura 53 km, Korana 134 km, Lonja 134 km

country comparison to the world: 25

Merchant marine

total: 354

by type: bulk carrier 14, general cargo 32, oil tanker 16, other 292 (2021)

country comparison to the world: 51

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Ploce, Rijeka, Sibenik, Split

oil terminal(s): Omisalj

LNG terminal(s) (import): Krk Island

river port(s): Vukovar (Danube)

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia (Oruzane Snage Republike Hrvatske, OSRH): Ground Forces (Hrvatska Kopnena Vojska, HKoV), Naval Forces (Hrvatska Ratna Mornarica, HRM; includes Coast Guard), Air Force and Air Defense Forces; Military Police Force (2022)

Military expenditures

2.2% of GDP (2021 est.)

1.7% of GDP (2020)

1.6% of GDP (2019) (approximately $1.62 billion)

1.6% of GDP (2018) (approximately $1.52 billion)

1.7% of GDP (2017) (approximately $1.5 billion)

country comparison to the world: 49

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 15,000 active duty personnel (10,000 Army; 1,500 Navy; 1,500 Air force; 2,000 joint/other) (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the inventory of the Croatian Armed Forces consists mostly of Soviet-era equipment, although in recent years, it has acquired a limited amount of more modern weapon systems from Western suppliers, including Finland, Germany, and the US (2021)

Military service age and obligation

18-27 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2008 (2022)

note: as of 2019, women comprised about 13% of the military's full-time personnel

Military deployments

130 Kosovo (KFOR/NATO) (2022)

note: in response to Russia’s 2022 invasion of Ukraine, some NATO countries have sent additional troops and equipment to the battlegroups deployed in NATO territory in eastern Europe

Military - note

Croatia joined NATO in 2009

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

dispute remains with Bosnia and Herzegovina over several small sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinders ratification of the 1999 border agreement; since the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Piranski Bay and four villages, and Slovenia has objected to Croatia's claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009, however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders, which led to Slovenia lifting its objections to Croatia joining the EU; Slovenia continues to impose a hard border Schengen regime with Croatia, which joined the EU in 2013 but has not yet fulfilled Schengen requirements

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 17,718 (Ukraine) (as of 13 September 2022)

stateless persons: 2,910 (mid-year 2021)

note: 748,975 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-August 2022)

Illicit drugs

drug trafficking groups are major players in the procurement and transportation of large quantities of cocaine destined for European markets