Photos of Croatia

Vukovar, on the confluence of the Vuka and Danube Rivers, is Croatia's largest river port. The city was almost completely destroyed during an 87-day siege by Yugoslav forces and Serbian militias from August to November 1991 after Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia. The city has been largely rebuilt but certain buildings remain unrepaired as reminders of the fighting that resulted in 2,000 defenders killed, several hundred soldiers and civilians massacred after the city fell, and at least 20,000 inhabitants expelled.  The fighting for Vukovar has been described as the worst in Europe since World War II; the city's population today is only about 60% of its pre-war total.



The lands that today comprise Croatia were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the end of World War I. In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia became a federal independent communist state consisting of six socialist republics, including Croatia, under the strong hand of Josip Broz, aka TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting before Yugoslav forces were cleared from Croatian lands, along with a majority of Croatia's ethnic Serb population. Under UN supervision, the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998. The country joined NATO in 2009 and the EU in 2013. In January 2023, Croatia further integrated into the EU by joining the Eurozone and the Schengen Area.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates

45 10 N, 15 30 E


total: 56,594 sq km

land: 55,974 sq km

water: 620 sq km

comparison ranking: total 127

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than West Virginia

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 2,237 km

border countries (5): Bosnia and Herzegovina 956 km; Hungary 348 km; Montenegro 19 km; Serbia 314 km; Slovenia 600 km


5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation


Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast


geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands


highest point: Dinara 1,831 m

lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 331 m

Natural resources

oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 23.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 16% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.5% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 6.2% (2018 est.)

forest: 34.4% (2018 est.)

other: 41.9% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

171 sq km (2020)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Dunav (Danube) (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Population distribution

more of the population lives in the northern half of the country, with approximately a quarter of the populace residing in and around the capital of Zagreb; many of the islands are sparsely populated

Natural hazards

destructive earthquakes

Geography - note

controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits; most Adriatic Sea islands lie off the coast of Croatia - some 1,200 islands, islets, ridges, and rocks

People and Society


total: 4,150,116

male: 2,003,431

female: 2,146,685 (2024 est.)

comparison rankings: female 129; male 130; total 129


noun: Croat(s), Croatian(s)

adjective: Croatian

note: the French designation of "Croate" to Croatian mercenaries in the 17th century eventually became "Cravate" and later came to be applied to the soldiers' scarves - the cravat; Croatia celebrates Cravat Day every 18 October

Ethnic groups

Croat 91.6%, Serb 3.2%, other 3.9% (including Bosniak, Romani, Albanian, Italian, and Hungarian), unspecified 1.3% (2021 est.)


Croatian (official) 95.2%, Serbian 1.2%, other 3.1% (including Bosnian, Romani, Albanian, and Italian) unspecified 0.5% (2021 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Knjiga svjetskih činjenica, nužan izvor osnovnih informacija. (Croatian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Croatian audio sample:


Roman Catholic 79%, Orthodox 3.3%, Protestant 0.3%, other Christian 4.8%, Muslim 1.3%, other 1.1%, agnostic 1.7%, none or atheist 4.7%, unspecified 3.9% (2021 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 13.8% (male 296,527/female 278,236)

15-64 years: 63.1% (male 1,307,814/female 1,309,394)

65 years and over: 23.1% (2024 est.) (male 399,090/female 559,055)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 56.5

youth dependency ratio: 22.1

elderly dependency ratio: 34.4

potential support ratio: 2.9 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 45.1 years (2024 est.)

male: 43.2 years

female: 47 years

comparison ranking: total 20

Population growth rate

-0.46% (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 220

Birth rate

8.5 births/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 205

Death rate

13.1 deaths/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 13

Net migration rate

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 86

Population distribution

more of the population lives in the northern half of the country, with approximately a quarter of the populace residing in and around the capital of Zagreb; many of the islands are sparsely populated


urban population: 58.6% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.05% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

684,000 ZAGREB (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female

total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2024 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

5 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 169

Infant mortality rate

total: 8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2024 est.)

male: 8.2 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 8.7 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 143

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 77.7 years (2024 est.)

male: 74.6 years

female: 81 years

comparison ranking: total population 86

Total fertility rate

1.46 children born/woman (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 206

Gross reproduction rate

0.71 (2024 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

7.8% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

3.47 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

5.5 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.5% of population

rural: 98.4% of population

total: 99% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.5% of population

rural: 1.6% of population

total: 1% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: intermediate (2023)

vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

24.4% (2016)

comparison ranking: 59

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 9.64 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 4.75 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 3.52 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 1.37 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.36 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 25

Tobacco use

total: 36.9% (2020 est.)

male: 37.6% (2020 est.)

female: 36.1% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 11

Education expenditures

5.5% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 60


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.4%

male: 99.7%

female: 99.2% (2021)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 14 years

female: 16 years (2020)


Environment - current issues

air pollution improving but still a concern in urban settings and in emissions arriving from neighboring countries; surface water pollution in the Danube River Basin

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements


Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast

Land use

agricultural land: 23.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 16% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.5% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 6.2% (2018 est.)

forest: 34.4% (2018 est.)

other: 41.9% (2018 est.)


urban population: 58.6% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.05% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.26% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 87

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 129

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 15.29 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 17.49 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 3.98 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 1.654 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 269,933 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 16.3% (2015 est.)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Dunav (Danube) (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 460 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 700 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 80 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

105.5 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)


total global geoparks and regional networks: 3 (2024)

global geoparks and regional networks: Biokovo-Imotski Lakes; Papuk; Vis Archipelago (2024)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Croatia

conventional short form: Croatia

local long form: Republika Hrvatska

local short form: Hrvatska

former: People's Republic of Croatia, Socialist Republic of Croatia

etymology: name derives from the Croats, a Slavic tribe who migrated to the Balkans in the 7th century A.D.

Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Zagreb

geographic coordinates: 45 48 N, 16 00 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the name seems to be related to "digging"; archeologists suggest that the original settlement was established beyond a water-filled hole or graba and that the name derives from this; za in Slavic means "beyond"; the overall meaning may be "beyond the trench (fault, channel, ditch)"

Administrative divisions

20 counties (zupanije, zupanija - singular) and 1 city* (grad - singular) with special county status; Bjelovarsko-Bilogorska (Bjelovar-Bilogora), Brodsko-Posavska (Brod-Posavina), Dubrovacko-Neretvanska (Dubrovnik-Neretva), Istarska (Istria), Karlovacka (Karlovac), Koprivnicko-Krizevacka (Koprivnica-Krizevci), Krapinsko-Zagorska (Krapina-Zagorje), Licko-Senjska (Lika-Senj), Medimurska (Medimurje), Osjecko-Baranjska (Osijek-Baranja), Pozesko-Slavonska (Pozega-Slavonia), Primorsko-Goranska (Primorje-Gorski Kotar), Sibensko-Kninska (Sibenik-Knin), Sisacko-Moslavacka (Sisak-Moslavina), Splitsko-Dalmatinska (Split-Dalmatia), Varazdinska (Varazdin), Viroviticko-Podravska (Virovitica-Podravina), Vukovarsko-Srijemska (Vukovar-Syrmia), Zadarska (Zadar), Zagreb*, Zagrebacka (Zagreb county)


25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia); note - 25 June 1991 was the day the Croatian parliament voted for independence; following a three-month moratorium to allow the European Community to solve the Yugoslav crisis peacefully, parliament adopted a decision on 8 October 1991 to sever constitutional relations with Yugoslavia; notable earlier dates: ca. 925 (Kingdom of Croatia established); 1 December 1918 (Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (Yugoslavia) established)

National holiday

Statehood Day (National Day), 30 May (1990); note - marks the day in 1990 that the first modern multi-party Croatian parliament convened


history: several previous; latest adopted 22 December 1990

amendments: proposed by at least one fifth of the Assembly membership, by the president of the republic, by the Government of Croatia, or through petition by at least 10% of the total electorate; proceedings to amend require majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; passage by petition requires a majority vote in a referendum and promulgation by the Assembly; amended several times, last in 2014

Legal system

civil law system influenced by legal heritage of Austria-Hungary; note - Croatian law was fully harmonized with the European Community acquis as of the June 2010 completion of EU accession negotiations

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Croatia

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Zoran MILANOVIC (since 18 February 2020)

head of government: Prime Minister Andrej PLENKOVIC (since 19 October 2016); Deputy Prime Ministers Tomo MEDVED (since 23 July 2020), Davor BOZINOVIC (since 12 July 2019), Oleg BUTKOVIC (since 15 July 2022), Branko BACIC (since 17 January 2023), Anja SIMPRAG (since 29 April 2022)

cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the Assembly

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 December 2019 with a runoff on 5 January 2020 (next to be held in 2024); the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president and approved by the Assembly

election results:
2019: Zoran MILANOVIC elected president in second round; percent of vote in second round - Zoran MILANOVIC (SDP) 52.7%, Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC (HDZ) 47.3%

2015: Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC elected president in second round; percent of vote in second round - Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC (HDZ) 50.7%, Ivo JOSIPOVIC (Forward Croatia Progressive Alliance) 49.3%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly or Hrvatski Sabor (151 seats; 140 members in 10 multi-seat constituencies and 3 members in a single constituency for Croatian diaspora directly elected by proportional representation vote using the D'Hondt method with a 5% threshold; an additional 8 members elected from a nationwide constituency by simple majority by voters belonging to minorities recognized by Croatia; the Serb minority elects 3 Assembly members, the Hungarian and Italian minorities elect 1 each, the Czech and Slovak minorities elect 1 jointly, and all other minorities elect 2; all members serve 4-year terms

elections: last election held on 17 April 2024 (next to be held by April 2028)

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - HDZ-led coalition 40.4%, SDP 27.8%, DP 9.3%, MOST 7.3%, We Can! 6.6%, SDSS 2.0%, Independents 1.3%, NPS 1.3%, IDS 1.3%, Bosniaks Together 0.7%, DZMH 0.7%, Focus 0.7%, SRRH 0.7%; seats by party/coalition - HDZ-led coalition 61, SDP 42, DP 14, MOST 11, We Can! 10, SDSS 3, Independents 2, NPS 2, IDS 2, Bosniaks Together 1, DZMH 1, Focus 1, SRRH 1; composition - N/A

note: on 14 March 2024, the Assembly voted unanimously to dissolve, prompting the April 2024 snap election

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president and vice president, 25 civil department justices, and 16 criminal department justices)

judge selection and term of office: president of Supreme Court nominated by the president of Croatia and elected by the Sabor for a 4-year term; other Supreme Court justices appointed by the National Judicial Council; all judges serve until age 70

subordinate courts: Administrative Court; county, municipal, and specialized courts; note - there is an 11-member Constitutional Court with jurisdiction limited to constitutional issues but is outside of the judicial system

Political parties and leaders

Bosniaks Together
The Bridge or MOST [Bozo PETROV] (formerly the Bridge of Independent Lists)
Croatia Romani Union Kali Sara (SRRH)
Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Andrej PLENKOVIC]
Democratic Union of Hungarians in Croatia (DZMH) [Robert JANKOVICS]
Focus or Fokus [Davor NADI]
Homeland Movement or DP [Ivan PENAVA] (also known as Miroslav Škoro Homeland Movement or DPMS)
Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Milorad PUPOVAC]
Independent Platform of the North (NPS) [Matija POSAVEC]
Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Dalibor PAUS]
Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Peda GRBIN]
We Can! or Mozemo! [collective leadership]

International organization participation

AIIB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EMU, EU, FAO, G-11, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (observer), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Pjer SIMUNOVIC (since 8 September 2017)

chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899

FAX: [1] (202) 588-8937

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Seattle (WA), Washington, DC

consulate(s): Anchorage (AL), Houston, Kansas City (MO), New Orleans, Pittsburgh (PA)

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Nathalie RAYES (since 25 January 2024)

embassy: Ulica Thomasa Jeffersona 2, 10010 Zagreb

mailing address: 5080 Zagreb Place, Washington DC  20521-5080

telephone: [385] (1) 661-2200

FAX: [385] (1) 665-8933

email address and website:

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue - the Pan-Slav colors - superimposed by the Croatian coat of arms; the coat of arms consists of one main shield (a checkerboard of 13 red and 12 silver (white) fields) surmounted by five smaller shields that form a crown over the main shield; the five small shields represent five historic regions (from left to right): Croatia, Dubrovnik, Dalmatia, Istria, and Slavonia

note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia

National symbol(s)

red-white checkerboard; national colors: red, white, blue

National anthem

name: "Lijepa nasa domovino" (Our Beautiful Homeland)

lyrics/music: Antun MIHANOVIC/Josip RUNJANIN

note: adopted in 1972 while still part of Yugoslavia; "Lijepa nasa domovino," whose lyrics were written in 1835, served as an unofficial anthem beginning in 1891

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 10 (8 cultural, 2 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Plitvice Lakes National Park (n); Historic Split (c); Old City of Dubrovnik (c); Euphrasian Basilica; Historic Trogir (c); Šibenik Cathedral (c); Stari Grad Plain (c); Zadar and Fort St. Nikola Venetian Defense Works (c); Primeval Beech Forests (n); Stećci Medieval Tombstones Graveyards (c)


Economic overview

tourism-based economy that was one of the hardest hit by COVID-19 economic disruptions; newest euro user since 2023, helping recover from a 6-year recession; public debt increases due to COVID-19 and stimulus packages; weak exports; continuing emigration; new liquefied natural gas import terminal

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$132.256 billion (2022 est.)
$124.363 billion (2021 est.)
$109.296 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 84

Real GDP growth rate

6.35% (2022 est.)
13.78% (2021 est.)
-8.59% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 52

Real GDP per capita

$34,300 (2022 est.)
$32,100 (2021 est.)
$27,000 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 65

GDP (official exchange rate)

$71.6 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

10.78% (2022 est.)
2.55% (2021 est.)
0.15% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 166

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BBB- (2019)

Moody's rating: Ba1 (2020)

Standard & Poors rating: BBB- (2019)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 3.7% (2017 est.)

industry: 26.2% (2017 est.)

services: 70.1% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 69; industry 107; agriculture 143

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 57.3% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 19.5% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 20% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 51.1% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -48.8% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

maize, wheat, maize, sugar beets, milk, barley, soybeans, sunflower seeds, grapes, pork (2022)

note: top ten agricultural products based on tonnage


chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages, tourism

Industrial production growth rate

2.69% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 124

Labor force

1.732 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 132

Unemployment rate

6.96% (2022 est.)
7.61% (2021 est.)
7.51% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 138

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 23.6% (2021 est.)

male: 21.8%

female: 26.3%

comparison ranking: total 67

Population below poverty line

18% (2021 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

29.5 (2020 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

comparison ranking: 149

Average household expenditures

on food: 19.6% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 6.6% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.9%

highest 10%: 22.3% (2020 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population


7.53% of GDP (2022 est.)
7.28% of GDP (2021 est.)
7.25% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities


revenues: $212.81 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $211.069 billion (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

0.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 36

Public debt

91% of GDP (2021 est.)
98.78% of GDP (2020 est.)
81.68% of GDP (2019 est.)

note: central government debt as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 26

Taxes and other revenues

20.13% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 86

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$1.464 billion (2022 est.)
$2.082 billion (2021 est.)
-$184.775 million (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 136


$41.953 billion (2022 est.)
$35.308 billion (2021 est.)
$24.007 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 72

Exports - partners

Italy 13%, Slovenia 11%, Germany 11%, Hungary 10%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 9% (2022)

note: top five export partners based on percentage share of exports

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, electricity, natural gas, garments, wood (2022)

note: top five export commodities based on value in dollars


$46.307 billion (2022 est.)
$36.331 billion (2021 est.)
$27.954 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 70

Imports - partners

Italy 14%, Germany 12%, Slovenia 11%, Hungary 7%, US 7% (2022)

note: top five import partners based on percentage share of imports

Imports - commodities

natural gas, refined petroleum, electricity, garments, cars (2022)

note: top five import commodities based on value in dollars

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$29.726 billion (2022 est.)
$28.309 billion (2021 est.)
$23.254 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 62

Debt - external

$48.263 billion (2019 est.)
$51.176 billion (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 70

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
7.16 (2022 est.)
6.36 (2021 est.)
6.614 (2020 est.)
6.623 (2019 est.)
6.279 (2018 est.)

note: Rates shown through 2022 are for the kuna, which Croatia used prior to conversion to the euro on 1 January 2023. During the transition period the exchange rate was fixed at 7.53450 kuna to 1 euro.


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)


installed generating capacity: 4.94 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 16,790,680,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 5.852 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 10.491 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 1.659 billion kWh (2019 est.)

comparison rankings: imports 23; exports 34; installed generating capacity 88; transmission/distribution losses 121; consumption 76

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 41% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 16.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 31.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 9.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)


production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 643,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 2,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 644,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 12,200 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 71,500 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 65,200 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 71 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

74,620 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 70

Refined petroleum products - exports

40,530 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 58

Refined petroleum products - imports

35,530 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 94

Natural gas

production: 851.005 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

consumption: 3,009,113,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 34.462 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

imports: 2,131,802,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 24.919 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

16.752 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 1.674 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 9.4 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 5.678 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 93

Energy consumption per capita

89.733 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 64


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 1,234,915 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 31 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 66

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 4,402,213 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 108 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 128

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: the mobile market is served by three MNOs, supplemented by a number of MVNOs; the network operators have focused on improving ARPU by encouraging prepaid subscribers to migrate to postpaid plans, and on developing revenue from mobile data services; 5G services are widely available, though the sector will only show its full potential later in 2021 following the award of licenses in several bands; this will contribute towards the government’s national broadband plan to 2027, which is tied to the EC’s two allied projects aimed at providing gigabit connectivity by the end of 2025; the broadband sector benefits from effective competition between the DSL and cable platforms, while there are also numerous fiber deployments in urban areas; the number of FttP subscribers broached 134,000 in March 2021. (2021)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity 31 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions are 108 per 100 (2021)

international: country code - 385;  the ADRIA-1 submarine cable provides connectivity to Albania and Greece; digital international service is provided through the main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic project, which consists of 2 fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik (2019)

Broadcast media

the national state-owned public broadcaster, Croatian Radiotelevision, operates 4 terrestrial TV networks, a satellite channel that rebroadcasts programs for Croatians living abroad, and 6 regional TV centers; 2 private broadcasters operate national terrestrial networks; 29 privately owned regional TV stations; multi-channel cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; state-owned public broadcaster operates 4 national radio networks and 23 regional radio stations; 2 privately owned national radio networks and 117 local radio stations (2019)

Internet users

total: 3.321 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 81% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 115

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 1,030,973 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 25 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 73


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 18

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,093,577 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 530,000 (2018) mt-km


40 (2024)

comparison ranking: 101


4 (2024)


2,410 km gas, 610 km oil (2011)


total: 2,617 km (2020) 980 km electrified

comparison ranking: total 63


total: 26,958 km (2022)

comparison ranking: total 103


4,714 km (2022) Danube 2,859 km, Sava 562 km, Drava 505 km, Neretva 20 km, Bosut 151 km, Kupa 296 km, Mura 53 km, Korana 134 km, Lonja 134 km

comparison ranking: 25

Merchant marine

total: 384 (2023)

by type: bulk carrier 10, general cargo 32, oil tanker 14, other 328

comparison ranking: total 50


total ports: 16 (2024)

large: 2

medium: 0

small: 6

very small: 8

ports with oil terminals: 8

key ports: Bakar, Dubrovnik, Omisalj, Rijeka Luka, Rovinj, Sibenik, Split, Zadar

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia (Oruzane Snage Republike Hrvatske, OSRH): Ground Forces (Hrvatska Kopnena Vojska, HKoV), Naval Forces (Hrvatska Ratna Mornarica, HRM; includes Coast Guard), Air Force (Hrvatsko Ratno Zrakoplovstvo, HRZ) (2024)

note: the Ministry of the Interior is responsible for internal security, including law enforcement (Croatia Police) and border security

Military expenditures

1.8% of GDP (2023 est.)
1.8% of GDP (2022)
2% of GDP (2021)
1.7% of GDP (2020)
1.6% of GDP (2019)

comparison ranking: 70

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 15,000 active-duty personnel (10,000 Army; 1,500 Navy; 1,500 Air force; 2,000 joint/other) (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory is a mix of Soviet-era equipment and a growing amount of more modern weapon systems from Western suppliers, including France, Germany, and the US (2024)

Military service age and obligation

18-27 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2008 (2024)

note: as of 2021, women comprised nearly 15% of the military's full-time personnel

Military deployments

150 Kosovo (KFOR/NATO); 175 Lithuania (NATO; Croatia also has a few hundred personnel participating in several other EU, NATO, and UN missions (2024)

Military - note

the Armed Forces of Croatia (OSRH) are responsible for the defense of Croatia’s sovereignty and territory, contributing to international humanitarian, peacekeeping, and security missions, and providing assistance to civil authorities for such missions as responding to disasters, search and rescue, anti-terrorism, and internal security in times of crisis if called upon by the prime minister or the president; Croatia joined NATO in 2009, and the OSRH participates in NATO missions, including its peacekeeping force in Kosovo and the Enhanced Forward Presence mission in Eastern Europe; it also contributes to EU and UN missions; the OSRH trains regularly with NATO and regional partners  

the OSRH was established in 1991 from the Croatian National Guard during the Croatian War of Independence (1991-95); during the war, the ground forces grew to as many as 60 brigades and dozens of independent battalions, and a single military offensive against Serbian forces in 1995 included some 100,000 Croatian troops; in 2000, Croatia initiated an effort to modernize and reform the OSRH into a small, professional military capable of meeting the challenges of NATO membership; the current 15,000-strong military’s principal combat forces are two mechanized infantry brigades, a small joint service special operations command, a flotilla of missile boats and coastal patrol vessels, and a squadron of Soviet-era fighter aircraft that are in the process of being replaced by more modern French aircraft  (2023)

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 24,525 (Ukraine) (as of 29 February 2024)

stateless persons: 2,889 (2022)

note: 843,010 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-September 2023)

Illicit drugs

drug trafficking groups are major players in the procurement and transportation of large quantities of cocaine destined for European markets