Photos of Finland

Aerial view of Helsinki. The prominent building with the dome in the center is Helsinki Cathedral.



Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It gained complete independence in 1917. During World War II, Finland successfully defended its independence through cooperation with Germany and resisted subsequent invasions by the Soviet Union, albeit with some loss of territory. During the next half-century, Finland transformed from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per-capita income is among the highest in Western Europe. A member of the EU since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro single currency at its initiation in January 1999. In the 21st century, the key features of Finland's modern welfare state are high-quality education, promotion of equality, and a national social welfare system, although the system is currently facing the challenges of an aging population and the fluctuations of an export-driven economy. Following Russia's invasion of Ukraine in 2022, Finland opted to join NATO; it became the organization's 31st member in April 2023.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

Geographic coordinates

64 00 N, 26 00 E


total: 338,145 sq km

land: 303,815 sq km

water: 34,330 sq km

comparison ranking: total 66

Area - comparative

slightly more than two times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Montana

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 2,563 km

border countries (3): Norway 709 km; Sweden 545 km; Russia 1,309 km


1,250 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)

contiguous zone: 24 nm

continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm; extends to continental shelf boundary with Sweden, Estonia, and Russia


cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes


mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills


highest point: Halti (alternatively Haltia, Haltitunturi, Haltiatunturi) 1,328 m

lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 164 m

Natural resources

timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone

Land use

agricultural land: 7.5% (2018 est.)

arable land: 7.4% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 72.9% (2018 est.)

other: 19.6% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

80 sq km (2015)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Saimaa - 1,760 sq km; Paijanne - 1,090 sq km; Inarijarvi - 1,000 sq km; Oulujarvi - 900 sq km; Pielinen - 850 sq km

Population distribution

the vast majority of people are found in the south; the northern interior areas remain sparsely populated

Natural hazards

severe winters in the north

Geography - note

long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain

People and Society


total: 5,626,414

male: 2,773,656

female: 2,852,758 (2024 est.)

comparison rankings: female 118; male 119; total 118


noun: Finn(s)

adjective: Finnish

Ethnic groups

Finnish, Swedish, Russian, Estonian, Romani, Sami

note: 90.9% of the population has a Finnish background (2022 est.)


Finnish (official) 85.9%, Swedish (official) 5.2%, Russian 1.7%, other 7.2% (2022 est.)

major-language sample(s):
World Factbook, korvaamaton perustietolähde. (Finnish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Finnish audio sample:


Lutheran 66.6%, Greek Orthodox 1.1%, other 1.7%, none 30.6% (2022 est.)

Demographic profile

Finland has a relatively high fertility rate for Europe at about 1.75 children per woman in 2023.  Finnish women have high labor force participation rates, and their educational attainment is higher than that of Finnish men. Finland’s family policy, like other Nordic countries, puts an emphasis on reconciling work and family life.  Both parents can stay at home with an earnings-based allowance until the baby is about 11 months old.  Finland also has a publicly subsidized childcare system.  Alternatively, parents can choose to take care of a small child through home care leave with a flat allowance rate.  These benefits have encouraged fathers to do a greater share of housework and childcare, although women still perform the lion’s share of domestic work.  In other instances, women have reduced the burden of household work by outsourcing domestic chores, rather than men taking on more of the responsibilities.  Finland has high family size ideals compared to other European countries, and childlessness and one-child families are not favored.  The proportion of couples having at least three children has been growing since the 1970s.

Finland has historically been a country of emigration.  In the 20th century, Finns emigrated largely in two waves.  Before World War II, the majority of Finns went to North America, and after World War II most went to Sweden, where industrialization was generating much-needed jobs that offered higher salaries and a better standard of living.  In the 1980s and early 1990s, Finnish returnees (mainly from Sweden) began to outnumber Finnish emigrants.  Also arriving in Finland between April 1990 and 2010, were Ingrian Finns – descendants of ethnic Finns who settled near St. Petersburg, Russia, in the 17th century – who immigrated to Finland under the Right of Return Law.  In addition, the country has absorbed immigrants from Russia, Estonia, the former Yugoslavia, and Sweden for a variety of reasons, most commonly for marriage and family reunification.  Finland has also accepted refugees and asylum seekers from Somalia, Iraq, China, and Thailand.

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.2% (male 464,939/female 444,585)

15-64 years: 60.3% (male 1,725,072/female 1,668,604)

65 years and over: 23.5% (2024 est.) (male 583,645/female 739,569)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 62.1

youth dependency ratio: 25

elderly dependency ratio: 37.1

potential support ratio: 2.7 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 43.3 years (2024 est.)

male: 41.8 years

female: 44.9 years

comparison ranking: total 36

Population growth rate

0.2% (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 178

Birth rate

10.2 births/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 184

Death rate

10.4 deaths/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 30

Net migration rate

2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 47

Population distribution

the vast majority of people are found in the south; the northern interior areas remain sparsely populated


urban population: 85.8% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.42% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

1.338 million HELSINKI (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2024 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.5 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

8 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 152

Infant mortality rate

total: 2.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2024 est.)

male: 2.3 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 1.9 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 221

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 82.2 years (2024 est.)

male: 79.3 years

female: 85.2 years

comparison ranking: total population 31

Total fertility rate

1.74 children born/woman (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 150

Gross reproduction rate

0.85 (2024 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

85.5% (2015)

note: percent of women aged 18-49

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

9.6% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

4.64 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

3.6 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

22.2% (2016)

comparison ranking: 80

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 8.23 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 3.76 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 1.59 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 1.96 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.91 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 41

Tobacco use

total: 21.6% (2020 est.)

male: 26.9% (2020 est.)

female: 16.3% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 75

Child marriage

women married by age 18: 0.1% (2017 est.)

Education expenditures

5.9% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 46


total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 19 years

male: 18 years

female: 20 years (2020)


Environment - current issues

limited air pollution in urban centers; some water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements


cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

Land use

agricultural land: 7.5% (2018 est.)

arable land: 7.4% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 72.9% (2018 est.)

other: 19.6% (2018 est.)


urban population: 85.8% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.42% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.36% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 74

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 93

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 5.47 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 45.87 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 4.46 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 2.738 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 769,926 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 28.1% (2015 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Saimaa - 1,760 sq km; Paijanne - 1,090 sq km; Inarijarvi - 1,000 sq km; Oulujarvi - 900 sq km; Pielinen - 850 sq km

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 1 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 2 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 500 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

110 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)


total global geoparks and regional networks: 4 (2024)

global geoparks and regional networks: Impact Crater Lake - Lappajarvi; Rokua; Lauhanvuori-Haemeenkangas; Saimaa; Salpausselka (2024)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Finland

conventional short form: Finland

local long form: Suomen tasavalta (Finnish)/ Republiken Finland (Swedish)

local short form: Suomi (Finnish)/ Finland (Swedish)

etymology: name may derive from the ancient Fenni peoples who are first described as living in northeastern Europe in the first centuries A.D.

Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Helsinki

geographic coordinates: 60 10 N, 24 56 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the name may derive from the Swedish helsing, an archaic name for "neck" (hals), and which may refer to a narrowing of the Vantaa River that flows into the Gulf of Finland at Helsinki; fors refers to "rapids," so helsing fors meaning becomes "the narrows' rapids"

Administrative divisions

19 regions (maakunnat, singular - maakunta (Finnish); landskapen, singular - landskapet (Swedish)); Aland (Swedish), Ahvenanmaa (Finnish); Etela-Karjala (Finnish), Sodra Karelen (Swedish) [South Karelia]; Etela-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Sodra Osterbotten (Swedish) [South Ostrobothnia]; Etela-Savo (Finnish), Sodra Savolax (Swedish) [South Savo]; Kanta-Hame (Finnish), Egentliga Tavastland (Swedish); Kainuu (Finnish), Kajanaland (Swedish); Keski-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Mellersta Osterbotten (Swedish) [Central Ostrobothnia]; Keski-Suomi (Finnish), Mellersta Finland (Swedish) [Central Finland]; Kymenlaakso (Finnish), Kymmenedalen (Swedish); Lappi (Finnish), Lappland (Swedish); Paijat-Hame (Finnish), Paijanne-Tavastland (Swedish); Pirkanmaa (Finnish), Birkaland (Swedish) [Tampere]; Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Osterbotten (Swedish) [Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Karjala (Finnish), Norra Karelen (Swedish) [North Karelia]; Pohjois-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Norra Osterbotten (Swedish) [North Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Savo (Finnish), Norra Savolax (Swedish) [North Savo]; Satakunta (Finnish and Swedish); Uusimaa (Finnish), Nyland (Swedish) [Newland]; Varsinais-Suomi (Finnish), Egentliga Finland (Swedish) [Southwest Finland]


6 December 1917 (from Russia)

National holiday

Independence Day, 6 December (1917)


history: previous 1906, 1919; latest drafted 17 June 1997, approved by Parliament 11 June 1999, entered into force 1 March 2000

amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage normally requires simple majority vote in two readings in the first parliamentary session and at least two-thirds majority vote in a single reading by the newly elected Parliament; proposals declared "urgent" by five-sixths of Parliament members can be passed by at least two-thirds majority vote in the first parliamentary session only; amended several times, last in 2018

Legal system

civil law system based on the Swedish model

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Finland

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 6 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Alexander STUBB (since 1 March 2024)

head of government: Prime Minister Petteri ORPO (since 20 June 2023)

cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); first round held on 28 January 2024 with a runoff on 11 February 2024 (next to be held by 28 January 2030); prime minister appointed by Parliament

election results: 2024:  Alexander STUBB elected in the second round; percent of vote in the first round - Alexander STUBB (KoK) 27.2%, Pekka HAAVISTO (Vihr) 25.8%, Jussi HALLA-AHO (PS) 19.0%, Olli REHN (Kesk) 15.3%; percent of vote in second round - STUBB 51.6%, HAAVISTO 48.4%

Sauli NIINISTO reelected president; percent of vote - Sauli NIINISTO (independent) 62.7%, Pekka HAAVISTO (Vihr) 12.4%, Laura HUHTASAARI (PS) 6.9%, Paavo VAYRYNEN (independent) 6.2%, Matti VANHANEN (Kesk) 4.1%, other 7.7%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; 199 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 1 member in the province of Aland directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 2 April 2023 (next to be held on 30 April 2027)

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - Kok 24%, PS 23%, SDP 21.5%. Center Party 11.5%, Vihr 6.5%, Vas 5.5%, SFP 4.5%, KD 2.5%, Aland 0.5%; Movement Now 0.5%; seats by party/coalition - Kok 48, PS 46, SDP 43, Center Party 23, Vihr 13, Vas 11, SFP 9, KD 5; Aland 1; Movement Now 1; composition - men 108, women 92, percentage women 46%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (consists of the court president and 18 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 21 judges, including the court president and organized into 3 chambers); note - Finland has a dual judicial system - courts with civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction for litigation between individuals and administrative organs of the state and communities

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court judges appointed by the president of the republic; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 68

subordinate courts: 6 Courts of Appeal; 8 regional administrative courts; 27 district courts; special courts for issues relating to markets, labor, insurance, impeachment, land, tenancy, and water rights

Political parties and leaders

Aland Coalition (a coalition of several political parties on the Aland Islands)
Center Party or Kesk [Annika SAARIKKO]
Christian Democrats or KD [Sari ESSAYAH]
Finns Party or PS [Riikka PURRA]
Green League or Vihr [Sofia VIRTA]
Left Alliance or Vas [Li ANDERSSON]
Movement Now or Liike Nyt [Harry HARKIMO]
National Coalition Party or Kok [Petteri ORPO]
Social Democratic Party or SDP [Antti LINDTMAN]
Swedish People's Party or RKP or SFP [Anna-Maja HENRIKSSON]

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNHRC, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNOOSA, UNRWA, UNSOM, UNTSO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Mikko Tapani HAUTALA (since 17 September 2020)

chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800

FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Douglas HICKEY (since 11 May 2022)

embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14 B, 00140 Helsinki

mailing address: 5310 Helsinki Place, Washington DC  20521-5310

telephone: [358] (9) 616-250

FAX: [358] (9) 174-681

email address and website:

Flag description

white with a blue cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the blue represents the thousands of lakes scattered across the country, while the white is for the snow that covers the land in winter

National symbol(s)

lion; national colors: blue, white

National anthem

name: "Maamme" (Our Land)

lyrics/music: Johan Ludvig RUNEBERG/Fredrik PACIUS

note: in use since 1848; although never officially adopted by law, the anthem has been popular since it was first sung by a student group in 1848; Estonia's anthem uses the same melody as that of Finland

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 7 (6 cultural, 1 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Fortress of Suomenlinna (c); Old Rauma (c); Petäjävesi Old Church (c); Verla Groundwood and Board Mill (c); Bronze Age Burial Site of Sammallahdenmäki (c); High Coast / Kvarken Archipelago (n); Struve Geodetic Arc (c)


Economic overview

highly industrialized, export-based EU economy and euro user; high per capita GDP; major timber, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries; manageable public debts; rigid labor laws impose higher regulatory burdens

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$274.576 billion (2022 est.)
$270.247 billion (2021 est.)
$261.941 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 59

Real GDP growth rate

1.6% (2022 est.)
3.17% (2021 est.)
-2.35% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 177

Real GDP per capita

$49,400 (2022 est.)
$48,800 (2021 est.)
$47,400 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 34

GDP (official exchange rate)

$282.896 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

7.12% (2022 est.)
2.19% (2021 est.)
0.29% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 112

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: AA+ (2016)

Moody's rating: Aa1 (2016)

Standard & Poors rating: AA+ (2014)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2.7% (2017 est.)

industry: 28.2% (2017 est.)

services: 69.1% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 75; industry 91; agriculture 157

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 54.4% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 22.9% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 22.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.4% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 38.5% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -38.2% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, barley, oats, wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, pork, chicken, peas, beef (2022)

note: top ten agricultural products based on tonnage


metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing

Industrial production growth rate

0.04% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 160

Labor force

2.846 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 112

Unemployment rate

6.72% (2022 est.)
7.61% (2021 est.)
7.76% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 133

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 18.1% (2021 est.)

male: 19%

female: 17.1%

comparison ranking: total 94

Population below poverty line

12.7% (2021 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

27.1 (2020 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

comparison ranking: 166

Average household expenditures

on food: 12% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 5% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.9%

highest 10%: 22.6% (2020 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population


0.21% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.23% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.22% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities


revenues: $140.643 billion (2020 est.)

expenditures: $153.635 billion (2020 est.)

note: Central Government Budget data; these numbers represent a significant reduction from previous official reporting

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-0.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 65

Public debt

61.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
62.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

comparison ranking: 77

Taxes and other revenues

20.65% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 81

Current account balance

-$7.318 billion (2022 est.)
$1.222 billion (2021 est.)
$1.734 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 183


$127.83 billion (2022 est.)
$116.762 billion (2021 est.)
$97.42 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 42

Exports - partners

Germany 11%, US 10%, Sweden 10%, Netherlands 7%, China 5% (2022)

note: top five export partners based on percentage share of exports

Exports - commodities

paper, refined petroleum, steel, wood pulp, wood (2022)

note: top five export commodities based on value in dollars


$134.721 billion (2022 est.)
$116.72 billion (2021 est.)
$97.037 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 41

Imports - partners

Sweden 15%, Germany 14%, China 8%, Norway 7%, Netherlands 6% (2022)

note: top five import partners based on percentage share of imports

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, refined petroleum, cars, garments, electricity (2022)

note: top five import commodities based on value in dollars

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$16.036 billion (2022 est.)
$16.744 billion (2021 est.)
$13.48 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 73

Debt - external

$631.549 billion (2019 est.)
$536.301 billion (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 22

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
0.95 (2022 est.)
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)


installed generating capacity: 20.418 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 79.356 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 6.666 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 21.615 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 2.574 billion kWh (2020 est.)

comparison rankings: transmission/distribution losses 139; imports 9; exports 28; consumption 37; installed generating capacity 47

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 13.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 33.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 11.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 23.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 17.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Nuclear energy

Number of operational nuclear reactors: 5 (2023)

Number of nuclear reactors under construction: 0

Net capacity of operational nuclear reactors: 4.39GW (2023)

Percent of total electricity production: 32.8% (2021)

Percent of total energy produced: 41.3% (2021)

Number of nuclear reactors permanently shut down: 0


production: 762,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 3.552 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 101,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 2.661 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 8,300 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 207,400 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 232,400 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

310,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 40

Refined petroleum products - exports

166,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 34

Refined petroleum products - imports

122,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 48

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 2.393 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 181.143 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

imports: 2.569 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

41.996 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 9.377 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 27.737 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 4.882 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 62

Energy consumption per capita

216.571 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 20


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 186,000 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 120

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 7.13 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 129 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 111

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Finland’s telecom market is among the more progressive in Europe, with operators having been at the forefront in deploying technologies and with the regulator being among the first to auction spectrum for 5G use; these efforts have been supported by the government which is working towards its target of providing a broadband service of at least 100Mb/s by 2025; 5G services were available to more than 40% of the population by early 2021, and take-up among subscribers has been strong although most will remain with LTE in the short term; the country enjoys one of the highest broadband and mobile subscription rates in the region, with customers able to make use of the latest iterations of technologies including DOCSIS3.1, LTE-A, 5G, and GPON fiber infrastructure; Finland has emerged as one of the pioneers in 5G; the auction of spectrum in the 700MHz and 3.5GHh bands has enabled network operators to extend the availability of LTE services nationally and to prepare for 5G services; Spectrum in the 2.5GHz band was auctioned in mid-2020 and has since enabled the MNOs to widen their 5G footprint considerably; there is an ongoing shift away from DSL to fiber and mobile networks (2021)

domestic: fixed-line 4 per 100 subscriptions and nearly 129 per 100 mobile-cellular (2021)

international: country code - 358; landing points for Botnia, BCS North-1 & 2, SFL, SFS-4, C-Lion1, Eastern Lights, Baltic Sea Submarine Cable, FEC, and EESF-2 & 3 submarine cables that provide links to many Finland points, Estonia, Sweden, Germany, and Russia; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) (2019)

Broadcast media

a mix of 3 publicly operated TV stations and numerous privately owned TV stations; several free and special-interest pay-TV channels; cable and satellite multi-channel subscription services are available; all TV signals are broadcast digitally; Internet television, such as Netflix and others, is available; public broadcasting maintains a network of 13 national and 25 regional radio stations; a large number of private radio broadcasters and access to Internet radio

Internet country code



note - Aland Islands assigned .ax

Internet users

total: 5.115 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 93% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 92

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 1.846 million (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 33 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 59


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 3 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 77

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 13,364,839 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 957.64 million (2018) mt-km


98 (2024)

comparison ranking: 55


15 (2024)


1,288 km gas transmission pipes, 1,976 km distribution pipes (2016)


total: 5,918 km (2020) 3,349 km electrified

comparison ranking: total 33


total: 108,637 km (2019)

private and forest roads: 350,000 km (2012)

urban: 26,000 km (2012)

comparison ranking: total 47


8,000 km (2013) (includes Saimaa Canal system of 3,577 km; southern part leased from Russia; water transport used frequently in the summer and widely replaced with sledges on the ice in winter; there are 187,888 lakes in Finland that cover 31,500 km); Finland also maintains 8,200 km of coastal fairways

comparison ranking: 19

Merchant marine

total: 282 (2023)

by type: bulk carrier 9, general cargo 75, oil tanker 4, other 194

comparison ranking: total 57


total ports: 37 (2024)

large: 5

medium: 7

small: 11

very small: 14

ports with oil terminals: 21

key ports: Helsinki, Kaskinen, Kokkola, Kotka, Kristinestad, Mantyluoto, Oulu, Pietarsaari, Pori, Rauma, Turku, Vaasa

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Finnish Defense Forces (FDF; Puolustusvoimat): Army (Maavoimat), Navy (Merivoimat), Air Force (Ilmavoimat) (2024)

note: the Border Guard (Rajavartiolaitos) and National Police are under the Ministry of the Interior; the Border Guard becomes part of the FDF in wartime

Military expenditures

2.5% of GDP (2023 est.)
2% of GDP (2022)
1.9% of GDP (2021)
1.5% of GDP (2020)
1.4% of GDP (2019)

comparison ranking: 43

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 30,000 active-duty personnel (22,000 Army; 5,000 Navy; 3,000 Air Force) (2023)

note: active-duty figures include about 21,000 conscripts carrying out their obligated military service (approximately 17,000 Army; 3,500 Navy; 1,000 Air Force)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory consists of a wide mix of mostly modern US, European, Israeli, South Korean, and domestically produced weapons systems; in recent years, the US has been the leading supplier of arms; the Finnish defense industry produces a variety of military equipment, including wheeled armored vehicles and naval vessels; it also cooperates with other European countries and the US (2023)

Military service age and obligation

at age 18, all Finnish men are obligated to serve 5.5-12 months of service within a branch of the military or the Border Guard (length of service depends on the type of duty); women 18-29 may volunteer for service; there is also an option to perform non-military service which lasts for 8.5 or 11.5 months; after completing their initial conscript obligation, individuals enter the reserves and remain eligible for mobilization until the age of 50 for rank-and-file and 60 for non-commissioned and commissioned officers (2023)

note 1: the military trains approximately 21,000 conscripts each year; women have served on a voluntary basis since 1995, and as of 2022 made up about 19% of the military's full-time personnel

note 2: Finland has had conscription since 1951

Military deployments

165 Lebanon (UNIFIL) (2024)

Military - note

the Finnish Defense Forces (FDF) are focused primarily on territorial defense, which is based on having a large, trained reserve force created by general conscription; active-duty FDF units absorb and train more than 20,000 conscripts annually; the resulting pool of trained reservists gives the FDF a wartime strength of approximately 280,000 and a total reserve of some 900,000 citizens with military service; other FDF responsibilities include support to international peacekeeping operations and some domestic security duties, such as assisting the National Police in maintaining law and order in crises

the FDF is also focused on fulfilling its new commitment to NATO; following Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine in 2022, Finland reassessed its security policy situation and applied for NATO membership and gained entry in April 2023; as a member of the Alliance, Finland is part of NATO’s collective defense and is covered by the security guarantees enshrined in Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty); Finland had been part of NATO’s Partnership for Peace program since 1994, and the FDF exercised with some NATO members and participated in NATO-led military missions in the Balkans, Afghanistan, and Iraq; Finland also is a signatory of the EU’s Common Security and Defense Policy and actively participates in EU crisis management missions and operations; the FDF cooperates closely with the militaries of other Nordic countries through the Nordic Defense Cooperation structure (NORDEFCO; established 2009), which consists of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden and involves cooperation in such areas as armaments, education, human resources, training and exercises, and operations; Finland considers Sweden as its closest bi-lateral security partner; the UK and the US are also close defense partners; in 2022, Finland signed a mutual security agreement with the UK, and since 2014 has been part of the UK-led Joint Expeditionary Force, a pool of high-readiness military forces from 10 Baltic and Scandinavian countries designed to respond to a wide range of contingencies in the North Atlantic, Baltic Sea, and High North regions

the bulk of the FDF’s annual intake of conscripts go into the Army; in peacetime, the Army has five combat brigades, which include armored, jaeger/light infantry, and mechanized infantry forces, plus regiments of light infantry, special forces, and helicopter assault forces; the Navy has a mix of missile-armed patrol craft, fast patrol boats, and mine warfare vessels; it is slated to receive four multirole corvettes by 2029; the Navy also has a coastal defense brigade, which includes anti-ship missile and naval special operations forces and a naval infantry brigade maintained at cadre strength that incorporates about 1,500 conscripts annually; the Air Force has about 60 US-made F/A-18 multirole fighters, which are scheduled to be replaced by US-origin F-35 stealth multirole fighters beginning in 2025 (2023)

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 9,175 (Iraq) (mid-year 2022); 66,195 (Ukraine) (as of 29 February 2024)

stateless persons: 3,546 (2022)