Photos of Haiti

Port-au-Prince, the capital and most populous city of Haiti, was laid out in a grid pattern in 1749. The Gulf of Gonâve acts as a natural harbor for the city and sustains its economic activity. Port-au-Prince has a tropical wet and dry climate and relatively constant temperatures throughout the course of the year.

Introduction

Background

The native Taino -- who inhabited the island of Hispaniola when Christopher COLUMBUS first landed in 1492 -- were virtually wiped out by Spanish settlers within 25 years. In the early 17th century, the French established a presence on Hispaniola. In 1697, Spain ceded to the French the western third of the island, which later became Haiti. The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest in the Caribbean but relied heavily on the forced labor of enslaved Africans and environmentally degrading practices. In the late 18th century, Toussaint L'OUVERTURE led a revolution of Haiti's nearly half a million slaves that ended France's rule on the island. After a prolonged struggle, and under the leadership of Jean-Jacques DESSALINES, Haiti became the first country in the world led by former slaves after declaring its independence in 1804, but it was forced to pay an indemnity of 100 million francs (equivalent to $22 billion USD in March 2023) to France for more than a century and was shunned by other countries for nearly 40 years. In 1862, the US officially recognized Haiti, but foreign economic influence and internal political instability induced the US to occupy Haiti from 1915 to 1934.

Francois "Papa Doc" DUVALIER and then his son Jean-Claude "Baby Doc" DUVALIER led repressive and corrupt regimes that ruled Haiti in 1957-1971 and 1971-1986, respectively. Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE was Haiti's first democratically elected president in 1991 and was elected a second time in 2000, but coups interrupted his first term after only a few months and ended his second term in 2004. President Jovenel MOÏSE was assassinated in 2021, leading the country further into an extra-constitutional governance structure and contributing to the country’s growing fragility. The Government of Haiti then installed Ariel HENRY -- whom President MOÏSE had nominated shortly before his death -- as prime minister.

On 29 February 2024, a significant escalation of gang violence occurred on the 20th anniversary of ARISTIDE's second overthrow, after the announcement that HENRY would not hold elections until August 2025. HENRY’s return from an overseas trip was diverted to Puerto Rico when the airport closed due to gang violence. With control of much of the capital, Port-au-Prince, gang leaders called for the ouster of HENRY’S government. By mid-March, Haiti’s continued violence, HENRY’S inability to return to the country, and increasing pressure from the international community led HENRY to pledge to resign. On 25 April 2024, HENRY formally submitted his resignation as a nine-member Transitional Presidential Council assumed control, tasked with returning stability to the country and preparing elections. Since January 2023, Haiti has had no sitting elected officials.

The country has long been plagued by natural disasters. In 2010, a major 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck Haiti with an epicenter about 25 km (15 mi) west of the capital, Port-au-Prince. An estimated 300,000 people were killed, and some 1.5 million left homeless. The earthquake was assessed as the worst in this region in 200 years. A 7.2 magnitude earthquake hit Haiti’s southern peninsula in 2021, causing well over 2,000 deaths; an estimated 500,000 required emergency humanitarian aid. Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, as well as one of the most unequal in wealth distribution.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the Dominican Republic

Geographic coordinates

19 00 N, 72 25 W

Map references

Central America and the Caribbean

Area

total: 27,750 sq km

land: 27,560 sq km

water: 190 sq km

comparison ranking: total 147

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Maryland

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 376 km

border countries (1): Dominican Republic 376 km

Coastline

1,771 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: to depth of exploitation

Climate

tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds

Terrain

mostly rough and mountainous

Elevation

highest point: Pic la Selle 2,674 m

lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 470 m

Natural resources

bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropower, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 66.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 38.5% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 10.2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 17.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 3.6% (2018 est.)

other: 30% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

800 sq km (2013)

Population distribution

fairly even distribution; largest concentrations located near coastal areas

Natural hazards

lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; periodic droughts

Geography - note

shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic); it is the most mountainous nation in the Caribbean

People and Society

Population

total: 11,753,943

male: 5,792,443

female: 5,961,500 (2024 est.)

comparison rankings: female 83; male 85; total 83

Nationality

noun: Haitian(s)

adjective: Haitian

Ethnic groups

Black 95%, mixed and White 5%

Languages

French (official), Creole (official)

major-language sample(s): The World Factbook, une source indispensable d'informations de base. (French)

The World Factbook, sous endispansab pou enfomasyon debaz. (Haitian Creole)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

French audio sample:

Religions

Catholic 55%, Protestant 29%, Vodou 2.1%, other 4.6%, none 10% (2018 est.)

note: 50-80% of Haitians incorporate some elements of Vodou culture or practice in addition to another religion, most often Roman Catholicism; Vodou was recognized as an official religion in 2003

Age structure

0-14 years: 30.5% (male 1,790,061/female 1,794,210)

15-64 years: 65.3% (male 3,787,782/female 3,887,791)

65 years and over: 4.2% (2024 est.) (male 214,600/female 279,499)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 58.3

youth dependency ratio: 51.2

elderly dependency ratio: 7.1

potential support ratio: 14.1 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 25 years (2024 est.)

male: 24.7 years

female: 25.3 years

comparison ranking: total 173

Population growth rate

1.23% (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 77

Birth rate

21.2 births/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 60

Death rate

7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 111

Net migration rate

-1.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 160

Population distribution

fairly even distribution; largest concentrations located near coastal areas

Urbanization

urban population: 59.7% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 2.47% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

2.987 million PORT-AU-PRINCE (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2024 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

22.4 years (2016/7 est.)

note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-49

Maternal mortality ratio

350 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 27

Infant mortality rate

total: 36.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2024 est.)

male: 40.2 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 33.5 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 32

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 65.6 years (2024 est.)

male: 63.8 years

female: 67.4 years

comparison ranking: total population 205

Total fertility rate

2.44 children born/woman (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 72

Gross reproduction rate

1.21 (2024 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 91.9% of population

rural: 56.1% of population

total: 76.5% of population

unimproved: urban: 8.1% of population

rural: 43.9% of population

total: 23.5% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

3.3% of GDP (2020)

Physician density

0.23 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

0.7 beds/1,000 population (2013)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 82.9% of population

rural: 42.6% of population

total: 65.6% of population

unimproved: urban: 17.1% of population

rural: 57.4% of population

total: 34.4% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

22.7% (2016)

comparison ranking: 72

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 2.85 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.55 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.03 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 2.26 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 118

Tobacco use

total: 7.7% (2020 est.)

male: 12.2% (2020 est.)

female: 3.1% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 152

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

9.5% (2016/17)

comparison ranking: 58

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 2.1%

women married by age 18: 14.9%

men married by age 18: 1.6% (2017 est.)

Education expenditures

1.4% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 192

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 61.7%

male: 65.3%

female: 58.3% (2016)

Environment

Environment - current issues

extensive deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is being cleared for agriculture and used as fuel); soil erosion; overpopulation leads to inadequate supplies of potable water and a lack of sanitation; natural disasters

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Climate

tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds

Land use

agricultural land: 66.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 38.5% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 10.2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 17.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 3.6% (2018 est.)

other: 30% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 59.7% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 2.47% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Food insecurity

severe localized food insecurity: due to high food prices, natural disasters, and worsening civil insecurity - about 4.9 million people are estimated to face severe acute food insecurity and were in need of urgent food assistance between March and June 2023; the high levels of food insecurity are the result of sustained economic downturn, reducing domestic food production, elevated food prices, fuel shortage and frequent natural disasters; the situation is exacerbated by worsening insecurity, which has limited access to essential services, including markets, caused population displacements and hampered delivery of humanitarian assistance (2023)

Revenue from forest resources

0.68% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 60

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 78

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 9.69 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 2.98 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 6.12 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 2,309,852 tons (2015 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 190 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 50 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 1.21 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

14.02 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Haiti

conventional short form: Haiti

local long form: République d'Haïti (French)/ Repiblik d Ayiti (Haitian Creole)

local short form: Haïti (French)/ Ayiti (Haitian Creole)

etymology: the native Taino name means "Land of High Mountains" and was originally applied to the entire island of Hispaniola

Government type

semi-presidential republic

Capital

name: Port-au-Prince

geographic coordinates: 18 32 N, 72 20 W

time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November

etymology: according to tradition, in 1706, a Captain de Saint-Andre named the bay and its surrounding area after his ship Le Prince; the name of the town that grew there means, "the Port of The Prince"

Administrative divisions

10 departments (departements, singular - departement); Artibonite, Centre, Grand'Anse, Nippes, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est

Independence

1 January 1804 (from France)

National holiday

Independence Day, 1 January (1804)

Constitution

history: many previous; latest adopted 10 March 1987, with substantial revisions in June 2012; note – the constitution is commonly referred to as the “amended 1987 constitution”

amendments: proposed by the executive branch or by either the Senate or the Chamber of Deputies; consideration of proposed amendments requires support by at least two-thirds majority of both houses; passage requires at least two-thirds majority of the membership present and at least two-thirds majority of the votes cast; approved amendments enter into force after installation of the next president of the republic; constitutional articles on the democratic and republican form of government cannot be amended; amended many times, last in 2012

Legal system

civil law system strongly influenced by Napoleonic Code

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a native-born citizen of Haiti

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President (vacant) 

head of government: Prime Minister Garry CONILLE (since 3 June 2024)

cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president; parliament must ratify the Cabinet and Prime Minister's governing policy

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a single non-consecutive term); last election was 20 November 2016; new elections were delayed in 2022 and 2023 and have not been scheduled by the transitional presidential council

election results:
2016: Jovenel MOÏSE elected president in first round; percent of vote - Jovenel MOÏSE (PHTK) 55.6%, Jude CELESTIN (LAPEH) 19.6%, Jean-Charles MOÏSE (PPD) 11%, Maryse NARCISSE (FL) 9%; other 4.8%

2011: Michel MARTELLY elected president in second round; percent of vote in second round - Michel MARTELLY (Peasant's Response) 68%, Mirlande MANIGAT (RDNP) 32%

note: former Prime Minister Ariel HENRY, who had assumed executive responsibilities following the assassination of President MOÏSE on 7 July 2021, resigned on 24 April 2024; a nine-member Presidential Transitional Council, equipped with presidential powers, was sworn in on 25 April 2024 and will remain in place until 7 February 2026

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Assembly or the Assemblée nationale consists of:
Senate or le Sénat de la République (30 seats; 0 filled as of January 2023); members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 6-year terms (2-term limit) with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years)
Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des députés (119 seats; 0 filled as of January 2023; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 4-year terms; no term limits); note - when the 2 chambers meet collectively it is known as the National Assembly or L'Assemblée nationale and is convened for specific purposes spelled out in the constitution

elections: Senate - last held on 20 November 2016 with a runoff on 29 January 2017 (next originally scheduled for 27 October 2019 but postponed until political and civil society actors agree to a consensual process)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 9 August 2015 with runoff on 25 October 2015 and 20 November 2016 (next originally scheduled for 27 October 2019 but postponed until political and civil society actors agree to a consensual process)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - NA
Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - NA

note: the Senate and Chamber of Deputies as of January 2023 were not functional

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour de cassation (currently 11 of 12 judges as prescribed by the constitution, 8 of whom were appointed in March 2023); note - Haiti is a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice; Constitutional Court, called for in the 1987 constitution but not yet established; High Court of Justice, for trying high government officials - currently not functional

judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president from candidate lists submitted by the Senate of the National Assembly; note - Article 174 of Haiti's constitution states that judges of the Supreme Court are appointed for 10 years, whereas Article 177 states that judges of the Supreme Court are appointed for life

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; magistrate's courts; land, labor, and children's courts

note: the Superior Council of the Judiciary or Conseil Superieur du Pouvoir Judiciaire is a 9-member body charged with the administration and oversight of the judicial branch of government

Political parties and leaders

Alternative League for Haitian Progress and Emancipation (Ligue Alternative pour le Progres et l’Emancipation Haitienne) or LAPEH [Jude CELESTIN]
Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MCNH or Mochrenha [Luc MESADIEU]
Christian National Movement for the Reconstruction of Haiti or UNCRH [Jean Chavannes JEUNE]
Combat of Peasant Workers to Liberate Haiti (Konbit Travaye Peyizan Pou Libere Ayiti) or Kontra Pep La [Jean William JEANTY]
Convention for Democratic Unity or KID [Evans PAUL]
Cooperative Action to Rebuild Haiti or KONBA [Jean William JEANTY]
December 16 Platform or Platfom 16 Desanm [Dr. Gerard BLOT]
Democratic Alliance Party or ALYANS [Evans PAUL] (coalition includes KID and PPRH)
Democratic Centers' National Council or CONACED [Osner FEVRY]
Democratic and Popular Sector (Secteur Democratique et Populaire) or SDP [Nenel CASSY, Andre MICHEL, and Marjorie MICHEL]
Democratic Unity Convention (Konvansyon Inite Demokratik) or KID [Enold JOSEPH]
Dessalinian Patriotic and Popular Movement or MOPOD [Jean Andre VICTOR]
Effort and Solidarity to Create an Alternative for the People or ESKAMP [Joseph JASME]
Fanmi Lavalas or FL [Maryse NARCISSE and former President Jean Bertrand ARISTIDE]
Forward (En Avant) [Jerry TARDIEU]
Fusion of Haitian Social Democrats (Fusion Des Sociaux-Démocrates Haïtiens) or FHSD [Edmonde Supplice BEAUZILE]
G18 Policy Platform (Plateforme Politique G18) [Joseph WUILSON]
Haiti in Action (Ayiti An Aksyon Haiti's Action) or AAA [Youri LATORTUE]
Haitian Tet Kale Party (Parti Haitien Tet Kale) or PHTK [Line Sainphaar BALTHAZAR]
Independent Movement for National Reconciliation or MIRN [Luc FLEURINORD]
Lavni Organization or LAVNI [Yves CRISTALIN]
Lod Demokratik [Jean Renel SENATUS]
Love Haiti (Renmen Ayiti) or RA [Jean Henry CEANT]
MTV Ayiti [Reginald BOULOS]
National Consortium of Haitian Political Parties (Consortium National des Partis Politiques Haitiens) or CNPPH [Jeantel JOSEPH]
National Shield Network (Reseau Bouclier National) [Victor PROPHANE and Garry BODEAU]
Organization of the People's Struggle (Oganizasyon Pep Kap Lite) or OPL [Edgard LEBLANC]
Patriotic Unity (Inite Patriyotik) or Inite [Sorel YACINTHE and Levaillant Louis JEUNE]
Platform Pitit Desalin (Politik Pitit Dessalines) or PPD [Jean-Charles MOISE]
Political Party for Us All or Bridge (Pont) or Pou Nou Tout [Jean Marie CHERESTAL]
Popular Patriotic Dessalinien Movement (Mouvement Patriotique Populaire Dessalinien) or MOPOD [Jean Andre VICTOR]
Rally of Progressive National Democrats (Rassemblement des Democrates Nationaux Progressistes) or RDNP [Eric JEAN-BAPTISTE]
Respe (Respect) [Charles Henry BAKER]
Women and Families Political Parties (Defile Pati Politik Fanm Ak Fanmi) [Marie Rebecca GUILLAUME]

International organization participation

ACP, ACS, AOSIS, Caricom, CD, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OIF, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d'Affaires Louis Harold JOSEPH (since 15 May 2023)

chancery: 2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-4090

FAX: [1] (202) 745-7215

email address and website:
amb.washington@diplomatie.ht

https://www.haiti.org/

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Miami, Orlando (FL), New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador-designate Dennis HANKINS (since 14 March 2024); note - as of March 2024, Haiti has no government official to whom the Ambassador-designate can present his credentials 


embassy: Tabarre 41, Route de Tabarre, Port-au-Prince

mailing address: 3400 Port-au-Prince Place, Washington, DC 20521-3400

telephone: [011] (509) 2229-8000

FAX: [011] (509) 2229-8027

email address and website:
acspap@state.gov

https://ht.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength); the colors are taken from the French Tricolor and represent the union of blacks and mulattoes

National symbol(s)

Hispaniolan trogon (bird), hibiscus flower; national colors: blue, red

National anthem

name: "La Dessalinienne" (The Dessalines Song)

lyrics/music: Justin LHERISSON/Nicolas GEFFRARD

note: adopted 1904; named for Jean-Jacques DESSALINES, a leader in the Haitian Revolution and first ruler of an independent Haiti

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: National History Park – Citadel, Sans Souci, Ramiers

Economy

Economic overview

small Caribbean island economy and OECS-member state; extreme poverty and inflation; enormous income inequality; ongoing civil unrest due to recent presidential assassination; US preferential market access; very open to foreign direct investment

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$32.428 billion (2022 est.)
$32.982 billion (2021 est.)
$33.586 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 139

Real GDP growth rate

-1.68% (2022 est.)
-1.8% (2021 est.)
-3.31% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 203

Real GDP per capita

$2,800 (2022 est.)
$2,900 (2021 est.)
$3,000 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 194

GDP (official exchange rate)

$20.254 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

33.98% (2022 est.)
16.84% (2021 est.)
22.8% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 212

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 22.1% (2017 est.)

industry: 20.3% (2017 est.)

services: 57.6% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 138; industry 146; agriculture 41

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 99.1% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 10% (2016 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 32.6% (2016 est.)

investment in inventories: -1.4% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 20% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -60.3% (2017 est.)

note: figure for household consumption also includes government consumption

Agricultural products

sugarcane, cassava, mangoes/guavas, plantains, bananas, maize, avocados, tropical fruits, rice, vegetables (2022)

note: top ten agricultural products based on tonnage

Industries

textiles, sugar refining, flour milling, cement, light assembly using imported parts

Industrial production growth rate

-0.37% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 168

Labor force

5.15 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 83

Unemployment rate

14.78% (2022 est.)
15.56% (2021 est.)
15.65% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 193

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 35.7% (2021 est.)

male: 28.1%

female: 45.6%

comparison ranking: total 24

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 0.7%

highest 10%: 47.7% (2001)

Remittances

22.38% of GDP (2022 est.)
20.1% of GDP (2021 est.)
23.82% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Budget

revenues: $1.179 billion (2020 est.)

expenditures: $1.527 billion (2020 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 80

Public debt

31.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
33.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 168

Taxes and other revenues

18.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 103

Current account balance

-$491.954 million (2022 est.)
$87.656 million (2021 est.)
$51.548 million (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 105

Exports

$1.355 billion (2022 est.)
$1.272 billion (2021 est.)
$1.018 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 175

Exports - partners

US 84%, Canada 4%, Mexico 2%, Thailand 1%, France 1% (2022)

note: top five export partners based on percentage share of exports

Exports - commodities

garments, essential oils, scrap iron, bedding, tropical fruits (2022)

note: top five export commodities based on value in dollars

Imports

$5.451 billion (2022 est.)
$5.048 billion (2021 est.)
$4.177 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 146

Imports - partners

US 31%, Dominican Republic 26%, China 16%, Indonesia 3%, India 2% (2022)

note: top five import partners based on percentage share of imports

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, rice, cotton fabric, garments, plastic products (2022)

note: top five import commodities based on value in dollars

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$2.368 billion (2022 est.)
$2.734 billion (2021 est.)
$2.59 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 120

Debt - external

$2.762 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.17 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 146

Exchange rates

gourdes (HTG) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
115.631 (2022 est.)
89.227 (2021 est.)
93.51 (2020 est.)
88.815 (2019 est.)
68.032 (2018 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 49.3% (2022 est.)

electrification - urban areas: 83%

electrification - rural areas: 1.2% (2019 est.)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 471,000 kW (2022 est.)

consumption: 418.367 million kWh (2022 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 624 million kWh (2022 est.)

comparison rankings: transmission/distribution losses 87; consumption 176; installed generating capacity 153

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 85.9% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

solar: 0.3% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

hydroelectricity: 13.8% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

Coal

imports: 5.7 metric tons (2022 est.)

Petroleum

refined petroleum consumption: 19,000 bbl/day (2022 est.)

Natural gas

consumption: 3.256 million cubic meters (2022 est.)

imports: 3.256 million cubic meters (2022 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

2.805 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 2.799 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 6,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 150

Energy consumption per capita

3.403 million Btu/person (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: 176

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 6,000 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: (2021 est.) less than 1

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 202

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 7.319 million (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 64 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 110

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Haiti is in desperate need of maintaining effective communication services to enable it to keep going through the countless natural disasters, the country’s telecoms sector is really only surviving on the back of international goodwill to repair and replace the systems destroyed in the latest upheaval; Haiti’s fixed-line infrastructure is now practically non-existent, having been torn apart by Hurricane Matthew in 2016; what aid and additional investment has been forthcoming has been directed towards mobile solutions; over half of the country can afford a mobile handset or the cost of a monthly subscription; and mobile broadband subscriptions is half of that again – an estimated 28% in 2022; international aid continues to flow in to try and help the country’s telecoms sector recover – the World Bank has released a further $120 million to go on top of the $60 million grant provided after the last major 7.2 earthquake in August 2021 (2022)

domestic: fixed-line is less than 1 per 100; mobile-cellular teledensity is nearly 64 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 509; landing points for the BDSNi and Fibralink submarine cables to 14 points in the Bahamas and Dominican Republic; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)

Broadcast media

per 2019 data released by Haitian telecommunications regulator CONATEL (Conseil National des Télécommunications), there are 398 legal sound broadcasting stations on the territory, including about 60 community radio stations, and 7 radio stations on the AM band; the FM band in Haiti is oversaturated by 158 percent; most radio stations broadcast 17 to 19 hours a day; there are 105 television stations operating in Haiti, including 36 TV stations in Port- au- Prince, 41 others in the provinces, and more than 40 radio-television stations; a large number of broadcasting stations operate irregularly and some stations operate with technical parameters that do not comply with established standards, thus causing harmful interference to existing telecommunications systems; VOA Creole Service broadcasts daily on 30 affiliate stations

(2019)

Internet users

total: 4.29 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 39% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 108

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 31,000 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0.3 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 152

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1

Airports

17 (2024)

comparison ranking: 145

Heliports

1 (2024)

Roadways

total: 3,875 km (2022)

comparison ranking: total 158

Merchant marine

total: 4 (2023)

by type: general cargo 3, other 1

comparison ranking: total 170

Ports

total ports: 5 (2024)

large: 0

medium: 1

small: 0

very small: 4

ports with oil terminals: 1

key ports: Cap Haitien, Jacmel, Miragoane, Petit Goave, Port au Prince

Military and Security

Military and security forces

the Haitian Armed Forces (FAdH): Army

Ministry of Justice and Public Security: Haitian National Police (Police Nationale d'Haïti or PNH) (2024)

note: the PNH is responsible for maintaining public security; it includes police, corrections, fire, emergency response, airport security, port security, and coast guard functions; its units include a presidential guard and a paramilitary rapid-response Motorized Intervention Unit or BIM 

 

Military and security service personnel strengths

up to 2,000 military troops (the force is planned to eventually have around 5,000 personnel); estimates for the National Police range from a low of 9,000 to a high of about 13,000 (2023)

Military service age and obligation

men and women 18-25 may volunteer for the FAdH (2023)

Military - note

Haiti's military was disbanded in 1995 after it participated in multiple coups and was accused of other political interference and human rights violations; the military was reinstated by former President MOISE in 2017 after the UN ended its peacekeeping operation in Haiti; the reconstituted military established an Army command in 2018 and has received training assistance from Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador, and Mexico; the military’s stated mission is to assist with natural disaster relief, border security, and combating transnational crime; in 2023, Prime Minister HENRY called upon the military to assist the National Police (PNH) in combating armed gangs, which have overwhelmed the PNH, killed hundreds of Haitians, and seized control of much of the capital Port-au-Prince since the assassination of President MOISE in 2021; as of early 2024, at least 300 criminal groups were operating in Haiti

in 2023, the UN Security Council approved the deployment of a Kenya-led multinational security support 
mission (MSS) to help bring gang violence under control; the first deployment of MSS personnel from the Kenya National Police Service occured in mid-2024; the Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Benin, Chad, and Jamaica have also pledged forces (2024)

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: 362,551 (violence among armed gangs in primarily in the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince) (2024)

stateless persons: 2,992 (2018); note - individuals without a nationality who were born in the Dominican Republic prior to January 2010

Trafficking in persons

tier rating: Special Category

Illicit drugs

a transit point for cocaine from South America and marijuana from Jamaica en route to the United States; not a producer or large consumer of illicit drugs; some cultivation of cannabis for local consumption