Photos of Jordan

Introduction

Background

Following World War I and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, the League of Nations awarded Britain the mandate to govern much of the Middle East. Britain demarcated a semi-autonomous region of Transjordan from Palestine in the early 1920s. The area gained its independence in 1946 and thereafter became The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The country's long-time ruler, King HUSSEIN (1953-99), successfully navigated competing pressures from the major powers (US, USSR, and UK), various Arab states, Israel, and a large internal Palestinian population. Jordan lost the West Bank to Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War. King HUSSEIN in 1988 permanently relinquished Jordanian claims to the West Bank; in 1994 he signed a peace treaty with Israel. King ABDALLAH II, King HUSSEIN's eldest son, assumed the throne following his father's death in 1999. He has implemented modest political reforms, including the passage of a new electoral law in early 2016 and an effort to devolve some authority to governorate- and municipal-level councils following subnational elections in 2017. In 2016, the Islamic Action Front, which is the political arm of the Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood, returned to the National Assembly with 15 seats after boycotting the previous two elections in 2010 and 2013.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia, between Israel (to the west) and Iraq

Geographic coordinates

31 00 N, 36 00 E

Map references

Middle East

Area

total: 89,342 sq km

land: 88,802 sq km

water: 540 sq km

country comparison to the world: 112

Area - comparative

about three-quarters the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries

total: 1,744 km

border countries (5): Iraq 179 km, Israel 307 km, Saudi Arabia 731 km, Syria 379 km, West Bank 148 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate

mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)

Terrain

mostly arid desert plateau; a great north-south geological rift along the west of the country is the dominant topographical feature and includes the Jordan River Valley, the Dead Sea, and the Jordanian Highlands

Elevation

highest point: Jabal Umm ad Dami 1,854 m

lowest point: Dead Sea -431 m

mean elevation: 812 m

Natural resources

phosphates, potash, shale oil

Land use

agricultural land: 11.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 8.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 1.1% (2018 est.)

other: 87.5% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

964 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

937 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Population distribution

population heavily concentrated in the west, and particularly the northwest, in and around the capital of Amman; a sizeable, but smaller population is located in the southwest along the shore of the Gulf of Aqaba

Natural hazards

droughts; periodic earthquakes; flash floods

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

strategic location at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba and as the Arab country that shares the longest border with Israel and the occupied West Bank; the Dead Sea, the lowest point in Asia and the second saltiest body of water in the world (after Lac Assal in Djibouti), lies on Jordan's western border with Israel and the West Bank; Jordan is almost landlocked but does have a 26 km southwestern coastline with a single port, Al 'Aqabah (Aqaba)

People and Society

Population

10,909,567 (July 2021 est.)

note: increased estimate reflects revised assumptions about the net migration rate due to the increased flow of Syrian refugees

country comparison to the world: 85

Nationality

noun: Jordanian(s)

adjective: Jordanian

Ethnic groups

Jordanian 69.3%, Syrian 13.3%, Palestinian 6.7%, Egyptian 6.7%, Iraqi 1.4%, other 2.6% (includes Armenian, Circassian) (2015 est.)

note: data represent population by self-identified nationality

Languages

Arabic (official), English (widely understood among upper and middle classes)

printed major-language sample:
كتاب حقائق العالم، المصدر الذي لا يمكن الاستغناء عنه للمعلومات الأساسية (Arabic)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Religions

Muslim 97.1% (official; predominantly Sunni), Christian 2.1% (majority Greek Orthodox, but some Greek and Roman Catholics, Syrian Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox, and Protestant denominations), Buddhist 0.4%, Hindu 0.1%, Jewish <0.1, folk <0.1, unaffiliated <0.1, other <0.1 (2020 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 33.05% (male 1,837,696/female 1,738,935)

15-24 years: 19.77% (male 1,126,567/female 1,012,812)

25-54 years: 38.39% (male 2,250,328/female 1,903,996)

55-64 years: 5.11% (male 290,633/female 262,827)

65 years and over: 3.67% (male 194,464/female 202,386) (2020 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 58.2

youth dependency ratio: 52

elderly dependency ratio: 6.3

potential support ratio: 16 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 23.5 years

male: 23.9 years

female: 22.9 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 175

Birth rate

22.79 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 56

Death rate

3.44 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 221

Net migration rate

-11.17 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 224

Population distribution

population heavily concentrated in the west, and particularly the northwest, in and around the capital of Amman; a sizeable, but smaller population is located in the southwest along the shore of the Gulf of Aqaba

Urbanization

urban population: 91.6% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.98% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

2.182 million AMMAN (capital) (2021)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.11 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.18 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female

total population: 1.11 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

24.8 years (2017/18 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 30-34

Maternal mortality rate

46 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 96

Infant mortality rate

total: 14.25 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 15.43 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 13 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 109

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 75.75 years

male: 74.25 years

female: 77.35 years (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 115

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 97.7% of population

total: 98.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 2.2% of population

total: 1.1% of population (2017 est.)

Physicians density

2.32 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density

1.5 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 98.6% of population

rural: 96.6% of population

total: 98.5% of population

unimproved: urban: 1.4% of population

rural: 3.7% of population

total: 1.5% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

<100 (2018 est.)

Major infectious diseases

note: widespread ongoing transmission of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is occurring throughout Jordan; as of 6 April 2021, Jordan has reported a total of 639,444 cases of COVID-19 or 6,267.13 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 100,000 population with 71.38 cumulative deaths per 100,000 population; as of 7 April 2021, 4% of the population has received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98.2%

male: 98.6%

female: 97.8% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 11 years

male: 11 years

female: 11 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 37.3%

male: 34.8%

female: 49.4% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 16

Environment

Environment - current issues

limited natural freshwater resources; declining water table; salinity; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; biodiversity and ecosystem damage/loss

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 32.09 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 25.11 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 6.04 megatons (2020 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 456.9 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 32.5 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 554.7 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

937 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Climate

mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)

Land use

agricultural land: 11.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 8.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 1.1% (2018 est.)

other: 87.5% (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 120

Urbanization

urban population: 91.6% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.98% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major infectious diseases

note: widespread ongoing transmission of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is occurring throughout Jordan; as of 6 April 2021, Jordan has reported a total of 639,444 cases of COVID-19 or 6,267.13 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 100,000 population with 71.38 cumulative deaths per 100,000 population; as of 7 April 2021, 4% of the population has received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 2,529,997 tons (2013 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 177,100 tons (2014 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 7% (2014 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

conventional short form: Jordan

local long form: Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah

local short form: Al Urdun

former: Transjordan

etymology: named for the Jordan River, which makes up part of Jordan's northwest border

Government type

parliamentary constitutional monarchy

Capital

name: Amman

geographic coordinates: 31 57 N, 35 56 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Friday in March; ends last Friday in October

etymology: in the 13th century B.C., the Ammonites named their main city "Rabbath Ammon"; "rabbath" designated "capital," so the name meant "The Capital of [the] Ammon[ites]"; over time, the "Rabbath" came to be dropped and the city became known simply as "Ammon" and then "Amman"

Administrative divisions

12 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); 'Ajlun, Al 'Aqabah, Al Balqa', Al Karak, Al Mafraq, Al ‘Asimah (Amman), At Tafilah, Az Zarqa', Irbid, Jarash, Ma'an, Madaba

Independence

25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)

National holiday

Independence Day, 25 May (1946)

Constitution

history: previous 1928 (preindependence); latest initially adopted 28 November 1947, revised and ratified 1 January 1952

amendments: constitutional amendments require at least a two-thirds majority vote of both the Senate and the House and ratification by the king; no amendment of the constitution affecting the rights of the king and the succession to the throne is permitted during the regency period; amended several times, last in 2016

Legal system

mixed system developed from codes instituted by the Ottoman Empire (based on French law), British common law, and Islamic law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICC jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Jordan

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: King ABDALLAH II (since 7 February 1999); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HUSSEIN (eldest son of the monarch, born on 28 June 1994)

head of government: Prime Minister Bisher AL-KHASAWNEH (since 7 October 2020)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the monarch

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-'Umma consists of:
Senate or the House of Notables or Majlis al-Ayan (65 seats; members appointed by the monarch to serve 4-year terms)
Chamber of Deputies or House of Representatives or Majlis al-Nuwaab (130 seats; 115 members directly elected in 23 multi-seat constituencies by open-list proportional representation vote and 15 seats for women; 12 of the 115 seats reserved for Christian, Chechen, and Circassian candidates; members serve 4-year terms)

elections:
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 10 November 2020 (next to be held in November 2024)

election results:
Chamber of Deputies - note - tribal, centrist, and pro-government candidates dominated in the 130-seat election; the Islamic Action Front, the political wing of the Muslim Brotherhood, garnered only 10 seats, down from 15 in the previous election; women, who are guaranteed 15 seats by Jordan’s legislative quota system, only won the requisite number, down from the 20 seats won in the previous election

 

Judicial branch

highest courts: Court of Cassation or Supreme Court (consists of 15 members, including the chief justice); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the king; other judges nominated by the Judicial Council, an 11-member judicial policymaking body consisting of high-level judicial officials and judges, and approved by the king; judge tenure generally not limited; Constitutional Court members appointed by the king for 6-year non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Great Felonies Court; religious courts; military courts; juvenile courts; Land Settlement Courts; Income Tax Court; Higher Administrative Court; Customs Court; special courts including the State Security Court

Political parties and leaders

Ahrar al-Urdun (Free People of Jordan) Party [Samir al-ZU'BI]
Al-Awn al-Watani (National Aid) Party [Faysal al-AWAR]
Al-Balad al-Amin Party [Khalil al-SAYED]
Al-Itijah al-Watani (National Trend Party) [Ahmad al-KAYED]
Al-Mustaqbal (Future) Party [Salah al-QUDAH]
Al-Nida’ Party [Abd-al-Majid ABU-KHALID]
Al-Rayah Party (Flag Party) [Bilal DHEISAT]
Al-Shahama Party [Mashhour ZREIQAT]
Al-Shura Party [Firas al-ABBADI]
Arab Socialist Ba’th Party [Zyad AL-HOMSI]
Conservatives Party [Hasan RASHID]
Democratic Popular Unity Party [Sa’eed DHIYAB]
Democratic Sha’b Party (HASHD) [Abla ABU-OLBEH]
Freedom and Equality Party [Hamad Abu ZEID]
Islamic Action Front [Murad AL-ADAYLAH]
Islamic Centrist Party [Madallah AL-TARAWNEH]
Jordanian Al-Ansar Party [Awni al-RJOUB]
Jordanian Al-Hayah Party [Abd-al-Fattah al-KILANI]
Jordanian Communist Party [Faraj ITMIZYEH]
Jordanian Democratic Socialist Party [Jamil al-NIMRI]
Jordanian Democratic Tabiy’ah (Nature) Party [Ali ASFOUR]
Jordanian Equality Party [Zuhair al-SHURAFA]
Jordanian Fursan (Cavaliers Party) [Ali al-DHWEIB]
Jordanian Justice and Development Party [Ali al-SHURAFA]
Jordanian National Action Party [Abd-al-Hadi al-MAHARMAH]
Jordanian National Constitutional Party [Ahmad al-SHUNNAQ]
Jordanian National Democratic Grouping Party [Shakir al-ABBADI]
Jordanian National Party [Muna ABU-BAKR]
Jordanian National Union Party [Zeid ABU-ZEID]
Jordanian Progressive Ba’th Party [Fu’ad DABBOUR]
Jordanian Promise Party [Mahmoud al-KHALILI]
Jordanian Reform Party [Eid DHAYYAT]
Jordanian Social Justice Party [Abd-al-Fattah al-NSOUR]
Jordanian Wafa’ (Loyalty) Party [Mazin al-QADI]
Justice and Reform Party [Sa’eed Nathir ARABIYAT]
Modernity and Change Party [Nayef al-HAMAYDEH]
National Congress Party [Irhayil GHARAYBEH] (formerly the Zamzam party)
National Renaissance Front Party [Isma’il KHATATBEH]
National Unity Party [Muhammad al-ZBOUN]
Pan Arab Movement Party [Dayfallah FARRAJ]
Partnership and Salvation Party [Muhammad al-HAMMOURI]
Reform and Renewal Party [Mazin RYAL]
Risalah Party [Hazim QASHOU’]
Stronger Jordan Party [Rula al-HROUB]
Unified Jordanian Front Party [Farouq AL-ABBADI]

International organization participation

ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CD, CICA, EBRD, FAO, G-11, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MINUSTAH, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Dina Khalil Tawiq KAWAR (since 27 June 2016)

chancery: 3504 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 966-2664

FAX: [1] (202) 966-3110

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Henry T. WOOSTER (since 18 October 2020)

telephone: [962] (6) 590-6000

embassy: Abdoun, Al-Umawyeen St., Amman

mailing address: P. O. Box 354, Amman 11118 Jordan; Unit 70200, Box 5, DPO AE 09892-0200

FAX: [962] (6) 592-0163

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of black (top), representing the Abbassid Caliphate, white, representing the Ummayyad Caliphate, and green, representing the Fatimid Caliphate; a red isosceles triangle on the hoist side, representing the Great Arab Revolt of 1916, and bearing a small white seven-pointed star symbolizing the seven verses of the opening Sura (Al-Fatiha) of the Holy Koran; the seven points on the star represent faith in One God, humanity, national spirit, humility, social justice, virtue, and aspirations; design is based on the Arab Revolt flag of World War I

National symbol(s)

eagle; national colors: black, white, green, red

National anthem

name: "As-salam al-malaki al-urdoni" (Long Live the King of Jordan)

lyrics/music: Abdul-Mone'm al-RIFAI'/Abdul-Qader al-TANEER

note: adopted 1946; the shortened version of the anthem is used most commonly, while the full version is reserved for special occasions

This is an audio of the National Anthem for Jordan. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.:

Economy

Economic overview

Jordan's economy is among the smallest in the Middle East, with insufficient supplies of water, oil, and other natural resources, underlying the government's heavy reliance on foreign assistance. Other economic challenges for the government include chronic high rates of unemployment and underemployment, budget and current account deficits, and government debt.

King ABDALLAH, during the first decade of the 2000s, implemented significant economic reforms, such as expanding foreign trade and privatizing state-owned companies that attracted foreign investment and contributed to average annual economic growth of 8% for 2004 through 2008. The global economic slowdown and regional turmoil contributed to slower growth from 2010 to 2017 - with growth averaging about 2.5% per year - and hurt export-oriented sectors, construction/real estate, and tourism. Since the onset of the civil war in Syria and resulting refugee crisis, one of Jordan’s most pressing socioeconomic challenges has been managing the influx of approximately 660,000 UN-registered refugees, more than 80% of whom live in Jordan’s urban areas. Jordan’s own official census estimated the refugee number at 1.3 million Syrians as of early 2016.

Jordan is nearly completely dependent on imported energy—mostly natural gas—and energy consistently makes up 25-30% of Jordan’s imports. To diversify its energy mix, Jordan has secured several contracts for liquefied and pipeline natural gas, developed several major renewables projects, and is currently exploring nuclear power generation and exploitation of abundant oil shale reserves. In August 2016, Jordan and the IMF agreed to a $723 million Extended Fund Facility that aims to build on the three-year, $2.1 billion IMF program that ended in August 2015 with the goal of helping Jordan correct budgetary and balance of payments imbalances.

Real GDP growth rate

2% (2019 est.)

1.94% (2018 est.)

2.12% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 137

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

0.3% (2019 est.)

4.4% (2018 est.)

3.3% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 33

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BB- (2019)

Moody's rating: B1 (2013)

Standard & Poors rating: B+ (2017)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$101.738 billion (2019 est.)

$99.786 billion (2018 est.)

$97.893 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 89

GDP (official exchange rate)

$44.568 billion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$10,071 (2019 est.)

$10,023 (2018 est.)

$10,010 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 144

Gross national saving

15.8% of GDP (2019 est.)

12% of GDP (2018 est.)

8.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 137

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 4.5% (2017 est.)

industry: 28.8% (2017 est.)

services: 66.6% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 80.5% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 19.8% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 22.8% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.7% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 34.2% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -58% (2017 est.)

Ease of Doing Business Index scores

Overall score: 69 (2020)

Starting a Business score: 84.5 (2020)

Trading score: 79 (2020)

Enforcement score: 55.6 (2020)

Agricultural products

tomatoes, poultry, olives, milk, potatoes, cucumbers, vegetables, watermelons, green chillies/peppers, peaches/nectarines

Industries

tourism, information technology, clothing, fertilizer, potash, phosphate mining, pharmaceuticals, petroleum refining, cement, inorganic chemicals, light manufacturing

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 2%

industry: 20%

services: 78% (2013 est.)

Unemployment rate

19.1% (2019 est.)

18.61% (2018 est.)

note: official rate; unofficial rate is approximately 30%

country comparison to the world: 187

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.4%

highest 10%: 28.7% (2010 est.)

Budget

revenues: 9.462 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 11.51 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

95.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

95.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover central government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

country comparison to the world: 22

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$1.222 billion (2019 est.)

-$2.964 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 152

Exports

$13.109 billion (2018 est.)

$12.718 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 89

Exports - partners

United States 21%, Saudi Arabia 13%, India 8%, Iraq 7%, United Arab Emirates 5%, China 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

fertilizers, calcium phosphates, packaged medicines, clothing and apparel, phosphoric acid (2019)

Imports

$19.669 billion (2018 est.)

$19.353 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 83

Imports - partners

China 17%, Saudi Arabia 15%, United States 6%, United Arab Emirates 6%, Egypt 5%, India 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, natural gas, crude petroleum, clothing and apparel (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$15.56 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$15.54 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 67

Debt - external

$32.088 billion (2019 est.)

$29.916 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 81

Exchange rates

Jordanian dinars (JOD) per US dollar -

0.709 (2020 est.)

0.709 (2019 est.)

0.70925 (2018 est.)

0.71 (2014 est.)

0.71 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 355,537

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3.33 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 104

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 7,778,770

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 72.91 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 99

Telecommunication systems

general assessment:

Jordan is host to a growing number of ICT companies and has emerged as a technology start-up hub for the Middle East; recently focused on telecom solutions to pandemic issues such as e-health and education; progress in the digital financial services; economic goals rely on digital economy, developed mobile sector, and extensive LTE infrastructure; preparation for 5G and e-commerce; importer of broadcasting equipment from Vietnam and China (2021)

(2020)

domestic: 1995 a telecommunications law opened all non-fixed-line services to private competition; in 2005, the monopoly over fixed-line services terminated and the entire telecommunications sector was opened to competition; currently fixed-line 4 per 100 persons and multiple mobile-cellular providers with subscribership up to 77 per 100 persons (2019)

international: country code - 962; landing point for the FEA and Taba-Aqaba submarine cable networks providing connectivity to Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia and Asia; satellite earth stations - 33 (3 Intelsat, 1 Arabsat, and 29 land and maritime Inmarsat terminals (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

Broadcast media

radio and TV dominated by the government-owned Jordan Radio and Television Corporation (JRTV) that operates a main network, a sports network, a film network, and a satellite channel; first independent TV broadcaster aired in 2007; international satellite TV and Israeli and Syrian TV broadcasts are available; roughly 30 radio stations with JRTV operating the main government-owned station; transmissions of multiple international radio broadcasters are available

Internet users

total: 6,985,174

percent of population: 66.79% (July 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 71

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 457,496

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4.29 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 89

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 4 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 54

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 3,383,805 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 175.84 million mt-km (2018)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 16 (2017)

over 3,047 m: 8 (2017)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 2 (2013)

under 914 m: 2 (2013)

Heliports

1 (2012)

Pipelines

473 km gas, 49 km oil (2013)

Railways

total: 509 km (2014)

narrow gauge: 509 km 1.050-m gauge (2014)

country comparison to the world: 113

Roadways

total: 7,203 km (2011)

paved: 7,203 km (2011)

country comparison to the world: 141

Merchant marine

total: 35

by type: general cargo 7, oil tanker 1, other 27 (2020)

country comparison to the world: 130

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Al 'Aqabah

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF): Royal Jordanian Army (includes Special Operations Forces, Border Guards, Royal Guard), Royal Jordanian Navy, Royal Jordanian Air Force; Ministry of Interior: General Directorate of Gendarmerie Forces, Public Security Directorate (2020)

Military expenditures

4.7% of GDP (2019)

4.7% of GDP (2018)

4.8% of GDP (2017)

4.6% of GDP (2016)

4.3% of GDP (2015)

country comparison to the world: 9

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF) have approximately 100,000 active personnel (86,000 Army; 500 Navy; 14,000 Air Force); est. 15,000 Gendarmerie Forces (2021)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the JAF inventory is comprised of a wide mix of imported weapons, mostly second-hand equipment from Europe, the Gulf States, and the US; since 2010, the Netherlands and the US are the leading suppliers of military hardware to Jordan (2020)

Military deployments

100 Mali (MINUSMA) (Jan 2021)

Military service age and obligation

17 years of age for voluntary male military service; initial service term 2 years, with option to reenlist for 18 years; conscription at age 18 suspended in 1999; women are not conscripted, but can volunteer to serve in noncombat military positions in the Royal Jordanian Arab Army Women's Corps and RJAF (2013)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

2004 Agreement settles border dispute with Syria pending demarcation

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 2,272,411 (Palestinian refugees) (2020); 668,332 (Syria), 66,760 (Iraq), 13,902 (Yemen), 6,024 Sudan (2021)

stateless persons: 17 (2020)

Trafficking in persons

current situation:

human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Jordan and Jordanians abroad; victims are primarily from South and Southeast Asia, East Africa, Egypt, and Syria; foreign migrants, many undocumented, working in construction, agriculture, textiles, and domestic work are the most vulnerable to trafficking because of informal work agreements and frequently changing employers; forced labor victims experience withheld or unpaid wages, confiscation of identity documents, restricted freedom of movement, unsafe living conditions, long hours without rest, isolation, and verbal and physical abuse; child labor and potential forced child labor increased; traffickers exploit Lebanese, North African, and Eastern European women who have migrated to Jordan to work in restaurants and nightclubs are subject to sex trafficking



tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List — Jordan does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so; the government increased the training of law enforcement personnel and victim advocates, maintained a trafficking shelter offering a wide range of services, partnered with civil society actors to proactively identify and protect trafficking victims, and conducted anti-trafficking awareness campaigns; the government did not demonstrate overall increasing efforts as fewer traffickers were investigated, prosecuted, and convicted; fewer victims were identified and assisted, and victims were still arrested, detained, and deported for unlawful acts traffickers compelled them to commit; under Jordan’s anti-trafficking law, penalties for sex trafficking offenses were not commensurate with penalties for other serious crimes (2020)