Photos of Jordan

A view of downtown Amman as seen from the Citadel.

Introduction

Background

After World War I and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, the League of Nations awarded Britain the mandate to govern much of the Middle East. In 1921, Britain demarcated from Palestine a semi-autonomous region of Transjordan and recognized ABDALLAH I from the Hashemite family as the country's first leader. The Hashemites also controlled the Hijaz, or the western coastal area of modern-day Saudi Arabia, until 1925, when IBN SAUD and Wahhabi tribes pushed them out. The country gained its independence in 1946 and thereafter became the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

The country has had four kings. Long-time ruler King HUSSEIN (r. 1953-99) successfully navigated competing pressures from the major powers (US, UK, and Soviet Union), various Arab states, Israel, and Palestinian militants, the latter of which led to a brief civil war in 1970 that is known as "Black September" and ended in King HUSSEIN ousting the militants.

Jordan's borders have changed since it gained independence. In 1948, Jordan took control of the West Bank and East Jerusalem in the first Arab-Israeli War, eventually annexing those territories in 1950 and granting its new Palestinian residents Jordanian citizenship. In 1967, Jordan lost the West Bank and East Jerusalem to Israel in the Six-Day War but retained administrative claims to the West Bank until 1988, when King HUSSEIN permanently relinquished Jordanian claims to the West Bank in favor of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). King HUSSEIN signed a peace treaty with Israel in 1994, after Israel and the PLO signed the Oslo Accords in 1993.

Jordanian kings continue to claim custodianship of the Muslim holy sites in Jerusalem by virtue of their Hashemite heritage as descendants of the Prophet Mohammad and agreements with Israel and Jerusalem-based religious and Palestinian leaders. After Israel captured East Jerusalem in the 1967 War, it authorized the Jordanian-controlled Islamic Trust, or Waqf, to continue administering the Al Haram ash Sharif/Temple Mount holy compound, and the Jordan-Israel peace treaty reaffirmed Jordan's "special role" in administering the Muslim holy shrines in Jerusalem. Jordanian kings claim custodianship of the Christian sites in Jerusalem on the basis of the 7th-century Pact of Omar, when the Muslim leader, after conquering Jerusalem, agreed to permit Christian worship.

King HUSSEIN died in 1999 and was succeeded by his eldest son and current King ABDALLAH II. In 2009, ABDALLAH II designated his son HUSSEIN as the Crown Prince. During his reign, ABDALLAH II has contended with a series of challenges, including the Arab Spring influx of refugees from neighboring states, the COVID-19 pandemic, the effects of the war in Ukraine, a perennially weak economy, and the Israel-HAMAS conflict that began in October 2023.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia, between Israel (to the west) and Iraq

Geographic coordinates

31 00 N, 36 00 E

Map references

Middle East

Area

total: 89,342 sq km

land: 88,802 sq km

water: 540 sq km

comparison ranking: total 112

Area - comparative

about three-quarters the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Indiana

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 1,744 km

border countries (5): Iraq 179 km; Israel 307 km; Saudi Arabia 731 km; Syria 379 km; West Bank 148 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate

mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)

Terrain

mostly arid desert plateau; a great north-south geological rift along the west of the country is the dominant topographical feature and includes the Jordan River Valley, the Dead Sea, and the Jordanian Highlands

Elevation

highest point: Jabal Umm ad Dami 1,854 m

lowest point: Dead Sea -431 m

mean elevation: 812 m

Natural resources

phosphates, potash, shale oil

Land use

agricultural land: 11.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 8.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 1.1% (2018 est.)

other: 87.5% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

833 sq km (2020)

Major lakes (area sq km)

salt water lake(s): Dead Sea (shared with Israel and West Bank) - 1,020 sq km
note - endorheic hypersaline lake; 9.6 times saltier than the ocean; lake shore is 431 meters below sea level

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Indian Ocean drainage: (Persian Gulf) Tigris and Euphrates (918,044 sq km)

Major aquifers

Arabian Aquifer System

Population distribution

population heavily concentrated in the west, and particularly the northwest, in and around the capital of Amman; a sizeable, but smaller population is located in the southwest along the shore of the Gulf of Aqaba

Natural hazards

droughts; periodic earthquakes; flash floods

Geography - note

strategic location at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba and as the Arab country that shares the longest border with Israel and the occupied West Bank; the Dead Sea, the lowest point in Asia and the second saltiest body of water in the world (after Lac Assal in Djibouti), lies on Jordan's western border with Israel and the West Bank; Jordan is almost landlocked but does have a 26 km southwestern coastline with a single port, Al 'Aqabah (Aqaba)

People and Society

Population

11,086,716 (2023 est.)

note: increased estimate reflects revised assumptions about the net migration rate due to the increased flow of Syrian refugees

comparison ranking: total population 84

Nationality

noun: Jordanian(s)

adjective: Jordanian

Ethnic groups

Jordanian 69.3%, Syrian 13.3%, Palestinian 6.7%, Egyptian 6.7%, Iraqi 1.4%, other 2.6% (2015 est.)

note: data represent population by self-identified nationality in national census

Languages

Arabic (official), English (widely understood among upper and middle classes)

major-language sample(s):
كتاب حقائق العالم، المصدر الذي لا يمكن الاستغناء عنه للمعلومات الأساسية (Arabic)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Arabic audio sample:

Religions

Muslim 97.1% (official; predominantly Sunni), Christian 2.1% (majority Greek Orthodox, but some Greek and Roman Catholics, Syrian Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox, and Protestant denominations), Buddhist 0.4%, Hindu 0.1%, Jewish <0.1%, folk <0.1%, other <0.1%, unaffiliated <0.1% (2020 est.)

MENA religious affiliation

Age structure

0-14 years: 31.42% (male 1,788,882/female 1,694,417)

15-64 years: 64.53% (male 3,802,074/female 3,352,680)

65 years and over: 4.05% (2023 est.) (male 218,218/female 230,445)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 57.1

youth dependency ratio: 51.2

elderly dependency ratio: 5.8

potential support ratio: 17.1 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 24.6 years (2023 est.)

male: 25.1 years

female: 24.1 years

comparison ranking: total 171

Population growth rate

0.79% (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 115

Birth rate

22.4 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 52

Death rate

3.5 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 223

Net migration rate

-11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 225

Population distribution

population heavily concentrated in the west, and particularly the northwest, in and around the capital of Amman; a sizeable, but smaller population is located in the southwest along the shore of the Gulf of Aqaba

Urbanization

urban population: 92% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.98% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

2.232 million AMMAN (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.13 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female

total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

24.6 years (2017/18 est.)

note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-49

Maternal mortality ratio

41 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 103

Infant mortality rate

total: 13.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 14.7 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 12.4 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 106

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.3 years (2023 est.)

male: 74.8 years

female: 77.8 years

comparison ranking: total population 105

Total fertility rate

2.91 children born/woman (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 53

Gross reproduction rate

1.41 (2023 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.2% of population

rural: 97.9% of population

total: 99.1% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.8% of population

rural: 2.1% of population

total: 0.9% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

7.5% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

2.66 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

1.5 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 98.8% of population

rural: 97.8% of population

total: 98.7% of population

unimproved: urban: 1.2% of population

rural: 2.2% of population

total: 1.3% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

35.5% (2016)

comparison ranking: 13

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 0.25 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.06 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.19 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 171

Tobacco use

total: 34.8% (2020 est.)

male: 56.8% (2020 est.)

female: 12.8% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 16

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 1.5%

women married by age 18: 9.7%

men married by age 18: 0.1% (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

3.2% of GDP (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: 151

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98.4%

male: 98.7%

female: 98.4% (2021)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 11 years

male: 10 years

female: 11 years (2020)

Environment

Environment - current issues

limited natural freshwater resources; declining water table; salinity; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; biodiversity and ecosystem damage/loss

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate

mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)

Land use

agricultural land: 11.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 8.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 1.1% (2018 est.)

other: 87.5% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 92% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.98% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.02% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 142

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 149

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 25.87 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 25.11 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 6.04 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 2,529,997 tons (2013 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 177,100 tons (2014 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 7% (2014 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

salt water lake(s): Dead Sea (shared with Israel and West Bank) - 1,020 sq km
note - endorheic hypersaline lake; 9.6 times saltier than the ocean; lake shore is 431 meters below sea level

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Indian Ocean drainage: (Persian Gulf) Tigris and Euphrates (918,044 sq km)

Major aquifers

Arabian Aquifer System

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 500 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 40 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 570 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

940 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

conventional short form: Jordan

local long form: Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah

local short form: Al Urdun

former: Transjordan

etymology: named for the Jordan River, which makes up part of Jordan's northwest border

Government type

parliamentary constitutional monarchy

Capital

name: Amman

geographic coordinates: 31 57 N, 35 56 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: in the 13th century B.C., the Ammonites named their main city "Rabbath Ammon"; "rabbath" designated "capital," so the name meant "The Capital of [the] Ammon[ites]"; over time, the "Rabbath" came to be dropped and the city became known simply as "Ammon" and then "Amman"

Administrative divisions

12 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); 'Ajlun, Al 'Aqabah, Al Balqa', Al Karak, Al Mafraq, Al ‘Asimah (Amman), At Tafilah, Az Zarqa', Irbid, Jarash, Ma'an, Madaba

Independence

25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)

National holiday

Independence Day, 25 May (1946)

Constitution

history: previous 1928 (preindependence); latest initially adopted 28 November 1947, revised and ratified 1 January 1952

amendments: constitutional amendments require at least a two-thirds majority vote of both the Senate and the House and ratification by the king; amended several times, last in 2022

Legal system

mixed system developed from codes instituted by the Ottoman Empire (based on French law), British common law, and Islamic law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Jordan

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: King ABDALLAH II (since 7 February 1999); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HUSSEIN (eldest son of the monarch, born 28 June 1994); the monarchy is hereditary

head of government: Prime Minister Bisher AL-KHASAWNEH (since 7 October 2020)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch in consultation with the prime minister

elections/appointments: prime minister appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-'Umma consists of:
Senate or the House of Notables or Majlis al-Ayan (65 seats; members appointed by the monarch to serve 4-year terms)
Chamber of Deputies or House of Representatives or Majlis al-Nuwaab (130 seats; 115 members directly elected in 23 multi-seat constituencies by open-list proportional representation vote and 15 seats for women; 12 of the 115 seats reserved for Christian, Chechen, and Circassian candidates; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: Senate - last appointments on 27 Sep 2020 (next to be held by November 2024)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 10 November 2020 (next to be held by November 2024)

election results: Senate - composition as of March 2024 - men 55, women 10, percent of women 15.4%

Chamber of Deputies; note - tribal, centrist, and pro-government candidates dominated the election; the Islamic Action Front, the political wing of the Muslim Brotherhood, garnered only 10 seats, down from 15 in the previous election; women, who are guaranteed 15 seats by Jordan’s legislative quota system, won 16 seats, down from 20 seats won in the previous election; composition as of March 2024 - men 113, women 17, percentage women 13.1%; note - total National Assembly percentage women 13.8%

 



note: in 2022, a new electoral law - effective for the anticipated 2024 election - will increase the total number of Chamber of Deputies' seats to 138 from 130; 97 members to be directly elected from multi-seat geographic districts by open list proportional representation vote, with over 7 percent of total votes needed to gain a seat, and 41 members to be directly elected from a single national district by closed party-list proportional representation vote, with over a 2.5 percent of total votes needed to gain a seat

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Court of Cassation or Supreme Court (consists of 15 members, including the chief justice); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the king; other judges nominated by the Judicial Council, an 11-member judicial policymaking body consisting of high-level judicial officials and judges, and approved by the king; judge tenure not limited; Constitutional Court members appointed by the king for 6-year non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Great Felonies Court; religious courts; military courts; juvenile courts; Land Settlement Courts; Income Tax Court; Higher Administrative Court; Customs Court; special courts including the State Security Court

Political parties and leaders

political reforms required all existing parties to re-register by May 2023, which resulted in changes to the number of registered parties and the number of seats held by those parties for the anticipated 2024 election

International organization participation

ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CD, CICA, EBRD, FAO, G-11, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, NATO (partner), OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNOOSA, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Dina Khalil Tawfiq KAWAR (since 27 June 2016)

chancery: 3504 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 966-2664

FAX: [1] (202) 966-3110

email address and website:
hkjconsular@jordanembassyus.org

http://www.jordanembassyus.org/

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Yael LEMPERT (since 3 September 2023)

embassy: Abdoun, Al-Umawyeen St., Amman

mailing address: 6050 Amman Place, Washington DC  20521-6050

telephone: [962] (6) 590-6000

FAX: [962] (6) 592-0163

email address and website:
Amman-ACS@state.gov

https://jo.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of black (top), representing the Abbassid Caliphate, white, representing the Ummayyad Caliphate, and green, representing the Fatimid Caliphate; a red isosceles triangle on the hoist side, representing the Great Arab Revolt of 1916, and bearing a small white seven-pointed star symbolizing the seven verses of the opening Sura (Al-Fatiha) of the Holy Koran; the seven points on the star represent faith in One God, humanity, national spirit, humility, social justice, virtue, and aspirations; design is based on the Arab Revolt flag of World War I

National symbol(s)

eagle; national colors: black, white, green, red

National anthem

name: "As-salam al-malaki al-urdoni" (Long Live the King of Jordan)

lyrics/music: Abdul-Mone'm al-RIFAI'/Abdul-Qader al-TANEER

note: adopted 1946; the shortened version of the anthem is used most commonly, while the full version is reserved for special occasions

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 6 (5 cultural, 1 mixed)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Petra (c); Quseir Amra (c); Um er-Rasas (Kastrom Mefa'a) (c); Wadi Rum Protected Area (m); Baptism Site “Bethany Beyond the Jordan” (Al-Maghtas) (c); As-Salt - The Place of Tolerance and Urban Hospitality (c)

Economy

Economic overview

low growth, upper middle-income Middle Eastern economy; high debt and unemployment, especially for youth and women; key US foreign assistance recipient; natural resource-poor and import-reliant

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$107.11 billion (2022 est.)
$104.571 billion (2021 est.)
$100.883 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 92

Real GDP growth rate

2.43% (2022 est.)
3.66% (2021 est.)
-1.1% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 159

Real GDP per capita

$9,500 (2022 est.)
$9,400 (2021 est.)
$9,200 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 145

GDP (official exchange rate)

$48.653 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

4.23% (2022 est.)
1.35% (2021 est.)
0.33% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 64

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BB- (2019)

Moody's rating: B1 (2013)

Standard & Poors rating: B+ (2017)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 4.5% (2017 est.)

industry: 28.8% (2017 est.)

services: 66.6% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 88; industry 87; agriculture 131

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 80.5% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 19.8% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 22.8% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.7% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 34.2% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -58% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

tomatoes, poultry, olives, milk, potatoes, cucumbers, vegetables, watermelons, green chillies/peppers, peaches/nectarines

Industries

tourism, information technology, clothing, fertilizer, potash, phosphate mining, pharmaceuticals, petroleum refining, cement, inorganic chemicals, light manufacturing

Industrial production growth rate

3.33% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 107

Labor force

3.009 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 108

Unemployment rate

19.19% (2022 est.)
19.84% (2021 est.)
19.21% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 203

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 40.5% (2021 est.)

male: 37.4%

female: 53.8%

comparison ranking: total 12

Population below poverty line

15.7% (2018 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Average household expenditures

on food: 29.6% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 4.6% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.4%

highest 10%: 28.7% (2010 est.)

Remittances

10.28% of GDP (2022 est.)
11.15% of GDP (2021 est.)
11.17% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Budget

revenues: $10.813 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $13.489 billion (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-5.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 169

Public debt

75.97% of GDP (2020 est.)
79.35% of GDP (2019 est.)
75.38% of GDP (2017 est.)

note: central government debt as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 44

Taxes and other revenues

15.98% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 131

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$4.159 billion (2022 est.)
-$3.718 billion (2021 est.)
-$2.505 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 169

Exports

$20.335 billion (2022 est.)
$13.87 billion (2021 est.)
$10.444 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 90

Exports - partners

United States 26%, India 13%, Saudi Arabia 11%, Iraq 5%, China 4% (2021)

Exports - commodities

fertilizers, clothing and apparel, calcium phosphates, phosphoric acid, packaged medicines (2021)

Imports

$29.955 billion (2022 est.)
$23.321 billion (2021 est.)
$18.424 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 81

Imports - partners

China 17%, Saudi Arabia 14%, United Arab Emirates 11%, United States 5%, Turkey 3% (2021)

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, gold, crude petroleum, clothing and apparel, broadcasting equipment, packaged medicines (2021)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$15.56 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$15.543 billion (2016 est.)
$16.572 billion (2015 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 69

Debt - external

$32.088 billion (2019 est.)
$29.916 billion (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 81

Exchange rates

Jordanian dinars (JOD) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
0.71 (2022 est.)
0.71 (2021 est.)
0.71 (2020 est.)
0.71 (2019 est.)
0.71 (2018 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

population without electricity: (2020) less than 1 million

electrification - total population: 99.9% (2021)

electrification - urban areas: 100% (2021)

electrification - rural areas: 98.8% (2021)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 5.644 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 17.366 billion kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 98 million kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 239 million kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 2.249 billion kWh (2019 est.)

comparison rankings: installed generating capacity 83; transmission/distribution losses 131; imports 101; exports 92; consumption 75

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 83.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 11.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 4.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 219,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 219,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 114,800 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 47,400 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 1 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

67,240 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 73

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 191

Refined petroleum products - imports

68,460 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 68

Natural gas

production: 115.872 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 4.651 billion cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 375.849 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

imports: 4.911 billion cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 6.031 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

23.47 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 381,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 15.786 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 7.303 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 82

Energy consumption per capita

39.331 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 108

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 465,603 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 94

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 7,275,563 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 65 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 108

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Jordan’s government has focused on the use of ICT in a range of sectors, aimed at transforming the relatively small economy through the use of digital services; this policy has helped the country rise in the league tables for digital connectivity and internet readiness, and it has also attracted investment from foreign companies; during the ongoing global pandemic, the start-up sector has been further encouraged to develop solutions to combat the crisis, while other efforts have facilitated e-government services and encouraged businesses to adapt to new methods of working through their own digital transformation; these developments have been supported by the highly developed mobile sector, led by three major regional players which have near-comprehensive LTE network coverage (2022)

domestic: fixed-line stands at nearly 4 per 100 persons and mobile cellular subscriptions at 65 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 962; landing point for the FEA and Taba-Aqaba submarine cable networks providing connectivity to Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia and Asia; satellite earth stations - 33 (3 Intelsat, 1 Arabsat, and 29 land and maritime Inmarsat terminals (2019)

Broadcast media

radio and TV dominated by the government-owned Jordan Radio and Television Corporation (JRTV) that operates a main network, a sports network, a film network, and a satellite channel; first independent TV broadcaster aired in 2007; international satellite TV and Israeli and Syrian TV broadcasts are available; roughly 30 radio stations with JRTV operating the main government-owned station; transmissions of multiple international radio broadcasters are available

Internet users

total: 9.13 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 83% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 65

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 630,545 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 85

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 4 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 54

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 3,383,805 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 175.84 million (2018) mt-km

Airports

17 (2024)

comparison ranking: 144

Heliports

6 (2024)

Pipelines

473 km gas, 49 km oil (2013)

Railways

total: 509 km (2020)

narrow gauge: 509 km (2014) 1.050-m gauge

comparison ranking: total 112

Roadways

total: 7,203 km

paved: 7,203 km (2011)

comparison ranking: total 144

Merchant marine

total: 34 (2023)

by type: general cargo 5, other 29

comparison ranking: total 131

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Al 'Aqabah

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF): Royal Jordanian Army (includes Special Operations Forces, Border Guards, Royal Guard), Royal Jordanian Air Force, Royal Jordanian Navy

Ministry of Interior: Public Security Directorate (includes national police, the Gendarmerie, and the Civil Defense Directorate) (2024)

note: the JAF report administratively to the minister of defense and have a support role for internal security; the prime minister serves as defense minister, but there is no separate ministry of defense

Military expenditures

4.8% of GDP (2022 est.)
5% of GDP (2021 est.)
5% of GDP (2020 est.)
5.6% of GDP (2019 est.)
5.6% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 9

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 100,000 active-duty armed forces personnel (85,000 Army; 14,000 Air Force; 1,000 Navy); approximately 15,000 Gendarmerie Forces (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the JAF inventory is comprised of a wide mix of imported equipment from Europe, some Gulf States, Russia, and the US; in recent years, the Netherlands and the US have been the leading suppliers (2023)

Military service age and obligation

17 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women); initial service term is 24 months, with option to reenlist for up to 18 years; conscription was abolished in 1991, but in 2020 Jordan announced the reinstatement of compulsory military service for jobless men aged between 25 and 29 with 12 months of service, made up of 3 months of military training and 9 months of professional and technical training; in 2019, Jordan announced a voluntary 4-month National Military Service program for men and women aged between 18-25 years who have been unemployed for at least 6 months; service would include 1 month for military training with the remaining 3 months dedicated to vocational training in the sectors of construction and tourism (2023)

note: women comprised about 3% of the military as of 2023

Military deployments

Jordan has about 200 police deployed to the MONUSCO mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2024)

Military - note

the JAF traces its origins back to the Arab Legion, which was formed under the British protectorate of Transjordan in the 1920s; it is responsible for territorial defense and border security, but also has a supporting role for internal security; the JAF’s primary concerns are terrorist and criminal threats emanating from its 230-mile border with Syria and 112-mile border with Iraq, as well as the potential impact of Israeli-Palestinian tensions; the terrorist group Hizballah and Iranian-backed militia forces operate in southwestern Syria near Jordan’s border while fighters from the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS) terrorist group continue to operate in both Iraq and Syria; ISIS fighters have included Jordanian nationals, some of whom have returned to Jordan; meanwhile, individuals and groups sympathetic to Palestine have planned and conducted terrorist attacks in Jordan

the JAF participates in both bilateral and multinational exercises and has taken part in regional military operations alongside allied forces in Afghanistan, Syria, and Yemen; in recent years, it has contributed to regional military operations alongside allied forces in Afghanistan, Syria, and Yemen; it also participates in UN peacekeeping missions; the Army is organized and equipped for a mobile territorial defense against conventional threats and rapid responses to unconventional threats such as terrorism; border security forces are backed up by approximately 10 mechanized or armored brigades, plus a rapid reaction/high readiness airborne/ranger brigade; the Army also has a well-regarded special operations/counterterrorism group, and Jordan hosts an international special operations training center; the Air Force maintains about 50 US-made multirole fighter aircraft and dozens of attack helicopters; the Navy is a coastal defense force with some fast, gun- or missile-armed patrol craft for monitoring Jordan’s coastline on the Gulf of Aqaba

the US is a key security partner, and Jordan is one of the largest recipients of US military aid in the region; it cooperates with the US on a number of issues, including border and maritime security, arms transfers, cybersecurity, and counterterrorism; Jordan has Major Non-NATO Ally status with the US, a designation under US law that provides foreign partners with certain benefits in the areas of defense trade and security cooperation (2023)

Terrorism

Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 2.4 million (Palestinian refugees) (2020); 12,866 (Yemen), 6,013 Sudan (2021); 33,951 (Iraq) (mid-year 2022) (2022); 638,760 (Syria) (2024)

stateless persons: 64 (2022)

Illicit drugs

primarily a transshipment country for amphetamine tablets originating in Lebanon and Syria and destined for Saudi Arabia, Israel, and Gulf countries; the government is increasingly concerned about domestic consumption of illicit drugs