Red dots mark the locations of fires burning in countries south and east of the Baltic Sea in this early April image. The scattered fires were probably set to clear land for agricultural purposes. The Scandinavian countries, Norway and Sweden, and Finland to the north of the Sea, are still blanketed in snow. From the left, the countries lining the Baltic on the south are Denmark, Germany, Poland, Russia (Kaliningrad), Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Russia. Belarus forms the lower right corner of the image. Photo courtesy of NASA.
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Lithuanian lands were united under MINDAUGAS in 1236; over the next century, through alliances and conquest, Lithuania extended its territory to include most of present-day Belarus and Ukraine. By the end of the 14th century Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. An alliance with Poland in 1386 led the two countries into a union through the person of a common ruler. In 1569, Lithuania and Poland formally united into a single dual state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. This entity survived until 1795 when its remnants were partitioned by surrounding countries. Lithuania regained its independence following World War I but was annexed by the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US and many other countries. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into Western European institutions; it joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004. In 2015, Lithuania joined the euro zone, and it joined the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in 2018.

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Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia, west of Belarus

Geographic coordinates

56 00 N, 24 00 E


total: 65,300 sq km

land: 62,680 sq km

water: 2,620 sq km

country comparison to the world: 123

Area - comparative

slightly larger than West Virginia

Area comparison map
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 1,545 km

border countries (4): Belarus 640 km; Latvia 544 km; Poland 100 km; Russia (Kaliningrad) 261 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm


transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers


lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil


highest point: Aukstojas 294 m

lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 110 m

Natural resources

peat, arable land, amber

Land use

agricultural land: 44.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 34.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.5% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 9.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 34.6% (2018 est.)

other: 20.6% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

16 sq km (2013)

Major lakes (area sq km)

salt water lake(s): Curonian Lagoon (shared with Russia) - 1,620 sq km

Population distribution

fairly even population distribution throughout the country, but somewhat greater concentrations in the southern cities of Vilnius and Kaunas, and the western port of Klaipeda

Natural hazards

occasional floods, droughts

Geography - note

fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits

People and Society


noun: Lithuanian(s)

adjective: Lithuanian

Ethnic groups

Lithuanian 84.6%, Polish 6.5%, Russian 5%, Belarusian 1%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.8% (2021 est.)


Lithuanian (official) 85.3%, Russian 6.8%, Polish 5.1%, other 1.1%, two mother tongues 1.7% (2021 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Pasaulio enciklopedija – naudingas bendrosios informacijos šaltinis. (Lithuanian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.


Roman Catholic 74.2%, Russian Orthodox 3.7%, Old Believer 0.6%, Evangelical Lutheran 0.6%, Evangelical Reformist 0.2%, other (including Sunni Muslim, Jewish, Greek Catholic, and Karaite) 0.9%, none 6.1%, unspecified 13.7% (2021 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.3% (male 208,669/female 197,728)

15-64 years: 63.11% (male 821,319/female 854,763)

65 years and over: 21.59% (2023 est.) (male 197,217/female 376,059)

2023 population pyramid
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 55.7

youth dependency ratio: 23.6

elderly dependency ratio: 32.1

potential support ratio: 3.1 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 44.5 years

male: 40.2 years

female: 48.2 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 15

Birth rate

9.09 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

country comparison to the world: 198

Death rate

15.17 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

country comparison to the world: 1

Net migration rate

-4.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

country comparison to the world: 197

Population distribution

fairly even population distribution throughout the country, but somewhat greater concentrations in the southern cities of Vilnius and Kaunas, and the western port of Klaipeda


urban population: 68.7% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: -0.12% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

541,000 VILNIUS (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.52 male(s)/female

total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

28.2 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

9 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 146

Infant mortality rate

total: 3.61 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.06 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

country comparison to the world: 193

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 75.95 years

male: 70.62 years

female: 81.59 years (2023 est.)

country comparison to the world: 118

Gross reproduction rate

0.78 (2023 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 93.8% of population

total: 98% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 6.2% of population

total: 2% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

7.5% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

5.08 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

6.4 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.5% of population

rural: 88.7% of population

total: 96% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.5% of population

rural: 11.3% of population

total: 4% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: intermediate (2023)

vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 11.93 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 4.61 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.88 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 4.96 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 1.48 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 4

Tobacco use

total: 32% (2020 est.)

male: 42.1% (2020 est.)

female: 21.8% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 20


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.8%

male: 99.8%

female: 99.8% (2021)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years

male: 16 years

female: 17 years (2020)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 19%

male: 18.5%

female: 19.6% (2021 est.)


Environment - current issues

water pollution; air pollution; deforestation; threatened animal and plant species; chemicals and waste materials released into the environment contaminate soil and groundwater; soil degradation and erosion

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 11.49 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 12.96 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 3.15 megatons (2020 est.)


transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers

Land use

agricultural land: 44.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 34.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.5% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 9.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 34.6% (2018 est.)

other: 20.6% (2018 est.)


urban population: 68.7% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: -0.12% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 1.3 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 297,960 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 22.9% (2015 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

salt water lake(s): Curonian Lagoon (shared with Russia) - 1,620 sq km

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 140 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 60 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 60 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

24.5 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania

conventional short form: Lithuania

local long form: Lietuvos Respublika

local short form: Lietuva

former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (while occupied by the USSR)

etymology: meaning of the name "Lietuva" remains unclear and is debated by scholars; it may derive from the Lietava, a stream in east central Lithuania

Government type

semi-presidential republic


name: Vilnius

geographic coordinates: 54 41 N, 25 19 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: named after the Vilnia River, which flows into the Neris River at Vilnius; the river name derives from the Lithuanian word "vilnis" meaning "a surge"

Administrative divisions

60 municipalities (savivaldybe, singular - savivaldybe); Akmene, Alytaus Miestas, Alytus, Anksciai, Birstonas, Birzai, Druskininkai, Elektrenai, Ignalina, Jonava, Joniskis, Jurbarkas, Kaisiadorys, Kalvarija, Kauno Miestas, Kaunas, Kazlu Rudos, Kedainiai, Kelme, Klaipedos Miestas, Klaipeda, Kretinga, Kupiskis, Lazdijai, Marijampole, Mazeikiai, Moletai, Neringa, Pagegiai, Pakruojis, Palangos Miestas, Panevezio Miestas, Panevezys, Pasvalys, Plunge, Prienai, Radviliskis, Raseiniai, Rietavas, Rokiskis, Sakiai, Salcininkai, Siauliu Miestas, Siauliai, Silale, Silute, Sirvintos, Skuodas, Svencionys, Taurage, Telsiai, Trakai, Ukmerge, Utena, Varena, Vilkaviskis, Vilniaus Miestas, Vilnius, Visaginas, Zarasai


16 February 1918 (from Soviet Russia and Germany); 11 March 1990 (declared from the Soviet Union); 6 September 1991 (recognized by the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: 6 July 1253 (coronation of MINDAUGAS, traditional founding date); 1 July 1569 (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth created)

National holiday

Independence Day (or National Day), 16 February (1918); note - 16 February 1918 was the date Lithuania established its statehood and its concomitant independence from Soviet Russia and Germany; 11 March 1990 was the date it declared the restoration of Lithuanian statehood and its concomitant independence from the Soviet Union


history: several previous; latest adopted by referendum 25 October 1992, entered into force 2 November 1992

amendments: proposed by at least one fourth of all Parliament members or by petition of at least 300,000 voters; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Parliament in each of two readings three months apart and a presidential signature; amendments to constitutional articles on national sovereignty and constitutional amendment procedure also require three-fourths voter approval in a referendum; amended many times, last in 2019

Legal system

civil law system; legislative acts can be appealed to the Constitutional Court

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Lithuania

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Gitanas NAUSEDA (since 12 July 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister Ingrida SIMONYTE (since 24 November 2020)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president, and approved by Parliament

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 12 and 26 May 2019 (next to be held in May 2024); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by Parliament

election results:
Gitanas NAUSEDA elected president in second round; percent of vote - Gitanas NAUSEDA (independent) 66.7%, Ingrida SIMONYTE (independent) 33.3%

2014: elected president; percent by vote Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE (independent) 59.1%, Zigmantas BALCYTIS (Social Democratic Party) 40.9%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats; 71 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote and 70 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 11 and 25 October 2020 (next to be held in October 2024)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - TS-LKD 50, LVZS 32, LSDP 13, LRLS 13, LP 11, DP 10, LLRA-KSS 3, LSDDP 3, LT 1, LZP 1, independent 4; composition as of April 2023 - men 101, women 40, women 28 percent

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 37 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Seimas; judges serve 5-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Seimas from nominations - 3 each by the president of the republic, the Seimas chairperson, and the Supreme Court president; judges serve 9-year, nonrenewable terms; one-third of membership reconstituted every 3 years

subordinate courts: Court of Appeals; district and local courts

Political parties and leaders

Democrats for Lithuania [Saulius SKVERNELIS]
Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles or LLRA [Valdemar TOMASEVSKI]
Freedom and Justice Party or LT [Remigijus ZEMAITAITIS] (formerly Lithuanian Freedom Union (Liberals))
Freedom Party or LP [Ausrine ARMONAITE]
Homeland Union-Lithuanian Christian Democrats or TS-LKD [Gabrielius LANDSBERGIS]
Labor Party or DP [Andrius MAZURONIS]
Lithuanian Center Party or LCP [Naglis PUTEIKIS]
Lithuanian Farmers and Greens Union or LVZS [Ramunas KARBAUSKIS]
Lithuanian Green Party or LZP [Remigijus LAPINSKAS]
Lithuanian Liberal Movement or LS or LRLS [Viktorija CMILYTE-NIELSEN]
Lithuanian List or LL [Darius KUOLYS]
Lithuanian Regions Party or LRP [Jonas PINSKUS] (formerly Lithuanian Social Democratic Labor Party or LSDDP)
Lithuanian Social Democratic Party or LSDP [Vilija BLINKEVICIUTE]

International organization participation

Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHRC, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Audra PLEPYTE (since 7 July 2021)

chancery: 2622 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860

FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Robert S. GILCHRIST (since 4 February 2020)

embassy: Akmenu gatve 6, Vilnius, LT-03106

mailing address: 4510 Vilnius Place, Washington DC  20521-4510

telephone: [370] (5) 266-5500

FAX: [370] (5) 266-5510

email address and website:

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red; yellow symbolizes golden fields, as well as the sun, light, and goodness; green represents the forests of the countryside, in addition to nature, freedom, and hope; red stands for courage and the blood spilled in defense of the homeland

National symbol(s)

mounted knight known as Vytis (the Chaser), white stork; national colors: yellow, green, red

National anthem

name: "Tautiska giesme" (The National Song)

lyrics/music: Vincas KUDIRKA

note: adopted 1918, restored 1990; written in 1898 while Lithuania was a part of Russia; banned during the Soviet occupation from 1940 to 1990

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 4 (all cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Vilnius Historic Center; Curonian Spit; Kernavė Archaeological Site; Struve Geodetic Arc


Economic overview

high-income, EU-member, largest Baltic economy; privatized most state-owned enterprises; unmoved youth emigration; systemic corruption; issued Europe’s first bank-backed digital coin (LBCOIN); highly educated workforce; lowest EU household debt

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$110.089 billion (2021 est.)

$103.876 billion (2020 est.)

$103.898 billion (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 87

Real GDP growth rate

5.98% (2021 est.)

-0.02% (2020 est.)

4.63% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 74

Real GDP per capita

$39,300 (2021 est.)

$37,200 (2020 est.)

$37,200 (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 51

GDP (official exchange rate)

$54.597 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

4.68% (2021 est.)

1.2% (2020 est.)

2.33% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 154

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: A (2020)

Moody's rating: A3 (2015)

Standard & Poors rating: A+ (2020)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 3.5% (2017 est.)

industry: 29.4% (2017 est.)

services: 67.2% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 63.9% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 16.6% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 18.8% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: -1.3% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 81.6% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -79.3% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

wheat, milk, sugar beets, rapeseeds, barley, triticale, potatoes, oats, peas, beans


metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, televisions, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture, textiles, food processing, fertilizer, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, lasers, electronic components, computers, amber jewelry, information technology, video game development, app/software development, biotechnology

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 9.1%

industry: 25.2%

services: 65.8% (2015 est.)

Unemployment rate

7.9% (2021 est.)

8.49% (2020 est.)

6.26% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 132

Average household expenditures

on food: 21.2% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 5.9% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.2%

highest 10%: 28.8% (2015)


revenues: $18.636 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $18.491 billion (2019 est.)

Public debt

53.28% of GDP (2020 est.)

42.66% of GDP (2019 est.)

39% of GDP (2018 est.)

note: official data; data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities, debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions

country comparison to the world: 96

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

$756.476 million (2021 est.)

$4.165 billion (2020 est.)

$1.929 billion (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 54


$53.397 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$41.721 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$42.323 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 59

Exports - partners

Russia 13%, Latvia 9%, Poland 8%, Germany 7%, Estonia 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, wooden furniture, wheat, laboratory reagents, cigarettes (2021)


$50.377 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$36.414 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$39.419 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 61

Imports - partners

Poland 12%, Russia 12%, Germany 12%, Latvia 7%, Netherlands 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, cars, packaged medicines, refined petroleum, electricity (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$5.58 billion (31 December 2021 est.)

$4.847 billion (31 December 2020 est.)

$5.085 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 99

Debt - external

$37.859 billion (2019 est.)

$41.999 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 77

Exchange rates

litai (LTL) per US dollar -

0.845 (2021 est.)

0.876 (2020 est.)

0.893 (2019 est.)

0.847 (2018 est.)

0.885 (2017 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)


installed generating capacity: 3.512 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 11.063 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 4.105 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 12.013 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 951 million kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 38% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 35.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 6.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 16.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)


production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 221,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 75,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 268,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 4,000 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 68,000 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 900 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 194,900 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 12 million barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 2.231 billion cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 497.923 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

imports: 2.819 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

14.503 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 693,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 9.488 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 4.322 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 96


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 290,711 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 112

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 3,726,653 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 134 (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 136

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Lithuania’s small telecoms market is among the more advanced in Europe, particularly given the universal access to LTE infrastructure and the extensive fiber footprint; investment has been focused on fiber broadband and mobile network upgrades; fiber is now by far the dominant fixed broadband platform, with the number of DSL and cable connections in steady decline; SIM card penetration is relatively high for the region, with a growing proportion of subscribers being on higher-Average Revenue Per User (ARPU) contract plans; while LTE services are available nationally, operators have made steady investments in 5G; the regulator has helped the network operators to develop 5G by allowing them to repurpose spectrum in the 2.1GHz and 2.4GHz bands; the regulator is expected to complete the auction of spectrum in the 700MHz and 3.4GHz bands later in 2022; service obligations on the licenses include the provision of services to the five main cities by the end of 2023 (2021)

domestic: nearly 10 per 100 for fixed-line subscriptions; mobile-cellular subscriptions at 134 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 370; landing points for the BCS East, BCS East-West Interlink and NordBalt connecting Lithuania to Sweden, and Latvia ; further transmission by satellite; landline connections to Latvia and Poland (2019)

Broadcast media

public broadcaster operates 3 channels with the third channel - a satellite channel - introduced in 2007; various privately owned commercial TV broadcasters operate national and multiple regional channels; many privately owned local TV stations; multi-channel cable and satellite TV services available; publicly owned broadcaster operates 3 radio networks; many privately owned commercial broadcasters, with repeater stations in various regions throughout the country

Internet users

total: 2.436 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 87% (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 130

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 796,814 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 29 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 77


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 3 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 50

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 26,031 (2018)

Airports - with paved runways


note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports - with unpaved runways


note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control


1,921 km gas, 121 km refined products (2013)


total: 1,911 km (2020) 152 km electrified

country comparison to the world: 74


total: 84,166 km (2012)

paved: 72,297 km (2012) (includes 312 km of expressways)

unpaved: 11,869 km (2012)

country comparison to the world: 58


441 km (2007) (navigable year-round)

country comparison to the world: 94

Merchant marine

total: 62

by type: container ship 4, general cargo 22, oil tanker 2, other 34 (2022)

country comparison to the world: 112

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Klaipeda

oil terminal(s): Butinge oil terminal

LNG terminal(s) (import): Klaipeda

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Lithuanian Armed Forces (Lietuvos Ginkluotosios Pajegos): Land Forces (Sausumos Pajegos), Naval Forces (Karines Juru Pajegos), Air Forces (Karines Oro Pajegos), Special Operations Forces (Specialiuju Operaciju Pajegos); National Defense Volunteer Forces (Krašto Apsaugos Savanorių Pajegos or KASP); National Riflemen's Union (2023)

note: the National Rifleman's Union is a paramilitary force that acts as an additional reserve force

Military expenditures

2.5% of GDP (2022 est.)

2% of GDP (2021 est.)

2.1% of GDP (2020)

2% of GDP (2019) (approximately $1.7 billion)

2% of GDP (2018) (approximately $1.59 billion)

country comparison to the world: 42

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 17,000 active duty personnel (13,500 Army, including about 5,000 National Defense Voluntary Forces; 500 Navy; 1,000 Air Force; 2,000 other, including special operations forces, logistics support, training, etc); estimated 11,000 Riflemen Union (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory is a mix of Soviet-era and more modern European and US equipment (2022)

Military service age and obligation

19-26 years of age for conscripted military service for men; 9-month service obligation; in 2015, Lithuania reinstated conscription after having converted to a professional military in 2008; 18-38 for voluntary service for men and women (2023)

note 1: Lithuania conscripts up to 4,000 males each year; conscripts are selected using an automated lottery system

note 2: as of 2019, women comprised about 12% of the military's full-time personnel

Military deployments

note: contributes about 350-550 troops to the Lithuania, Poland, and Ukraine joint military brigade (LITPOLUKRBRIG), which was established in 2014; the brigade is headquartered in Poland and is comprised of an international staff, three battalions, and specialized units; units affiliated with the multinational brigade remain within the structures of the armed forces of their respective countries until the brigade is activated for participation in an international operation

Military - note

Lithuania became a member of NATO in 2004

since 2017, Lithuania has hosted a German-led multi-national NATO ground force battlegroup as part of the Alliance’s Enhanced Forward Presence initiative; NATO also has provided air protection for Lithuania since 2004 through its Air Policing mission; NATO member countries that possess air combat capabilities voluntarily contribute to the mission on 4-month rotations; NATO fighter aircraft are hosted at Lithuania’s Šiauliai Air Base (2022)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Lithuania-Belarus: as of January 2007, ground demarcation of the boundary with Belarus was complete and mapped with final ratification documents in preparation

Lithuania-Lativa: boundary demarcated with Latvia was completed in 1998

Lithuania-Russia: Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as a EU member state having an external border with a non-EU member, to strict Schengen border rules; in January 2018, demarcation of the Lithuania-Russia border was completed

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 77,444 (Ukraine) (as of 12 May 2023)

stateless persons: 2,720 (2022)

Illicit drugs

source country for  amphetamine tablets