A sulcata tortoise (Geochelone sulcata), a land-dwelling reptile native to Northern Africa. Photo courtesy of NOAA.
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Senegal is one of the few countries in the world with evidence of continuous human life from the Paleolithic period to present. Between the 14th and 16th centuries, the Jolof Empire ruled most of Senegal. Starting in the 15th century, Portugal, the Netherlands, France, and Great Britain traded along the Senegalese coast. Senegal’s location on the western tip of Africa made it a favorable base for the European slave trade. European powers used the Senegalese island of Goree as a base to purchase slaves from the warring chiefdoms on the mainland, and at the height of the slave trade in Senegal, over one-third of the Senegalese population was enslaved. In 1815, France abolished slavery and began expanding inland. During the second half of the 19th century, France took possession of Senegal as a French colony. In 1959, the French colonies of Senegal and French Sudan were merged and granted independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. The union broke up after only a few months. In 1982, Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia. The envisaged integration of the two countries was never implemented, and the union dissolved in 1989.

Since the 1980s, the Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance - a separatist movement based in southern Senegal - has led a low-level insurgency. Several attempts at reaching a comprehensive peace agreement have failed. Since 2012, despite sporadic incidents of violence, an unofficial cease-fire has remained largely in effect. Senegal is one of the most stable democracies in Africa and has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping and regional mediation. The Socialist Party of Senegal ruled for 40 years until Abdoulaye WADE was elected president in 2000 and re-elected in 2007. WADE amended Senegal's constitution over a dozen times to increase executive power and weaken the opposition. In 2012, WADE’s decision to run for a third presidential term sparked public backlash that led to his defeat to current President Macky SALL. A 2016 constitutional referendum limited future presidents to two consecutive five-year terms. The change, however, does not apply to SALL's first term. In February 2019, SALL won his bid for reelection; his second term will end in 2024.

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Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania

Geographic coordinates

14 00 N, 14 00 W


total: 196,722 sq km

land: 192,530 sq km

water: 4,192 sq km

country comparison to the world: 88

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than South Dakota; slightly larger than twice the size of Indiana

Area comparison map
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 2,684 km

border countries (5): The Gambia 749 km; Guinea 363 km; Guinea-Bissau 341 km; Mali 489 km; Mauritania 742 km


531 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin


tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind


generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast


highest point: unnamed elevation 2.8 km southeast of Nepen Diaka 648 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 69 m

Natural resources

fish, phosphates, iron ore

Land use

agricultural land: 46.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 17.4% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 29.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 43.8% (2018 est.)

other: 9.4% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

1,200 sq km (2012)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Senegal (shared with Guinea [s], Mali, and Mauritania [m] ) - 1,641 km; Gambia (shared with Guinea [s] and The Gambia [m]) - 1,094 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Senegal (456,397 sq km)

Major aquifers

Senegalo-Mauritanian Basin

Population distribution

the population is concentrated in the west, with Dakar anchoring a well-defined core area; approximately 70% of the population is rural as shown in this population distribution map

Natural hazards

lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts

Geography - note

westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal

People and Society


noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)

adjective: Senegalese

Ethnic groups

Wolof 39.7%, Pular 27.5%, Serer 16%, Mandinka 4.9%, Jola 4.2%, Soninke 2.4%, other 5.4% (includes Europeans and persons of Lebanese descent) (2019 est.)


French (official), Wolof, Pular, Jola, Mandinka, Serer, Soninke


Muslim 97.2% (most adhere to one of the four main Sufi brotherhoods), Christian 2.7% (mostly Roman Catholic) (2019 est.)

Demographic profile

Senegal has a large and growing youth population but has not been successful in developing its potential human capital. Senegal’s high total fertility rate of almost 4.5 children per woman continues to bolster the country’s large youth cohort – more than 60% of the population is under the age of 25. Fertility remains high because of the continued desire for large families, the low use of family planning, and early childbearing. Because of the country’s high illiteracy rate (more than 40%), high unemployment (even among university graduates), and widespread poverty, Senegalese youths face dim prospects; women are especially disadvantaged.

Senegal historically was a destination country for economic migrants, but in recent years West African migrants more often use Senegal as a transit point to North Africa – and sometimes illegally onward to Europe. The country also has been host to several thousand black Mauritanian refugees since they were expelled from their homeland during its 1989 border conflict with Senegal. The country’s economic crisis in the 1970s stimulated emigration; departures accelerated in the 1990s. Destinations shifted from neighboring countries, which were experiencing economic decline, civil wars, and increasing xenophobia, to Libya and Mauritania because of their booming oil industries and to developed countries (most notably former colonial ruler France, as well as Italy and Spain). The latter became attractive in the 1990s because of job opportunities and their periodic regularization programs (legalizing the status of illegal migrants).


Age structure

0-14 years: 41.19% (male 3,858,937/female 3,714,062)

15-64 years: 55.46% (male 4,925,324/female 5,271,627)

65 years and over: 3.34% (2023 est.) (male 266,485/female 348,225)

2023 population pyramid
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 81.5

youth dependency ratio: 75.8

elderly dependency ratio: 5.7

potential support ratio: 17.4 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 19.4 years

male: 18.5 years

female: 20.3 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 203

Birth rate

30.84 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

country comparison to the world: 27

Death rate

5 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

country comparison to the world: 194

Net migration rate

-0.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

country comparison to the world: 132

Population distribution

the population is concentrated in the west, with Dakar anchoring a well-defined core area; approximately 70% of the population is rural as shown in this population distribution map


urban population: 49.6% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 3.59% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

3.340 million DAKAR (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

21.9 years (2019 est.)

note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-49

Maternal mortality ratio

261 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 35

Infant mortality rate

total: 31.75 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 35.05 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 28.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

country comparison to the world: 47

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 70.25 years

male: 68.52 years

female: 72.08 years (2023 est.)

country comparison to the world: 171

Gross reproduction rate

2.03 (2023 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 95.9% of population

rural: 79.3% of population

total: 87.3% of population

unimproved: urban: 4.1% of population

rural: 20.7% of population

total: 12.7% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

5.2% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

0.09 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 94.1% of population

rural: 55.5% of population

total: 74.1% of population

unimproved: urban: 5.9% of population

rural: 44.5% of population

total: 25.9% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis

note: on 22 March 2023, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Travel Alert for polio in Africa; Senegal is currently considered a high risk to travelers for circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV); vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) is a strain of the weakened poliovirus that was initially included in oral polio vaccine (OPV) and that has changed over time and behaves more like the wild or naturally occurring virus; this means it can be spread more easily to people who are unvaccinated against polio and who come in contact with the stool or respiratory secretions, such as from a sneeze, of an “infected” person who received oral polio vaccine; the CDC recommends that before any international travel, anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series; before travel to any high-risk destination, the CDC recommends that adults who previously completed the full, routine polio vaccine series receive a single, lifetime booster dose of polio vaccine

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 0.25 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.21 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.02 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.02 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 171

Tobacco use

total: 6.9% (2020 est.)

male: 13.1% (2020 est.)

female: 0.7% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 157

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 8.8%

women married by age 18: 30.5%

men married by age 18: 0.7% (2019 est.)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 56.3%

male: 68.4%

female: 45.4% (2021)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 9 years

male: 8 years

female: 10 years (2021)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 5%

male: 3.5%

female: 7.5% (2021 est.)


Environment - current issues

deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; periodic droughts; seasonal flooding; overfishing; weak environmental protective laws; wildlife populations threatened by poaching

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements


tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind

Land use

agricultural land: 46.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 17.4% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 29.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 43.8% (2018 est.)

other: 9.4% (2018 est.)


urban population: 49.6% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 3.59% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Food insecurity

severe localized food insecurity: due to localized shortfalls in cereal production and reduced incomes - according to the latest analysis, about 881,000 people are estimated to be in need of humanitarian assistance between June and August 2022, mostly on account of localized shortfalls in cereal production in 2021 and reduced incomes owing to the impact of the COVID‑19 pandemic (2022)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 37.52 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 10.9 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 11.74 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 2,454,059 tons (2016 est.)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Senegal (shared with Guinea [s], Mali, and Mauritania [m] ) - 1,641 km; Gambia (shared with Guinea [s] and The Gambia [m]) - 1,094 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Senegal (456,397 sq km)

Major aquifers

Senegalo-Mauritanian Basin

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 260 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 58 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 2.76 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

38.97 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Senegal

conventional short form: Senegal

local long form: Republique du Senegal

local short form: Senegal

former: Senegambia (along with The Gambia), Mali Federation

etymology: named for the Senegal River that forms the northern border of the country; many theories exist for the origin of the river name; perhaps the most widely cited derives the name from "Azenegue," the Portuguese appellation for the Berber Zenaga people who lived north of the river

Government type

presidential republic


name: Dakar

geographic coordinates: 14 44 N, 17 38 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: the Atlantic coast trading settlement of Ndakaaru came to be called "Dakar" by French colonialists

Administrative divisions

14 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Kedougou, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Sedhiou, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor


4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960

National holiday

Independence Day, 4 April (1960)


history: previous 1959 (preindependence), 1963; latest adopted by referendum 7 January 2001, promulgated 22 January 2001

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by the National Assembly; passage requires Assembly approval and approval in a referendum; the president can bypass a referendum and submit an amendment directly to the Assembly, which requires at least three-fifths majority vote; the republican form of government is not amendable; amended several times, last in 2019

Legal system

civil law system based on French law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Senegal

dual citizenship recognized: no, but Senegalese citizens do not automatically lose their citizenship if they acquire citizenship in another state

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Amadou BA (since 17 September 2022)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single renewable 5-year term; election last held on 24 February 2019 (next to be held in February 2024)

election results: Macky SALL elected president in first round; percent of vote - Macky SALL (APR) 58.3%, Idrissa SECK (Rewmi) 20.5%, Ousmane SONKO (PASTEF) 15.7%, other 5.5% (2019)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblée Nationale (165 seats; 112 members including 15 representing Senegalese diaspora directly elected by plurality vote in single- and multi-seat constituencies and 53 members directly elected by proportional representation vote in a single nationwide constituency; member term is 5-years)

elections: National Assembly - last held on 31 July 2022 (next to be held in July 2027) (2022)

election results: National Assembly results - percent of vote by party/coalition - BBY 46.6%, YAW 32.9%, WS 14.5%, other 6%;  seats by party/coalition - BBY 82, YAW 56, WS 24, other 3; composition - men 95, women 70, percent of women 42.4% (2022)

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of the court president and 12 judges and organized into civil and commercial, criminal, administrative, and social chambers); Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionel (consists of 7 members, including the court president, vice president, and 5 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon recommendation of the Superior Council of the Magistrates, a body chaired by the president and minister of justice; judge tenure varies, with mandatory retirement either at 65 or 68 years; Constitutional Council members appointed - 5 by the president and 2 by the National Assembly speaker; judges serve 6-year terms, with renewal of 2 members every 2 years

subordinate courts: High Court of Justice (for crimes of high treason by the president); Courts of Appeal; Court of Auditors; assize courts; regional and district courts; Labor Court

Political parties and leaders

Alliance for Citizenship and Work or ACT [Abdoul MBAYE]
Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar or APR [Macky SALL]
Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]
And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS [Landing SAVANE]
Benno Bokk Yakaar or BBY (United in Hope) [Mahammed DIONNE] (coalition includes AFP, APR, BGC, LD-MPT, PIT, PS, and UNP)
Bokk Gis Gis coalition [Pape DIOP]
Citizen Movement for National Reform or MCRN-Bes Du Nakk [Mansour Sy DJAMIL]
Dare the Future movement [Aissata Tall SALL]
Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Mamadou NDOYE]
Democratic Renaissance Congress [NA]
Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]
Gainde Centrist Bloc or BCG [Jean-Paul DIAS Mendes]
General Alliance for the Interests of the Republic or AGIR [Thierno BOCOUM]
Grand Party or GP [Malick GAKOU]
Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Maguette THIAM]
Jotna Coalition [Dr Abdoulaye Niane]
Liberate the People (Yewwi Askan Wi) or YAW [Barthelemy DIAS, Ousmane SONKO, Khalifa SALL]
Madicke 2019 coalition [Madicke NIANG]
National Union for the People or UNP [Abdoul MBAYE]
Only Senegal Movement [Pierre Goudiaby ATEPA]
Party for Truth and Development or PVD [Cheikh Ahmadou Kara MBAKE]
Party of Unity and Rally or PUR [Cheikh Mouhamadou Moustapha SY]
Patriotic Convergence Kaddu Askan Wi or CP-Kaddu Askan Wi [Abdoulaye BALDE]
Patriots of Senegal for Ethics, Work and Fraternity or PASTEF [Ousmane SONKO]
Rewmi Party [Idrissa SECK]
Save Senegal (Wallu Senegal Grand Coalition) or WS [Abdoulaye WADE] (coalition includes PDS, Jotna Coalition, Democratic Renaissance Congress)
Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]
Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]
Tekki Movement [Mamadou Lamine DIALLO]

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Mansour Elimane KANE (since 6 January 2020)

chancery: 2215 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540

FAX: [1] (202) 629-2961

email address and website:


consulate(s) general: Houston, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Michael RAYNOR (since February 2022); note - also accredited to Guinea-Bissau

embassy: Route des Almadies, Dakar

mailing address: 2130 Dakar Place, Washington DC  20521-2130

telephone: [221] 33-879-4000

email address and website:


Flag description

three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; green represents Islam, progress, and hope; yellow signifies natural wealth and progress; red symbolizes sacrifice and determination; the star denotes unity and hope

note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Mali and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea

National symbol(s)

lion; national colors: green, yellow, red

National anthem

name: "Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons" (Pluck Your Koras, Strike the Balafons)

lyrics/music: Leopold Sedar SENGHOR/Herbert PEPPER

note: adopted 1960; lyrics written by Leopold Sedar SENGHOR, Senegal's first president; the anthem sometimes played incorporating the Koras (harp-like stringed instruments) and Balafons (types of xylophones) mentioned in the title

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 7 (5 cultural, 2 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Island of Gorée (c); Niokolo-Koba National Park (n); Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary (n); Island of Saint-Louis (c); Stone Circles of Senegambia (c); Saloum Delta (c); Bassari Country: Bassari, Fula, and Bedik Cultural Landscapes (c)


Economic overview

lower middle-income, services-driven West African economy; key mining, construction, agriculture, and fishing industries; tourism and exports hit hard by COVID-19; large informal economy; developing offshore oil and gas fields; systemic corruption

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$58.991 billion (2021 est.)

$55.618 billion (2020 est.)

$54.89 billion (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 107

Real GDP growth rate

6.06% (2021 est.)

1.33% (2020 est.)

4.61% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 73

Real GDP per capita

$3,500 (2021 est.)

$3,400 (2020 est.)

$3,400 (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 191

GDP (official exchange rate)

$23.576 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

2.55% (2020 est.)

1.76% (2019 est.)

0.46% (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 97

Credit ratings

Moody's rating: Ba3 (2017)

Standard & Poors rating: B+ (2000)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 16.9% (2017 est.)

industry: 24.3% (2017 est.)

services: 58.8% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 71.9% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 15.2% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 25.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 3.4% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 27% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -42.8% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

groundnuts, watermelons, rice, sugar cane, cassava, millet, maize, onions, sorghum, vegetables


agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, zircon, and gold mining, construction materials, ship construction and repair

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 77.5%

industry: 22.5%

industry and services: 22.5% (2007 est.)

Unemployment rate

3.72% (2021 est.)

3.62% (2020 est.)

2.86% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 48

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.5%

highest 10%: 31.1% (2011)


revenues: $4.76 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $5.662 billion (2019 est.)

Public debt

48.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

47.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 114

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$2.215 billion (2018 est.)

-$1.526 billion (2017 est.)

-$795.648 million (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 160


$5.287 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$4.593 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 126

Exports - partners

Mali 22%, Switzerland 14%, India 9%, China 7% (2019)

Exports - commodities

gold, refined petroleum, phosphoric acid, fish, ground nuts (2019)


$8.96 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$7.499 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 120

Imports - partners

China 17%, France 11%, Belgium 7%, Russia 7%, Netherlands 7% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, crude petroleum, rice, cars, malt extract, clothing and apparel (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$1.827 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$116.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 133

Debt - external

$8.571 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$6.327 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 118

Exchange rates

Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -

554.531 (2021 est.)

575.586 (2020 est.)

585.911 (2019 est.)

555.446 (2018 est.)

580.657 (2017 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 71% (2019)

electrification - urban areas: 94% (2019)

electrification - rural areas: 50% (2019)


installed generating capacity: 1.312 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 4,735,980,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 324 million kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 764 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 84.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 6.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 2.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)


production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 894,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 894,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 57,500 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 20,500 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 60.003 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 60.003 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

10.696 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 1.955 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 8.64 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 101,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 103


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 261,440 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 116

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 19,859,981 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 118 (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 62

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Senegal’s telecom market continues to show steady growth in all sectors; this has been supported by the particular demands made on consumers during the pandemic, which resulted in a particularly strong increase in the number of subscribers; the mobile subscriber base increased 6.7% in 2020, year-on-year, and by 4.1% in 2021, while the number of fixed broadband subscribers increased 17.5% year-on-year in 2021; mobile internet platforms account for the vast majority of all internet accesses; quality of service issues continue to plague the market, with the regulator periodically issuing fines to the market players (2022)

domestic: fixed-line is 2 per 100 and mobile-cellular 118 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 221; landing points for the ACE, Atlantis-2, MainOne and SAT-3/WASC submarine cables providing connectivity from South Africa, numerous western African countries, Europe and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)

Broadcast media

state-run Radiodiffusion Television Senegalaise (RTS) broadcasts TV programs from five cities in Senegal; in most regions of the country, viewers can receive TV programming from at least 7 private broadcasters; a wide range of independent TV programming is available via satellite; RTS operates a national radio network and a number of regional FM stations; at least 7 community radio stations and 18 private-broadcast radio stations are available; transmissions of at least 5 international broadcasters are accessible on FM in Dakar (2019)

Internet users

total: 9.86 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 58% (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 58

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 153,813 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 122


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 11

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 21,038 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 40,000 (2018) mt-km

Airports - with paved runways


note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports - with unpaved runways


note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control


43 km gas, 8 km refined products (2017)


total: 906 km (2017) (713 km operational in 2017)

narrow gauge: 906 km (2017) 1.000-m gauge

country comparison to the world: 93


total: 16,665 km (2017)

paved: 6,126 km (2017) (includes 241 km of expressways)

unpaved: 10,539 km (2017)

country comparison to the world: 119


1,000 km (2012) (primarily on the Senegal, Saloum, and Casamance Rivers)

country comparison to the world: 68

Merchant marine

total: 35

by type: general cargo 5, oil tanker 1, other 29 (2022)

country comparison to the world: 130

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Dakar

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Senegalese Armed Forces (les Forces Armées Sénégalaises, FAS): Army, Senegalese National Navy (Marine Senegalaise, MNS), Senegalese Air Force (l'Armee de l'Air du Senegal), National Gendarmerie (includes Territorial and Mobile components); Ministry of Interior: National Police (2023)

note: the National Police operates in major cities, while the Gendarmerie primarily operates outside urban areas; both services have specialized anti-terrorism units

Military expenditures

1.6% of GDP (2022 est.)

1.7% of GDP (2021 est.)

1.5% of GDP (2020 est.)

1.5% of GDP (2019 est.)

1.6% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 84

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 19,000 active personnel (12,000 Army; 1,000 Navy/Coast Guard; 1,000 Air Force; 5,000 National Gendarmerie) (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the FAS inventory includes mostly older or secondhand equipment from a variety of countries, including France, South Africa, and Russia/former Soviet Union; in recent years, the FAS has undertaken a modernization program and has received small amounts of newer equipment from more than 10 countries, with France as the leading supplier (2023)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; 20 years of age for selective compulsory service for men and possibly women; 24-month service obligation (2023)

Military deployments

750 Gambia (ECOMIG); 970 Mali (MINUSMA); note - Senegal also has about 1,100 police deployed on various UN peacekeeping missions (2022)

Military - note

despite limited resources, the FAS is considered to be a well-equipped, experienced, and professional military; it has a history of non-interference in the country’s political process and good relations with civil authorities; it is experienced in foreign deployments and has received considerable assistance from the French military, which maintains a presence in Senegal, and the US, with smaller levels from Germany, Spain, and the UK; the FAS’s primary focuses are border, internal, and maritime security; it is closely watching the prevalence of multiple active terrorist groups across the region and political instability in neighboring Mali and Guinea and has recently established new military and gendarmerie camps along its eastern border; it also works with the government in areas such as preventive healthcare, infrastructure development, environmental protection, and disaster response

the Army is spread amongst 7 military zones and organized into a mix of light infantry battalions and light armored reconnaissance squadrons, as well as airborne, special operations, and artillery battalions; the Gendarmerie includes mobile units, as well as the Presidential Guard (aka “The Red Guard”); the Navy is a small force of coastal patrol craft; in recent years it has acquired some modern platforms from France and Israel, including its first offshore patrol vessel, to improve the Navy’s ability to patrol Senegal’s coastline and economic exclusion zone, conduct fisheries inspections, counter drug trafficking, and combat piracy; the Air Force is configured for supporting the ground forces and has a small number of light attack aircraft and helicopter gunships, as well as transport and reconnaissance aircraft

Senegalese security forces have been engaged in a low-level counterinsurgency campaign in the southern Casamance region against various factions of the separatist Movement of Democratic Forces of the Casamance (MDFC) since 1982; the conflict is one of longest running low-level insurgencies in the World, having claimed more than 5,000 lives while leaving another 60,000 displaced; in May 2023, a faction of the MFDC agreed to a peace deal (2023)


Terrorist group(s)

Jama’at Nusrat al-Islam wal-Muslimin (JNIM)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Senegal-Guinea-Bissau: rebels from the Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance find refuge in Guinea-Bissau

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 11,501 (Mauritania) (2023)

IDPs: 8,400 (2021)

Trafficking in persons

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List — Senegal does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so; efforts included increasing trafficking investigations, prosecutions, and convictions, as well as training judicial and law enforcement officials; the Minister of Justice released instructions to prosecutors urging them to seek harsher penalties consistent with the 2005 anti-trafficking law; however, the government did not demonstrate overall increasing efforts to increase its anti-trafficking capacity; officials did not investigate, prosecute, or convict traffickers exploiting children in forced begging for the second consecutive year, and did not consistently prosecute alleged traffickers or apply penalties consistent with the 2005 law; the government identified significantly fewer victims and made minimal efforts to identify and refer adult victims to services; because the government has devoted sufficient resources to a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute significant efforts to meet the minimum standards, Senegal was granted a waiver per the TVPA from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 and, therefore, remained on Tier 2 Watch List for the third consecutive year (2022)

trafficking profile: human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Senegal, and Senegalese abroad; forced begging is the most prevalent form of trafficking in Senegal; corrupt Quranic teachers, or men claiming to be Quranic teachers, force children to beg in the major cities; children and women are exploited in sex trafficking and forced labor in domestic servitude and gold mining; although internal trafficking is most prevalent, boys from Burkina Faso, The Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, and Mali are exploited in forced begging as well as forced labor in artisanal gold mines; Nigerian women are exploited in sex trafficking in southeastern Senegal’s gold mining region, where women from Senegal, Ghana, Mali, Guinea, and Sierra Leone are also exploited; West African women and girls are forced into domestic servitude and sex trafficking in Senegal, including sex tourism for tourists from Belgium, France, Germany, and other countries; Senegalese women and girls are exploited as domestic servants in neighboring countries, Europe, and the Middle East (2022)

Illicit drugs

major transit point on the cocaine route from South America to Europe; the third-largest cannabis-producing country in West Africa