Africa's coastal country of Guinea is nicknamed the 'water tower of Africa,' thanks to the more than 20 rivers originating inside its borders, as well as its relatively high precipitation. The city of Conakry originated on Tombo Island and spread up the Kaloum Peninsula, sandwiched between mangrove swamps. In the 1960s, the city had a population of fewer than 40,000; in 2006, it had a population of nearly 2 million. In these true-color satellite images, water ranges in color from deep to pale blue, vegetation appears dark green, and bare ground and urbanized areas range in color from gray to beige to reddish-brown. Photo courtesy of NASA.
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Introduction

Background

Guinea's deep Muslim heritage arrived via the neighboring Almoravid Empire in the 11th century. Following Almoravid decline, Guinea existed on the fringe of several African kingdoms, all competing for regional dominance. In the 13th century, the Mali Empire took control of Guinea, encouraging its already growing Muslim faith. After the fall of the West African empires, various smaller kingdoms controlled Guinea. In the 18th century, Fulani Muslims established an Islamic state in central Guinea that represents one of the earliest examples of a written constitution and alternating leadership. While European traders first arrived in the 16th century, it was the French who secured colonial rule in the 19th century.

In 1958, Guinea achieved independence from France. Sekou TOURE became Guinea’s first post-independence president; he established a dictatorial regime and ruled until his death in 1984, after which General Lansana CONTE staged a coup and seized the government. He too established an authoritarian regime and manipulated presidential elections until his death in December 2008, when Captain Moussa Dadis CAMARA led a military coup, seized power, and suspended the constitution. In September 2009, presidential guards opened fire on an opposition rally, killing more than 150 people in Conakry, the capital. In early December 2009, CAMARA was wounded in an assassination attempt and exiled to Burkina Faso. In 2010 and 2013 respectively, the country held its first free and fair presidential and legislative elections. Alpha CONDE won the 2010 and 2015 presidential elections. CONDE's first cabinet was the first all-civilian government in Guinean history. In March 2020, Guinea passed a new constitution in a national referendum that changed presidential term limit rules. CONDE argued that, given this change, he was allowed to run for a third term, which he then won in October 2020. On 5 September 2021, Col Mamady DOUMBOUYA led special forces troops in a successful military coup, ousting and detaining CONDE and establishing the National Committee for Reconciliation and Development (CNRD). DOUMBOUYA and the CNRD suspended the constitution and dissolved the government and the legislature. DOUMBOUYA was sworn in as transition president on 1 October 2021, and appointed Mohamed BEAVOGUI as transition prime minister a week later. BEAVOGUI subsequently formed a largely technocratic cabinet. The National Transition Council (CNT), which acts as the legislative body for the transition, was formed on January 22, 2022. The 81-member CNT is led by Dr. Dansa KOUROUMA and consists of appointed members representing a broad swath of Guinean society.

 



Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone

Geographic coordinates

11 00 N, 10 00 W

Area

total: 245,857 sq km

land: 245,717 sq km

water: 140 sq km

country comparison to the world: 79

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Oregon; slightly larger than twice the size of Pennsylvania

<p>slightly smaller than Oregon; slightly larger than twice the size of Pennsylvania</p>

Land boundaries

total: 4,046 km

border countries (6): Cote d'Ivoire 816 km; Guinea-Bissau 421 km; Liberia 590 km; Mali 1062 km; Senegal 363 km; Sierra Leone 794 km

Coastline

320 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate

generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds

Terrain

generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior

Elevation

highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 472 m

Natural resources

bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium, hydropower, fish, salt

Land use

agricultural land: 58.1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 11.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 2.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 43.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 26.5% (2018 est.)

other: 15.4% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

950 sq km (2012)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Niger river source (shared with Mali, and Nigeria [m]) - 4,200 km; Gambia river source (shared with Senegal and The Gambia [m]) - 1,094 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Niger (2,261,741 sq km), Senegal (456,397 sq km)

Population distribution

areas of highest density are in the west and south; interior is sparsely populated as shown in this population distribution map

Natural hazards

hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season

Geography - note

the Niger and its important tributary the Milo River have their sources in the Guinean highlands

Map description

Guinea map showing major cities as well as parts of surrounding countries and the North Atlantic Ocean.

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Guinean(s)

adjective: Guinean

Ethnic groups

Fulani (Peuhl) 33.4%, Malinke 29.4%, Susu 21.2%, Guerze 7.8%, Kissi 6.2%, Toma 1.6%, other/foreign 0.4% (2018 est.)

Languages

French (official), Pular, Maninka, Susu, other native languages

note: about 40 languages are spoken; each ethnic group has its own language

Religions

Muslim 89.1%, Christian 6.8%, animist 1.6%, other 0.1%, none 2.4% (2014 est.)

Demographic profile

Guinea’s strong population growth is a result of declining mortality rates and sustained elevated fertility. The population growth rate was somewhat tempered in the 2000s because of a period of net outmigration. Although life expectancy and mortality rates have improved over the last two decades, the nearly universal practice of female genital cutting continues to contribute to high infant and maternal mortality rates. Guinea’s total fertility remains high at about 5 children per woman because of the ongoing preference for larger families, low contraceptive usage and availability, a lack of educational attainment and empowerment among women, and poverty. A lack of literacy and vocational training programs limit job prospects for youths, but even those with university degrees often have no option but to work in the informal sector. About 60% of the country’s large youth population is unemployed.

Tensions and refugees have spilled over Guinea’s borders with Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Cote d’Ivoire. During the 1990s Guinea harbored as many as half a million refugees from Sierra Leone and Liberia, more refugees than any other African country for much of that decade. About half sought refuge in the volatile "Parrot’s Beak" region of southwest Guinea, a wedge of land jutting into Sierra Leone near the Liberian border. Many were relocated within Guinea in the early 2000s because the area suffered repeated cross-border attacks from various government and rebel forces, as well as anti-refugee violence.

Age structure

0-14 years: 41.2% (male 2,601,221/female 2,559,918)

15-24 years: 19.32% (male 1,215,654/female 1,204,366)

25-54 years: 30.85% (male 1,933,141/female 1,930,977)

55-64 years: 4.73% (male 287,448/female 305,420)

65 years and over: 3.91% (2020 est.) (male 218,803/female 270,492)

This is the population pyramid for Guinea. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends. <br/><br/>For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 85.2

youth dependency ratio: 79.7

elderly dependency ratio: 5.5

potential support ratio: 18.3 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 19.1 years

male: 18.9 years

female: 19.4 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 205

Birth rate

35.67 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 13

Death rate

8.12 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 82

Net migration rate

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 89

Population distribution

areas of highest density are in the west and south; interior is sparsely populated as shown in this population distribution map

Urbanization

urban population: 37.7% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 3.64% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

2.049 million CONAKRY (capital) (2022)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

19.9 years (2018 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 20-49

Maternal mortality ratio

576 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 14

Infant mortality rate

total: 49.63 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 54.39 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 44.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 19

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 63.9 years

male: 62.04 years

female: 65.82 years (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 205

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.5% of population

rural: 76.9% of population

total: 85.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.5% of population

rural: 23.1% of population

total: 14.8% of population (2020 est.)

Physicians density

0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2016)

Hospital bed density

0.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 90.9% of population

rural: 38.7% of population

total: 58% of population

unimproved: urban: 9.1% of population

rural: 61.3% of population

total: 42% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

aerosolized dust or soil contact diseases: Lassa fever (2016)

note: on 21 March 2022, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Travel Alert for polio in Africa; Guinea is currently considered a high risk to travelers for circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV); vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) is a strain of the weakened poliovirus that was initially included in oral polio vaccine (OPV) and that has changed over time and behaves more like the wild or naturally occurring virus; this means it can be spread more easily to people who are unvaccinated against polio and who come in contact with the stool or respiratory secretions, such as from a sneeze, of an “infected” person who received oral polio vaccine; the CDC recommends that before any international travel, anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series; before travel to any high-risk destination, CDC recommends that adults who previously completed the full, routine polio vaccine series receive a single, lifetime booster dose of polio vaccine

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 17% (2018)

women married by age 18: 46.5% (2018)

men married by age 18: 1.9% (2018 est.)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 39.6%

male: 54.4%

female: 27.7% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 9 years

male: 10 years

female: 8 years (2014)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 7.1%

male: 6.1%

female: 7.9% (2019 est.)

Environment

Environment - current issues

deforestation; inadequate potable water; desertification; soil contamination and erosion; overfishing, overpopulation in forest region; poor mining practices lead to environmental damage; water pollution; improper waste disposal

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 22.43 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 3 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 11.13 megatons (2020 est.)

Climate

generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds

Land use

agricultural land: 58.1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 11.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 2.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 43.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 26.5% (2018 est.)

other: 15.4% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 37.7% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 3.64% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 107

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

aerosolized dust or soil contact diseases: Lassa fever (2016)

note: on 21 March 2022, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Travel Alert for polio in Africa; Guinea is currently considered a high risk to travelers for circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV); vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) is a strain of the weakened poliovirus that was initially included in oral polio vaccine (OPV) and that has changed over time and behaves more like the wild or naturally occurring virus; this means it can be spread more easily to people who are unvaccinated against polio and who come in contact with the stool or respiratory secretions, such as from a sneeze, of an “infected” person who received oral polio vaccine; the CDC recommends that before any international travel, anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series; before travel to any high-risk destination, CDC recommends that adults who previously completed the full, routine polio vaccine series receive a single, lifetime booster dose of polio vaccine

Food insecurity

severe localized food insecurity: due to localized shortfalls of cereal production - despite overall favorable food security conditions, the most vulnerable households still need external food assistance; the aggregate number of severely food insecure people was estimated at 267,000 during the lean season between June and August 2020;  it is very likely that the number of food insecure population increased with the impact of COVID‑19 (2021)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 596,911 tons (1996 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 29,846 tons (2005 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 5% (2005 est.)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Niger river source (shared with Mali, and Nigeria [m]) - 4,200 km; Gambia river source (shared with Senegal and The Gambia [m]) - 1,094 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Niger (2,261,741 sq km), Senegal (456,397 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 224.8 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 56.2 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 292.9 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

226 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Guinea

conventional short form: Guinea

local long form: Republique de Guinee

local short form: Guinee

former: French Guinea

etymology: the country is named after the Guinea region of West Africa that lies along the Gulf of Guinea and stretches north to the Sahel

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Conakry

geographic coordinates: 9 30 N, 13 42 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: according to tradition, the name derives from the fusion of the name "Cona," a Baga wine and cheese producer who lived on Tombo Island (the original site of the present-day capital), and the word "nakiri," which in Susu means "the other bank" or "the other side"; supposedly, Baga's palm grove produced the best wine on the island and people traveling to sample his vintage, would say: "I am going to Cona, on the other bank (Cona-nakiri)," which over time became Conakry

Administrative divisions

7 regions administrative and 1 gouvenorat*; Boke, Conakry*, Faranah, Kankan, Kindia, Labe, Mamou, N'Zerekore

Independence

2 October 1958 (from France)

National holiday

Independence Day, 2 October (1958)

Constitution

history: currently suspended on September 5, 2021 via t coup d’etat. On September 27, 2021 the Transitional Charter was released.  It supersedes the constitution until a new constitution is promulgated. previous 1958, 1990, and 2010

amendments: proposed by the National Assembly or by the president of the republic; consideration of proposals requires approval by simple majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires approval in referendum; the president can opt to submit amendments directly to the Assembly, in which case approval requires at least two-thirds majority vote; revised in 2020

Legal system

civil law system based on the French model

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Guinea

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: na

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Col. Mamady DOUMBOUYA (since 1 October 2021); note - on 5 September 2021, Col. Mamady DOUMBOUYA led a military coup in which President CONDE was arrested and detained, the constitution suspended, and the government and People's National Assembly dissolved; on 1 October 2021, DOUMBOUYA was sworn in as transitional president

head of government: formerly, Prime Minister Mohamed BEAVOGUI (since 6 October 2021); note - on 5 September 2021, Col. Mamady DOUMBOUYA led a military coup in which President CONDE was arrested and detained, the constitution suspended, and the government of Prime Minister Ibrahima Kassory FOFANA dissolved

cabinet: formerly, the Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note: on 5 September 2021, Col. Mamady DOUMBOUYA led a military coup on 5 September 2021 in which President CONDE was arrested and detained, the constitution suspended, and the government and legislature dissolved

elections/appointments: formerly, the president was directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term) and the prime minister appointed by the president; election last held on 18 October 2020; note - on 5 September 2021, Col. Mamady DOUMBOUYA led a military coup in which President CONDE was arrested and detained, and on 1 October 2021,Col. Mamady DOUMBOUYA was sworn in as transitional president

election results: in the election of 18 October 2020, Alpha CONDE reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Alpha CONDE (RPG) 59.5%, Cellou Dalein DIALLO (UFDG) 33.5%, other 7%; note - following the military coup of 5 September 2021, coup leader Col. Mamady DOUMBOUYA was sworn in as transitional president on 1 October 2021

Legislative branch

description: formerly the People's National Assembly;  note - on 5 September 2021, Col. Mamady DOUMBOUYA led a military coup in which President CONDE was arrested and detained, the constitution suspended, and the government and People's National Assembly dissolved; on 22 January 2022, an 81-member Transitional National Council was installed

elections: 81 members to the Transitional National Council were appointed by the transitional president Col. Mamady DOUMBOUYA on 22 January 2022; elections for a permanent legislature had not been announced as of late January 2022

election results: 81 members of the National Transitional Council appointed on 22 January 2022 by the transitional president; the members represent all of the country's socio-professional organizations and political parties

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into Administrative Chamber and Civil, Penal, and Social Chamber; court consists of the first president, 2 chamber presidents, 10 councilors, the solicitor general, and NA deputies).

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court first president appointed by the national president after consultation with the National Assembly; other members appointed by presidential decree; members serve until age 65; members serve single 9-year terms

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; High Court of Justice or Cour d'Assises; Court of Account (Court of Auditors); Courts of First Instance (Tribunal de Premiere Instance); labor court; military tribunal; justices of the peace; specialized courts

Political parties and leaders

Bloc Liberal or BL [Faya MILLIMONO]
National Party for Hope and Development or PEDN [Lansana KOUYATE]
Rally for the Guinean People or RPG [Vacant]
Union for the Progress of Guinea or UPG (Jacques GBONIMY)
Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea or UFDG [Cellou Dalein DIALLO]
Union of Republican Forces or UFR [Sidya TOURE]
Democratic Alliance for Renewal or ADR [Alpha Oumar Taran DIALLO]
Modern Guinea [Thierno Yaya DIALLO]
Party for Progress and Change or PPC [Aboubacar Biro SOUMAH]
Rally for the Republic or RPR [Diabaty DORE]
Democratic Union for Renewal and Progress or UDRP [Edouard Zoutomou KPOGHOMOU]
Guinean Union for Democracy and Development or UGDD [Francis HABA]
National Union for Prosperity or UNP [Alpha Mady SOUMAH]
Citizen Party for the Defense of Collective Interests or PCDIC [Hamidou BARRY]
Democratic Union of Guinea or UDG [Mamadou SYLLA]
Union of Democrats for the Renaissance of Guinea or UDRG [Amadou Oury BAH]
Party of Citizen Action through Labor or PACT [Makale TRAORE]
Union for the Defense of Republican Interests or UDIR [Bouya KONATE]
Front for the National Alliance or FAN [Makale CAMARA]
Alliance for National Renewal or ARN [Pepe Koulemou KOULEMOU]
Democratic Workers' Party of Guinea or PDTG [Talibi Dos CAMARA]
Party of Freedom and Progress or PLP [Laye Souleymane DIALLO]
Movement for Solidarity and Development or MSD [Abdoulaye DIALLO]
New Guinea or NG [Mohamed CISSE]
Guinean Party for Peaceful Coexistence and Development or PGCD [Nene Moussa Maleya CAMARA]
Guinean Rally for Unity and Development or RGUD [Abraham BOURE]
Guinean Party for Solidarity and Democracy or PGSD [Elie KAMANO]
New Political Generation or NGP [Badra KONE]
African Congress for Democracy and Renewal or CADRE [Daniel KOLIE]
Party of Democrats for Hope or PADES [Ousmane KABA]
Rally for Renaissance and Development or RRD [Abdoulaye KOUROUMA]
Democratic National Movement or MND [Ousmane DORE]
New Generation for the Republic or NGR [Abbe SYLLA]
Generation for Reconciliation Union and Prosperity or GRUP [Papa Koly KOUROUMA]
New Democratic Forces or NFD [Mouctar DIALLO]
Union for Progress and Renewal or UPR [Ousmane BAH]
National Front for Development or FND [Alhousseine Makanera KAKE]
Unity and Progress Party or PUP [Fode BANGOURA]
Rally for the Integrated Development of Guinea or RDIG [Jean Marc TELIANO]
Alliance for National Renewal or ARENA [Sekou Koureissy CONDE
Guinean Rally for Development or RGD [Abdoul Kabele CAMARA]
Guinean Renaissance Party or PGR [Ibrahima Sory CONDE]
Party of Hope for National Development or PEDN [Lansana KOUYATE]
Citizen Generation or GECI [Mohamed SOUMAH]
Union of Democratic Forces or UFD [Mamadou Baadiko BAH]
Democratic People's Movement of Guinea or MPDG [Siaka BARRY]
Guinea for Democracy and Balance or GDE [Aboubacar SOUMAH]

Ruling party

Guinea is currently lead by the National Committee for Reconciliation and Development, the transition government
(Comité national du rassemblement et du développement, CNRD)


Opposition parties



International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant) Chargé d’Affaires (vacant)  

 



chancery: 2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 986-4300

FAX: [1] (202) 986-3800

email address and website:
http://guineaembassyusa.org/en/welcome-to-the-embassy-of-guinea-washington-usa/

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Troy FITRELL (since January 2022) 

embassy: Transversale No. 2, Centre Administratif de Koloma, Commune de Ratoma, Conakry

mailing address: 2110 Conakry Place, Washington DC  20521-2110

telephone: [224] 65-10-40-00

FAX: [224] 65-10-42-97

email address and website:
ConakryACS@state.gov

https://gn.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green; red represents the people's sacrifice for liberation and work; yellow stands for the sun, for the riches of the earth, and for justice; green symbolizes the country's vegetation and unity

note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the reverse of those on the flags of neighboring Mali and Senegal

National symbol(s)

elephant; national colors: red, yellow, green

National anthem

name: "Liberte" (Liberty)

lyrics/music: unknown/Fodeba KEITA

note: adopted 1958

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve

Economy

Economic overview

Guinea is a poor country of approximately 12.9 million people in 2016 that possesses the world's largest reserves of bauxite and largest untapped high-grade iron ore reserves, as well as gold and diamonds. In addition, Guinea has fertile soil, ample rainfall, and is the source of several West African rivers, including the Senegal, Niger, and Gambia. Guinea's hydro potential is enormous and the country could be a major exporter of electricity. The country also has tremendous agriculture potential. Gold, bauxite, and diamonds are Guinea’s main exports. International investors have shown interest in Guinea's unexplored mineral reserves, which have the potential to propel Guinea's future growth.

 

Following the death of long-term President Lansana CONTE in 2008 and the coup that followed, international donors, including the G-8, the IMF, and the World Bank, significantly curtailed their development programs in Guinea. However, the IMF approved a 3-year Extended Credit Facility arrangement in 2012, following the December 2010 presidential elections. In September 2012, Guinea achieved Heavily Indebted Poor Countries completion point status. Future access to international assistance and investment will depend on the government’s ability to be transparent, combat corruption, reform its banking system, improve its business environment, and build infrastructure. In April 2013, the government amended its mining code to reduce taxes and royalties. In 2014, Guinea complied with requirements of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative by publishing its mining contracts. Guinea completed its program with the IMF in October 2016 even though some targeted reforms have been delayed. Currently Guinea is negotiating a new IMF program which will be based on Guinea’s new five-year economic plan, focusing on the development of higher value-added products, including from the agro-business sector and development of the rural economy.

 

Political instability, a reintroduction of the Ebola virus epidemic, low international commodity prices, and an enduring legacy of corruption, inefficiency, and lack of government transparency are factors that could impact Guinea’s future growth. Economic recovery will be a long process while the government adjusts to lower inflows of international donor aid following the surge of Ebola-related emergency support. Ebola stalled promising economic growth in the 2014-15 period and impeded several projects, such as offshore oil exploration and the Simandou iron ore project. The economy, however, grew by 6.6% in 2016 and 6.7% in 2017, mainly due to growth from bauxite mining and thermal energy generation as well as the resiliency of the agricultural sector. The 240-megawatt Kaleta Dam, inaugurated in September 2015, has expanded access to electricity for residents of Conakry. An combined with fears of Ebola virus, continue to undermine Guinea's economic viability.

 

Guinea’s iron ore industry took a hit in 2016 when investors in the Simandou iron ore project announced plans to divest from the project. In 2017, agriculture output and public investment boosted economic growth, while the mining sector continued to play a prominent role in economic performance.

 

Successive governments have failed to address the country's crumbling infrastructure. Guinea suffers from chronic electricity shortages; poor roads, rail lines and bridges; and a lack of access to clean water - all of which continue to plague economic development. The present government, led by President Alpha CONDE, is working to create an environment to attract foreign investment and hopes to have greater participation from western countries and firms in Guinea's economic development.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$35.08 billion (2020 est.)

$32.78 billion (2019 est.)

$31.03 billion (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 128

Real GDP growth rate

8.2% (2017 est.)

10.5% (2016 est.)

3.8% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 7

Real GDP per capita

$2,700 (2020 est.)

$2,600 (2019 est.)

$2,500 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 200

GDP (official exchange rate)

$13.55 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

9.4% (2019 est.)

9.8% (2018 est.)

8.9% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 209

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 19.8% (2017 est.)

industry: 32.1% (2017 est.)

services: 48.1% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 80.8% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 6.6% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 9.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 18.5% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 21.9% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -36.9% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

rice, cassava, groundnuts, maize, oil palm fruit, fonio, plantains, sugar cane, sweet potatoes, vegetables

Industries

bauxite, gold, diamonds, iron ore; light manufacturing, agricultural processing

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 76%

industry: 24% (2006 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 7.1%

male: 6.1%

female: 7.9% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 162

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.7%

highest 10%: 30.3% (2007)

Budget

revenues: 1.7 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 1.748 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

37.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

41.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 137

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$705 million (2017 est.)

-$2.705 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 132

Exports

$4.04 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$4.08 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$4.733 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 135

Exports - partners

United Arab Emirates 39%, China 36%, India 6% (2019)

Exports - commodities

aluminum, gold, bauxite, diamonds, fish, cashews (2019)

Imports

$4.32 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$4.18 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$7.317 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 146

Imports - partners

China 39%, India 8%, Netherlands 6%, Belgium 5%, United Arab Emirates 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

rice, refined petroleum, packaged medicines, delivery trucks, cars (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$331.8 million (31 December 2017 est.)

$383.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 165

Debt - external

$1.458 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$1.462 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 160

Exchange rates

Guinean francs (GNF) per US dollar -

9,953 (2020 est.)

9,542.5 (2019 est.)

9,092 (2018 est.)

7,485.5 (2014 est.)

7,014.1 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 46% (2019)

electrification - urban areas: 84% (2019)

electrification - rural areas: 24% (2019)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 0 (2018 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0 (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 223

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 12.873 million (2020)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 100.8 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 74

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Guinea’s mobile subscribership growing through investment of South African telecom operators and Chinese Huawei management; m-transactions supported commerce; broadband still limited and expensive though submarine cable and IXP improved reliability of infrastructure; 4G Wi-Fi in the capital; National Backbone Network will connect regional administrative centers; ECOWAS countries to launch free roaming; importer of broadcasting equipment from China (2020)

domestic: there is national coverage and Conakry is reasonably well-served; coverage elsewhere remains inadequate but is improving; fixed-line teledensity is less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership is just over 100 per 100 persons (2019)

international: country code - 224; ACE submarine cable connecting Guinea with 20 landing points in Western and South Africa and Europe; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

Broadcast media

Government maintains marginal control over broadcast media; single state-run TV station; state-run radio broadcast station also operates several stations in rural areas; a dozen private television stations; a steadily increasing number of privately owned radio stations, nearly all in Conakry, and about a dozen community radio stations; foreign TV programming available via satellite and cable subscription services 

(2022)

Internet users

total: 3,414,526 (2020 est.)

percent of population: 26% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 107

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 1,000 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0.01 (2020 est.) less than 1

country comparison to the world: 205

Transportation

Airports - with paved runways

total: 4

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2021)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 12

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 2 (2021)

Railways

total: 1,086 km (2017)

standard gauge: 279 km (2017) 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 807 km (2017) 1.000-m gauge

country comparison to the world: 90

Roadways

total: 44,301 km (2018)

paved: 3,346 km (2018)

unpaved: 40,955 km (2018)

country comparison to the world: 85

Waterways

1,300 km (2011) (navigable by shallow-draft native craft in the northern part of the Niger River system)

country comparison to the world: 54

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Conakry, Kamsar

Military and Security

Military and security forces

National Armed Forces: Army, Guinean Navy (Armee de Mer or Marine Guineenne), Guinean Air Force (Force Aerienne de Guinee), Presidential Security Battalion (Battailon Autonome de la Sécurité Presidentielle, BASP), Gendarmerie (2021)

note - the National Gendarmerie is overseen by the Ministry of Defense, while the National Police is under the Ministry of Security; the Gendarmerie and National Police share responsibility for internal security, but only the Gendarmerie can arrest police or military officials

Military expenditures

1.5% of GDP (2021 est.)

1.4% of GDP (2020 est.)

1.6% of GDP (2019 est.) (approximately $270 million)

1.8% of GDP (2018 est.) (approximately $280 million)

1.8% of GDP (2017 est.) (approximately $260 million)

country comparison to the world: 92

Military and security service personnel strengths

Guinean National Armed Forces are comprised of approximately 12,000 active personnel
(9,000 Army; 400 Navy; 800 Air Force; 300 BASP; 1,500 Gendarmerie) (2021)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the inventory of the Guinean military consists largely of ageing and outdated (mostly Soviet-era) equipment; since 2010, it has received small amounts of equipment from China, France, Russia, and South Africa (2021)

Military service age and obligation

Voluntary and selective conscripted service, 9-24 mos (2021)

Military deployments

670 Mali (MINUSMA) (Jan 2022)

Military - note

the Army is responsible for external defense, but also has some domestic security responsibilities; piracy and natural resource protection in the Gulf of Guinea are key areas of concern for the small Navy, which possesses only a few patrol boats

Maritime threats

the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the Niger Delta and Gulf of Guinea remain a very high risk for piracy and armed robbery of ships; in 2021, there were 34 reported incidents of piracy and armed robbery at sea in the Gulf of Guinea region; although a significant decrease from the total number of 81 incidents in 2020, it included the one hijacking and three of five ships fired upon worldwide; while boarding and attempted boarding to steal valuables from ships and crews are the most common types of incidents, almost a third of all incidents involve a hijacking and/or kidnapping; in 2021, 57 crew members were kidnapped in seven separate incidents in the Gulf of Guinea, representing 100% of kidnappings worldwide; Nigerian pirates in particular are well armed and very aggressive, operating as far as 200 nm offshore; the Maritime Administration of the US Department of Transportation has issued a Maritime Advisory (2022-001 - Gulf of Guinea-Piracy/Armed Robbery/Kidnapping for Ransom) effective 4 January 2022, which states in part, "Piracy, armed robbery, and kidnapping for ransom continue to serve as significant threats to US-flagged vessels transiting or operating in the Gulf of Guinea"

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Sierra Leone considers Guinea's definition of the flood plain limits to define the left bank boundary of the Makona and Moa Rivers excessive and protests Guinea's continued occupation of these lands, including the hamlet of Yenga, occupied since 1998

Trafficking in persons

current situation: Guinea is a source, transit, and, to a lesser extent, a destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the majority of trafficking victims are Guinean children; Guinean girls are subjected to domestic servitude and commercial sexual exploitation, while boys are forced to beg, work as street vendors, shoe shiners, or miners; some Guinean children are forced to mine in Senegal, Mali, and possibly other West African countries; Guinean women and girls are subjected to domestic servitude and sex trafficking in Nigeria, Cote d’Ivoire, Benin, Senegal, Greece, and Spain, while Chinese and Vietnamese women are reportedly forced into prostitution in Guinea

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List — Guinea does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however it is making significant efforts to do so; the government  drafted a new anti-trafficking action plan, provided support to eight victims exploited in the Middle East, and incorporated anti-trafficking training into the law enforcement curriculum; however, the government did not overall increase efforts compared to the last rating period; investigations and prosecutions of trafficking crimes decreased, victim identification was inadequate, and NGO’s providing victim services did not receive government support; for the fourth year, resources for the anti-trafficking committee or the Office for the Protection of Gender, Children and Morals were inadequate; a Quranic teacher was not prosecuted for allegedly forcing child begging; Guinea was downgraded to Tier 2 Watch List (2020)