Photos of Guinea

Africa's coastal country of Guinea is nicknamed the 'water tower of Africa,' thanks to the more than 20 rivers originating inside its borders, as well as its relatively high precipitation. The city of Conakry originated on Tombo Island and spread up the Kaloum Peninsula, sandwiched between mangrove swamps. In the 1960s, the city had a population of fewer than 40,000; in 2006, it had a population of nearly 2 million. In these true-color satellite images, water ranges in color from deep to pale blue, vegetation appears dark green, and bare ground and urbanized areas range in color from gray to beige to reddish-brown. Photo courtesy of NASA.



Guinea's deep Muslim heritage arrived via the neighboring Almoravid Empire in the 11th century. Following Almoravid decline, Guinea existed on the fringe of several African kingdoms, all competing for regional dominance. In the 13th century, the Mali Empire took control of Guinea and encouraged its already growing Muslim faith. After the fall of the West African empires, various smaller kingdoms controlled Guinea. In the 18th century, Fulani Muslims established an Islamic state in central Guinea that provided one of the earliest examples of a written constitution and alternating leadership. European traders first arrived in the 16th century, and the French secured colonial rule in the 19th century.

In 1958, Guinea achieved independence from France. Sekou TOURE became Guinea’s first post-independence president; he established a dictatorial regime and ruled until his death in 1984, after which General Lansana CONTE staged a coup and seized the government. He too established an authoritarian regime and manipulated presidential elections until his death in 2008, when Captain Moussa Dadis CAMARA led a military coup, seized power, and suspended the constitution. In 2009, CAMARA was wounded in an assassination attempt and was exiled to Burkina Faso. In 2010 and 2013 respectively, the country held its first free and fair presidential and legislative elections. Alpha CONDE won the 2010 and 2015 presidential elections, and his first cabinet was the first all-civilian government in Guinean history. CONDE won a third term in 2020 after a constitutional change to term limits. In 2021, Col Mamady DOUMBOUYA led another successful military coup, establishing the National Committee for Reconciliation and Development (CNRD), suspending the constitution, and dissolving the government and the legislature. DOUMBOUYA was sworn in as transition president and appointed Mohamed BEAVOGUI as transition prime minister. The National Transition Council (CNT), which acts as the legislative body for the transition, was formed in 2022 and consists of appointed members representing a broad swath of Guinean society.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone

Geographic coordinates

11 00 N, 10 00 W


total: 245,857 sq km

land: 245,717 sq km

water: 140 sq km

comparison ranking: total 79

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Oregon; slightly larger than twice the size of Pennsylvania

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 4,046 km

border countries (6): Cote d'Ivoire 816 km; Guinea-Bissau 421 km; Liberia 590 km; Mali 1062 km; Senegal 363 km; Sierra Leone 794 km


320 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds


generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior


highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 472 m

Natural resources

bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium, hydropower, fish, salt

Land use

agricultural land: 58.1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 11.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 2.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 43.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 26.5% (2018 est.)

other: 15.4% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

950 sq km (2012)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Niger river source (shared with Mali, and Nigeria [m]) - 4,200 km; Gambie (Gambia) river source (shared with Senegal and The Gambia [m]) - 1,094 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Niger (2,261,741 sq km), Senegal (456,397 sq km)

Population distribution

areas of highest density are in the west and south; interior is sparsely populated as shown in this population distribution map

Natural hazards

hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season

Geography - note

the Niger and its important tributary the Milo River have their sources in the Guinean highlands

People and Society


total: 13,986,179

male: 6,985,606

female: 7,000,573 (2024 est.)

comparison rankings: female 75; male 75; total 75


noun: Guinean(s)

adjective: Guinean

Ethnic groups

Fulani (Peuhl) 33.4%, Malinke 29.4%, Susu 21.2%, Guerze 7.8%, Kissi 6.2%, Toma 1.6%, other/foreign 0.4% (2018 est.)


French (official), Pular, Maninka, Susu, other native languages

note: about 40 languages are spoken; each ethnic group has its own language


Muslim 85.2%, Christian 13.4%, animist 0.2%, none 1.2% (2018 est.)

Demographic profile

Guinea’s strong population growth is a result of declining mortality rates and sustained elevated fertility. The population growth rate was somewhat tempered in the 2000s because of a period of net outmigration. Although life expectancy and mortality rates have improved over the last two decades, the nearly universal practice of female genital cutting continues to contribute to high infant and maternal mortality rates. Guinea’s total fertility remains high at about 5 children per woman as of 2022 because of the ongoing preference for larger families, low contraceptive usage and availability, a lack of educational attainment and empowerment among women, and poverty. A lack of literacy and vocational training programs limit job prospects for youths, but even those with university degrees often have no option but to work in the informal sector. About 60% of the country’s large youth population is unemployed.

Tensions and refugees have spilled over Guinea’s borders with Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Cote d’Ivoire. During the 1990s Guinea harbored as many as half a million refugees from Sierra Leone and Liberia, more refugees than any other African country for much of that decade. About half sought refuge in the volatile "Parrot’s Beak" region of southwest Guinea, a wedge of land jutting into Sierra Leone near the Liberian border. Many were relocated within Guinea in the early 2000s because the area suffered repeated cross-border attacks from various government and rebel forces, as well as anti-refugee violence.

Age structure

0-14 years: 40.9% (male 2,884,146/female 2,835,794)

15-64 years: 55.1% (male 3,846,852/female 3,856,366)

65 years and over: 4% (2024 est.) (male 254,608/female 308,413)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 82.4

youth dependency ratio: 76.3

elderly dependency ratio: 6.1

potential support ratio: 16.3 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 19.4 years (2024 est.)

male: 19.2 years

female: 19.6 years

comparison ranking: total 209

Population growth rate

2.74% (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 12

Birth rate

35.3 births/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 12

Death rate

7.8 deaths/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 92

Net migration rate

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 89

Population distribution

areas of highest density are in the west and south; interior is sparsely populated as shown in this population distribution map


urban population: 38.1% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 3.64% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

2.111 million CONAKRY (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2024 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

19.9 years (2018 est.)

note: data represents median age at first birth among women 20-49

Maternal mortality ratio

553 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 10

Infant mortality rate

total: 47 deaths/1,000 live births (2024 est.)

male: 51.6 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 42.3 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 21

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 64.6 years (2024 est.)

male: 62.7 years

female: 66.6 years

comparison ranking: total population 206

Total fertility rate

4.78 children born/woman (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 11

Gross reproduction rate

2.36 (2024 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.5% of population

rural: 76.9% of population

total: 85.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.5% of population

rural: 23.1% of population

total: 14.8% of population (2020 est.)

Physician density

0.23 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

0.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 90.9% of population

rural: 38.7% of population

total: 58% of population

unimproved: urban: 9.1% of population

rural: 61.3% of population

total: 42% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and sexually transmitted diseases: hepatitis B (2024)

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

aerosolized dust or soil contact diseases: Lassa fever

note:  on 20 September 2023, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention updated a Travel Health Alert for a diphtheria outbreak in several states in Guinea; vaccination against diphtheria is essential to protect against disease; if you are traveling to an affected area, you should be up to date with your diphtheria vaccines; before travel, discuss the need for a booster dose with your healthcare professional; diphtheria is a serious infection caused by strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacteria that make a toxin from which people get very sick; diphtheria bacteria spread from person to person through respiratory droplets like from coughing or sneezing; people can also get sick from touching open sores or ulcers of people sick with diphtheria (see attached map)

Diphtheria outbreak in Guinea.:
Diphtheria outbreak in Guinea.

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

7.7% (2016)

comparison ranking: 158

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 0.33 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.29 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.03 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 168

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

16.3% (2018)

comparison ranking: 30

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 17%

women married by age 18: 46.5%

men married by age 18: 1.9% (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

2.2% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 181


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 45.3%

male: 61.2%

female: 31.3% (2021)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 9 years

male: 10 years

female: 8 years (2014)


Environment - current issues

deforestation; inadequate potable water; desertification; soil contamination and erosion; overfishing, overpopulation in forest region; poor mining practices lead to environmental damage; water pollution; improper waste disposal

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements


generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds

Land use

agricultural land: 58.1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 11.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 2.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 43.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 26.5% (2018 est.)

other: 15.4% (2018 est.)


urban population: 38.1% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 3.64% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Food insecurity

severe localized food insecurity: due to reduced incomes - about 1.22 million people are projected to be in need of food assistance between June and August 2022, primarily due to food access constraints on account of the economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic (2022)

Revenue from forest resources

4.81% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 12

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 114

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 37.57 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 3 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 11.13 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 596,911 tons (1996 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 29,846 tons (2005 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 5% (2005 est.)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Niger river source (shared with Mali, and Nigeria [m]) - 4,200 km; Gambie (Gambia) river source (shared with Senegal and The Gambia [m]) - 1,094 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Niger (2,261,741 sq km), Senegal (456,397 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 230 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 60 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 600 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

226 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Guinea

conventional short form: Guinea

local long form: Republique de Guinee

local short form: Guinee

former: French Guinea

etymology: the country is named after the Guinea region of West Africa that lies along the Gulf of Guinea and stretches north to the Sahel

Government type

presidential republic


name: Conakry

geographic coordinates: 9 30 N, 13 42 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: according to tradition, the name derives from the fusion of the name Cona, a Baga wine and cheese producer who lived on Tombo Island (the original site of the present-day capital), and the word nakiri, which in Susu means "the other bank" or "the other side"; supposedly, Baga's palm grove produced the best wine on the island and people traveling to sample his vintage, would say: "I am going to Cona, on the other bank (Cona-nakiri)," which over time became Conakry

Administrative divisions

7 regions administrative (administrative regions) and 1 gouvenorat (governorate)*; Boke, Conakry*, Faranah, Kankan, Kindia, Labe, Mamou, N'Zerekore


2 October 1958 (from France)

National holiday

Independence Day, 2 October (1958)


history: previous 1958, 1990; 2010 and a referendum in 2020, which was suspended on 5 September 2021 via a coup d’etat; on 27 September, the Transitional Charter was released, which supersedes the constitution until a new constitution is promulgated

amendments: proposed by the National Assembly or by the president of the republic; consideration of proposals requires approval by simple majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires approval in referendum; the president can opt to submit amendments directly to the Assembly, in which case approval requires at least two-thirds majority vote; revised in 2020

Legal system

civil law system based on the French model

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Guinea

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: na


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Col. Mamady DOUMBOUYA (since 1 October 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Mamadou Oury BAH (since 27 February 2024)

cabinet: formerly the Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - on 5 September 2021, the military arrested and detained the president, suspended the constitution, and dissolved the government and legislature

elections/appointments: formerly, the president was directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term) and the prime minister appointed by the president; election last held on 18 October 2020; note - a new election timetable has not been announced by the transitional government; note - on 5 September 2021, Col. Mamady DOUMBOUYA led a military coup in which President CONDE was arrested and detained, the constitution suspended, and the government and People's National Assembly dissolved; on 1 October 2021, DOUMBOUYA was sworn in as transitional president

election results: 2020: Alpha CONDE reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Alpha CONDE (RPG) 59.5%, Cellou Dalein DIALLO (UFDG) 33.5%, other 7%

Legislative branch

description: formerly the People's National Assembly; note - on 5 September 2021, Col. Mamady DOUMBOUYA led a military coup in which President CONDE was arrested and detained, the constitution suspended, and the government and People's National Assembly dissolved; on 22 January 2022, an 81-member Transitional National Council was installed; on 19 February 2024 Guinea's military leaders dissolved the government

elections: 81 members to the Transitional National Council were appointed by the transitional president Col. Mamady DOUMBOUYA on 22 January 2022; elections for a permanent legislature had not been announced as of late January 2022; on 19 February 2024 Guinea's military leaders dissolved the government

election results: 81 members of the National Transitional Council appointed on 22 January 2022 by the transitional president; the members represent all of the country's socio-professional organizations and political parties

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into Administrative Chamber and Civil, Penal, and Social Chamber; court consists of the first president, 2 chamber presidents, 10 councilors, the solicitor general, and NA deputies); Constitutional Court - suspended on 5 September 2021

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court first president appointed by the national president after consultation with the National Assembly; other members appointed by presidential decree; members serve 9-year terms until age 65

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; High Court of Justice or Cour d'Assises; Court of Account (Court of Auditors); Courts of First Instance (Tribunal de Premiere Instance); labor court; military tribunal; justices of the peace; specialized courts

Political parties and leaders

African Congress for Democracy and Renewal or CADRE [Daniel KOLIE]
Alliance for National Renewal or ARN [Pepe Koulemou KOULEMOU]
Alliance for National Renewal or ARENA [Sekou Koureissy CONDE]
Bloc Liberal or BL [Faya MILLIMONO]
Citizen Generation or GECI [Mohamed SOUMAH]
Citizen Party for the Defense of Collective Interests or PCDIC [Hamidou BARRY]
Democratic Alliance for Renewal or ADR [Alpha Oumar Taran DIALLO]
Democratic National Movement or MND [Ousmane DORE]
Democratic Union for Renewal and Progress or UDRP [Edouard Zoutomou KPOGHOMOU]
Democratic Union of Guinea or UDG [Mamadou SYLLA]
Democratic People's Movement of Guinea or MPDG [Siaka BARRY]
Democratic Workers' Party of Guinea or PDTG [Talibi Dos CAMARA]
Front for the National Alliance or FAN [Makale CAMARA]
Generation for Reconciliation Union and Prosperity or GRUP [Papa Koly KOUROUMA]
Guinea for Democracy and Balance or GDE [Aboubacar SOUMAH]
Guinean Party for Peaceful Coexistence and Development or PGCD [Nene Moussa Maleya CAMARA]
Guinean Party for Solidarity and Democracy or PGSD [Elie KAMANO]
Guinean Union for Democracy and Development or UGDD [Francis HABA]
Guinean Rally for Development or RGD [Abdoul Kabele CAMARA]
Guinean Rally for Unity and Development or RGUD [Abraham BOURE]
Guinean Renaissance Party or PGR [Ibrahima Sory CONDE]
Modern Guinea [Thierno Yaya DIALLO]
Movement for Solidarity and Development or MSD [Abdoulaye DIALLO]
National Committee for Reconciliation and Development [Colonel Mamady DOUMBOUYA]
National Front for Development or FND [Alhousseine Makanera KAKE]
National Union for Prosperity or UNP [Alpha Mady SOUMAH]
National Party for Hope and Development or PEDN [Lansana KOUYATE]
New Democratic Forces or NFD [Mouctar DIALLO]
New Generation for the Republic or NGR [Abbe SYLLA]
New Guinea or NG [Mohamed CISSE]
New Political Generation or NGP [Badra KONE]
Party for Progress and Change or PPC [Aboubacar Biro SOUMAH]
Party of Citizen Action through Labor or PACT [Makale TRAORE]
Party of Democrats for Hope or PADES [Ousmane KABA]
Party of Freedom and Progress or PLP [Laye Souleymane DIALLO]
Party of Hope for National Development or PEDN [Lansana KOUYATE]
Rally for Renaissance and Development or RRD [Abdoulaye KOUROUMA]
Rally for the Guinean People or RPG (vacant)
Rally for the Integrated Development of Guinea or RDIG [Jean Marc TELIANO]
Rally for the Republic or RPR [Diabaty DORE]
Union for Progress and Renewal or UPR [Ousmane BAH]
Union for the Defense of Republican Interests or UDIR [Bouya KONATE]
Union for the Progress of Guinea or UPG [Jacques GBONIMY]
Union of Democratic Forces or UFD [Mamadou Baadiko BAH]
Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea or UFDG [Cellou Dalein DIALLO]
Union of Democrats for the Renaissance of Guinea or UDRG [Amadou Oury BAH]
Union of Republican Forces or UFR [Sidya TOURE]
Unity and Progress Party or PUP [Fode BANGOURA]

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Fatoumata KABA (since 19 April 2023)

chancery: 2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 986-4300

FAX: [1] (202) 986-3800

email address and website:

consulate(s): Los Angelos

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Troy Damian FITRELL (since January 2022)

embassy: Transversale No. 2, Centre Administratif de Koloma, Commune de Ratoma, Conakry

mailing address: 2110 Conakry Place, Washington DC  20521-2110

telephone: [224] 65-10-40-00

FAX: [224] 65-10-42-97

email address and website:

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green; red represents the people's sacrifice for liberation and work; yellow stands for the sun, for the riches of the earth, and for justice; green symbolizes the country's vegetation and unity

note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the reverse of those on the flags of neighboring Mali and Senegal

National symbol(s)

elephant; national colors: red, yellow, green

National anthem

name: "Liberte" (Liberty)

lyrics/music: unknown/Fodeba KEITA

note: adopted 1958

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve


Economic overview

growing but primarily agrarian West African economy; major mining sector; improving fiscal and debt balances prior to COVID-19; economy increasingly vulnerable to climate change; slow infrastructure improvements; gender wealth and human capital gaps

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$37.408 billion (2022 est.)
$35.729 billion (2021 est.)
$34.388 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 129

Real GDP growth rate

4.7% (2022 est.)
3.9% (2021 est.)
4.92% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 87

Real GDP per capita

$2,700 (2022 est.)
$2,600 (2021 est.)
$2,600 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 195

GDP (official exchange rate)

$20.999 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

10.49% (2022 est.)
12.6% (2021 est.)
10.6% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 164

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 19.8% (2017 est.)

industry: 32.1% (2017 est.)

services: 48.1% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 188; industry 67; agriculture 50

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 80.8% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 6.6% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 9.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 18.5% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 21.9% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -36.9% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

cassava, rice, groundnuts, oil palm fruit, maize, fonio, plantains, potatoes, sweet potatoes, yams (2022)

note: top ten agricultural products based on tonnage


bauxite, gold, diamonds, iron ore; light manufacturing, agricultural processing

Industrial production growth rate

4.7% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 67

Labor force

4.268 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 96

Unemployment rate

5.53% (2022 est.)
5.97% (2021 est.)
6.06% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 108

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 8.2% (2021 est.)

male: 7%

female: 9.2%

comparison ranking: total 167

Population below poverty line

43.7% (2018 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

29.6 (2018 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

comparison ranking: 147

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.5%

highest 10%: 23.1% (2018 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population


2.51% of GDP (2022 est.)
2.14% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.16% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities


revenues: $1.949 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $2.014 billion (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-0.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 62

Public debt

37.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
41.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 139

Taxes and other revenues

16.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 122

Current account balance

$3.35 billion (2022 est.)
$4.639 billion (2021 est.)
$2.685 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 37


$8.898 billion (2022 est.)
$10.266 billion (2021 est.)
$8.996 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 118

Exports - partners

China 37%, India 27%, UAE 25%, Switzerland 3%, Spain 2% (2022)

note: top five export partners based on percentage share of exports

Exports - commodities

gold, aluminum ore, coconuts/Brazil nuts/cashews, cocoa beans, fish (2022)

note: top five export commodities based on value in dollars


$5.749 billion (2022 est.)
$5.353 billion (2021 est.)
$6.314 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 144

Imports - partners

China 37%, India 10%, Netherlands 8%, UAE 4%, Belgium 4% (2022)

note: top five import partners based on percentage share of imports

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, rice, garments, plastic products, wheat (2022)

note: top five import commodities based on value in dollars

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$1.499 billion (2020 est.)
$1.379 billion (2019 est.)
$1.242 billion (2018 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 128

Debt - external

$1.458 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.462 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 160

Exchange rates

Guinean francs (GNF) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
9,565.082 (2020 est.)
9,183.876 (2019 est.)
9,011.134 (2018 est.)
9,088.319 (2017 est.)
8,967.927 (2016 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 47.7% (2022 est.)

electrification - urban areas: 91%

electrification - rural areas: 21.3%


installed generating capacity: 1.191 million kW (2022 est.)

consumption: 2.625 billion kWh (2022 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 418.8 million kWh (2022 est.)

comparison rankings: transmission/distribution losses 75; consumption 143; installed generating capacity 133

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 33.6% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

solar: 0.7% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

hydroelectricity: 65.7% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)


imports: 2,000 metric tons (2022 est.)


refined petroleum consumption: 30,000 bbl/day (2022 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

4.502 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 5,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 4.497 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 137

Energy consumption per capita

4.891 million Btu/person (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: 170


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 0 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: (2021 est.) less than 1

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 222

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 13.795 million (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 102 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 76

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: the number of mobile subscribers grew strongly while revenue also increased steadily; fixed broadband services are still very limited and expensive, though there have been some positive developments in recent years; the landing of the first international submarine cable in 2012, and the setting up of an IXP in mid-2013, increased the bandwidth available to the ISPs, and helped reduce the cost of internet services for end-users; a National Backbone Network was completed in mid-2020, connecting administrative centers across the country; almost all internet connections are made via mobile networks; GSM services account for a dwindling proportion of connections, in line with the greater reach of services based on 3G and LTE (2022)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity is less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership is just over 105 per 100 persons (2020)

international: country code - 224; ACE submarine cable connecting Guinea with 20 landing points in Western and South Africa and Europe; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean (2019)

Broadcast media

Government maintains control over broadcast media; single state-run TV station; state-run radio broadcast station also operates several stations in rural areas; a dozen private television stations; a steadily increasing number of privately owned radio stations, nearly all in Conakry, and about a dozen community radio stations; foreign TV programming available via satellite and cable subscription services 


Internet users

total: 4.9 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 35% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 94

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 1,000 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0.01 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 203



16 (2024)

comparison ranking: 147


1 (2024)


total: 1,086 km (2017)

standard gauge: 279 km (2017) 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 807 km (2017) 1.000-m gauge

comparison ranking: total 88


total: 44,301 km

paved: 3,346 km

unpaved: 40,955 km (2018)

comparison ranking: total 88


1,300 km (2011) (navigable by shallow-draft native craft in the northern part of the Niger River system)

comparison ranking: 58

Merchant marine

total: 2 (2023)

by type: other 2

comparison ranking: total 175


total ports: 4 (2024)

large: 0

medium: 1

small: 0

very small: 3

ports with oil terminals: 2

key ports: Benti, Conakry, Kamsar, Victoria

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Guinean (or National) Armed Forces (Forces Armées Guinéennes): Army, Guinean Navy (Armee de Mer or Marine Guineenne), Guinean Air Force (Force Aerienne de Guinee), Presidential Security Battalion (Battailon Autonome de la Sécurité Presidentielle, BASP), Gendarmerie (2023)

note: the National Gendarmerie is overseen by the Ministry of Defense, while the National Police is under the Ministry of Security; the Gendarmerie and National Police share responsibility for internal security, but only the Gendarmerie can arrest police or military officials

Military expenditures

1.8% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.5% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.4% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.6% of GDP (2019 est.)
1.8% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 75

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 12,000 active personnel, including about 1,500 Gendarmerie (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the inventory of the Guinean military consists largely of aging and outdated (mostly Soviet-era) equipment; in recent years, it has received small amounts of equipment from China, France, and South Africa (2023)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary and selective conscripted service; 9-12 months of service (2023)

Military - note

the Guinean military is a small and lightly armed force that is responsible for territorial defense, but also has some domestic security responsibilities and has historically been involved in suppressing public protests; the military has undergone some attempts at reform since 2010, but in 2021 the Army’s special forces led a successful coup (2023)

Transnational Issues