Photos of Guinea

Introduction

Background

Guinea is at a turning point after decades of authoritarian rule since gaining its independence from France in 1958. Sekou TOURE ruled the country as president from independence to his death in 1984. Lansana CONTE came to power in 1984 when the military seized the government after TOURE's death. Gen. CONTE organized and won presidential elections in 1993, 1998, and 2003, though results were questionable due to a lack in transparency and neutrality in the electoral process. Upon CONTE's death in December 2008, Capt. Moussa Dadis CAMARA led a military coup, seizing power and suspending the constitution. His unwillingness to yield to domestic and international pressure to step down led to heightened political tensions that peaked in September 2009 when presidential guards opened fire on an opposition rally killing more than 150 people. In early December 2009, CAMARA was wounded in an assassination attempt and exiled to Burkina Faso. A transitional government led by Gen. Sekouba KONATE paved the way for Guinea's transition to a fledgling democracy. The country held its first free and competitive democratic presidential and legislative elections in 2010 and 2013 respectively, and in October 2015 held a second consecutive presidential election. Alpha CONDE was reelected to a second five-year term as president in 2015, and the National Assembly was seated in January 2014. CONDE's first cabinet is the first all-civilian government in Guinea. The country held a successful political dialogue in August and September 2016 that brought together the government and opposition to address long-standing tensions. Local elections were held in February 2018, and disputed results in some of the races resulted in ongoing protests against CONDE's government.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone

Geographic coordinates

11 00 N, 10 00 W

Area

total: 245,857 sq km

land: 245,717 sq km

water: 140 sq km

country comparison to the world: 79

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Oregon; slightly larger than twice the size of Pennsylvania

Land boundaries

total: 4,046 km

border countries (6): Cote d'Ivoire 816 km, Guinea-Bissau 421 km, Liberia 590 km, Mali 1062 km, Senegal 363 km, Sierra Leone 794 km

Coastline

320 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate

generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds

Terrain

generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior

Elevation

mean elevation: 472 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m

Natural resources

bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium, hydropower, fish, salt

Land use

agricultural land: 58.1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 11.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 2.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 43.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 26.5% (2018 est.)

other: 15.4% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

950 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

areas of highest density are in the west and south; interior is sparsely populated as shown in this population distribution map

Natural hazards

hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season

Geography - note

the Niger and its important tributary the Milo River have their sources in the Guinean highlands

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Guinean(s)

adjective: Guinean

Ethnic groups

Fulani (Peuhl) 33.4%, Malinke 29.4%, Susu 21.2%, Guerze 7.8%, Kissi 6.2%, Toma 1.6%, other/foreign .4% (2018 est.)

Languages

French (official), Pular, Maninka, Susu, other native languages

note: about 40 languages are spoken; each ethnic group has its own language

Religions

Muslim 89.1%, Christian 6.8%, animist 1.6%, other .1%, none 2.4% (2014 est.)

Demographic profile

Guinea’s strong population growth is a result of declining mortality rates and sustained elevated fertility. The population growth rate was somewhat tempered in the 2000s because of a period of net outmigration. Although life expectancy and mortality rates have improved over the last two decades, the nearly universal practice of female genital cutting continues to contribute to high infant and maternal mortality rates. Guinea’s total fertility remains high at about 5 children per woman because of the ongoing preference for larger families, low contraceptive usage and availability, a lack of educational attainment and empowerment among women, and poverty. A lack of literacy and vocational training programs limit job prospects for youths, but even those with university degrees often have no option but to work in the informal sector. About 60% of the country’s large youth population is unemployed.

Tensions and refugees have spilled over Guinea’s borders with Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Cote d’Ivoire. During the 1990s Guinea harbored as many as half a million refugees from Sierra Leone and Liberia, more refugees than any other African country for much of that decade. About half sought refuge in the volatile "Parrot’s Beak" region of southwest Guinea, a wedge of land jutting into Sierra Leone near the Liberian border. Many were relocated within Guinea in the early 2000s because the area suffered repeated cross-border attacks from various government and rebel forces, as well as anti-refugee violence.

Age structure

0-14 years: 41.2% (male 2,601,221/female 2,559,918)

15-24 years: 19.32% (male 1,215,654/female 1,204,366)

25-54 years: 30.85% (male 1,933,141/female 1,930,977)

55-64 years: 4.73% (male 287,448/female 305,420)

65 years and over: 3.91% (male 218,803/female 270,492) (2020 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 85.2

youth dependency ratio: 79.7

elderly dependency ratio: 5.5

potential support ratio: 18.3 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 19.1 years

male: 18.9 years

female: 19.4 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 205

Birth rate

35.86 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 15

Death rate

8.28 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 76

Net migration rate

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 85

Population distribution

areas of highest density are in the west and south; interior is sparsely populated as shown in this population distribution map

Urbanization

urban population: 36.5% of total population (2020)

rate of urbanization: 3.54% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas - population

1.991 million CONAKRY (capital) (2021)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

19.5 years (2018 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Maternal mortality rate

576 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 14

Infant mortality rate

total: 50.99 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 55.83 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 46 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 20

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 63.53 years

male: 61.7 years

female: 65.42 years (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 206

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 97.9% of population

rural: 69.8% of population

total: 79.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 2.1% of population

rural: 27.6% of population

total: 20.1% of population (2017 est.)

Physicians density

0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2016)

Hospital bed density

0.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 85.6% of population

rural: 34.8% of population

total: 53% of population

unimproved: urban: 14.4% of population

rural: 65.2% of population

total: 47% of population (2017 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

aerosolized dust or soil contact diseases: Lassa fever (2016)

note: on 14 February 2021, the Guinea government declared an outbreak of Ebola in N'Zerekore; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has issued a Travel Advisory recommending travelers avoid non-essential travel to Guinea; travelers to this area could be infected with Ebola if they come into contact with an infected person’s blood or other body fluids; travelers should seek medical care immediately if they develop fever, muscle pain, sore throat, diarrhea, weakness, vomiting, stomach pain, or unexplained bleeding or bruising during or after travel

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 30.4%

male: 38.1%

female: 22.8% (2015)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 9 years

male: 10 years

female: 8 years (2014)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Guinea

conventional short form: Guinea

local long form: Republique de Guinee

local short form: Guinee

former: French Guinea

etymology: the country is named after the Guinea region of West Africa that lies along the Gulf of Guinea and stretches north to the Sahel

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Conakry

geographic coordinates: 9 30 N, 13 42 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: according to tradition, the name derives from the fusion of the name "Cona," a Baga wine and cheese producer who lived on Tombo Island (the original site of the present-day capital), and the word "nakiri," which in Susu means "the other bank" or "the other side"; supposedly, Baga's palm grove produced the best wine on the island and people traveling to sample his vintage, would say: "I am going to Cona, on the other bank (Cona-nakiri)," which over time became Conakry

Administrative divisions

7 regions administrative and 1 gouvenorat*; Boke, Conakry*, Faranah, Kankan, Kindia, Labe, Mamou, N'Zerekore

Independence

2 October 1958 (from France)

National holiday

Independence Day, 2 October (1958)

Constitution

history: previous 1958, 1990; latest promulgated 19 April 2010, approved 7 May 2010

amendments: proposed by the National Assembly or by the president of the republic; consideration of proposals requires approval by simple majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires approval in referendum; the president can opt to submit amendments directly to the Assembly, in which case approval requires at least two-thirds majority vote; revised in 2020

Legal system

civil law system based on the French model

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Guinea

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: na

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Alpha CONDE (since 21 December 2010)

head of government: Prime Minister Ibrahima FOFANA (since 22 May 2018)

cabinet:  Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 18 October 2020 (next to be held in October 2025); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Alpha CONDE reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Alpha CONDE (RPG) 59.5%, Cellou Dalein DIALLO (UFDG) 33.5%, other 7%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral People's National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale Populaire (114 seats; 76 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote and 38 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 28 September 2013 (next to be held 1 March 2020)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPG 53, UFDG 37, UFR 10, PEDN 2, UPG 2, other 10; composition - men 89, women 25, percent of women 21.9%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into Administrative Chamber and Civil, Penal, and Social Chamber; court consists of the first president, 2 chamber presidents, 10 councilors, the solicitor general, and NA deputies); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court first president appointed by the national president after consultation with the National Assembly; other members appointed by presidential decree; members serve until age 65; Constitutional Court member appointments - 2 by the National Assembly and the president of the republic, 3 experienced judges designated by their peers, 1 experienced lawyer, 1 university professor with expertise in public law designated by peers, and 2 experienced representatives of the Independent National Institution of Human Rights; members serve single 9-year terms

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; High Court of Justice or Cour d'Assises; Court of Account (Court of Auditors); Courts of First Instance (Tribunal de Premiere Instance); labor court; military tribunal; justices of the peace; specialized courts

Political parties and leaders

Bloc Liberal or BL [Faya MILLIMONO]
National Party for Hope and Development or PEDN [Lansana KOUYATE]
Rally for the Guinean People or RPG [Alpha CONDE]
Union for the Progress of Guinea or UPG
Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea or UFDG [Cellou Dalein DIALLO]
Union of Republican Forces or UFR [Sidya TOURE]

Ruling party

Opposition parties

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Kerfalla YANSANE (since 24 January 2018)

chancery: 2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 986-4300

FAX: [1] (202) 986-3800

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Simon HENSHAW (since 4 March 2019)

telephone: [224] 655-10-40-00

embassy: Transversale #2, Center Administratif de Koloma, Commune de Ratoma, Conakry

mailing address: P.O. Box 603, Transversale No. 2, Centre Administratif de Koloma, Commune de Ratoma, Conakry

FAX: [224] 655-10-42-97

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green; red represents the people's sacrifice for liberation and work; yellow stands for the sun, for the riches of the earth, and for justice; green symbolizes the country's vegetation and unity

note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the reverse of those on the flags of neighboring Mali and Senegal

National symbol(s)

elephant; national colors: red, yellow, green

National anthem

name: "Liberte" (Liberty)

lyrics/music: unknown/Fodeba KEITA

note: adopted 1958

Economy

Economic overview

Guinea is a poor country of approximately 12.9 million people in 2016 that possesses the world's largest reserves of bauxite and largest untapped high-grade iron ore reserves, as well as gold and diamonds. In addition, Guinea has fertile soil, ample rainfall, and is the source of several West African rivers, including the Senegal, Niger, and Gambia. Guinea's hydro potential is enormous and the country could be a major exporter of electricity. The country also has tremendous agriculture potential. Gold, bauxite, and diamonds are Guinea’s main exports. International investors have shown interest in Guinea's unexplored mineral reserves, which have the potential to propel Guinea's future growth.

Following the death of long-term President Lansana CONTE in 2008 and the coup that followed, international donors, including the G-8, the IMF, and the World Bank, significantly curtailed their development programs in Guinea. However, the IMF approved a 3-year Extended Credit Facility arrangement in 2012, following the December 2010 presidential elections. In September 2012, Guinea achieved Heavily Indebted Poor Countries completion point status. Future access to international assistance and investment will depend on the government’s ability to be transparent, combat corruption, reform its banking system, improve its business environment, and build infrastructure. In April 2013, the government amended its mining code to reduce taxes and royalties. In 2014, Guinea complied with requirements of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative by publishing its mining contracts. Guinea completed its program with the IMF in October 2016 even though some targeted reforms have been delayed. Currently Guinea is negotiating a new IMF program which will be based on Guinea’s new five-year economic plan, focusing on the development of higher value-added products, including from the agro-business sector and development of the rural economy.

Political instability, a reintroduction of the Ebola virus epidemic, low international commodity prices, and an enduring legacy of corruption, inefficiency, and lack of government transparency are factors that could impact Guinea’s future growth. Economic recovery will be a long process while the government adjusts to lower inflows of international donor aid following the surge of Ebola-related emergency support. Ebola stalled promising economic growth in the 2014-15 period and impeded several projects, such as offshore oil exploration and the Simandou iron ore project. The economy, however, grew by 6.6% in 2016 and 6.7% in 2017, mainly due to growth from bauxite mining and thermal energy generation as well as the resiliency of the agricultural sector. The 240-megawatt Kaleta Dam, inaugurated in September 2015, has expanded access to electricity for residents of Conakry. An combined with fears of Ebola virus, continue to undermine Guinea's economic viability.

Guinea’s iron ore industry took a hit in 2016 when investors in the Simandou iron ore project announced plans to divest from the project. In 2017, agriculture output and public investment boosted economic growth, while the mining sector continued to play a prominent role in economic performance.

Successive governments have failed to address the country's crumbling infrastructure. Guinea suffers from chronic electricity shortages; poor roads, rail lines and bridges; and a lack of access to clean water - all of which continue to plague economic development. The present government, led by President Alpha CONDE, is working to create an environment to attract foreign investment and hopes to have greater participation from western countries and firms in Guinea's economic development.

Real GDP growth rate

8.2% (2017 est.)

10.5% (2016 est.)

3.8% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 7

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

9.4% (2019 est.)

9.8% (2018 est.)

8.9% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 209

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$32.72 billion (2019 est.)

$30.985 billion (2018 est.)

$29.176 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 136

GDP (official exchange rate)

$13.55 billion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$2,562 (2019 est.)

$2,496 (2018 est.)

$2,418 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 204

Gross national saving

4.3% of GDP (2019 est.)

2.7% of GDP (2018 est.)

11.4% of GDP (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 185

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 19.8% (2017 est.)

industry: 32.1% (2017 est.)

services: 48.1% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 80.8% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 6.6% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 9.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 18.5% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 21.9% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -36.9% (2017 est.)

Ease of Doing Business Index scores

Overall score: 49.4 (2020)

Starting a Business score: 84.5 (2020)

Trading score: 47.8 (2020)

Enforcement score: 53.9 (2020)

Agricultural products

rice, cassava, groundnuts, maize, oil palm fruit, fonio, plantains, sugar cane, sweet potatoes, vegetables

Industries

bauxite, gold, diamonds, iron ore; light manufacturing, agricultural processing

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 76%

industry: 24% (2006 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.7%

highest 10%: 30.3% (2007)

Budget

revenues: 1.7 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 1.748 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

37.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

41.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 137

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$705 million (2017 est.)

-$2.705 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 132

Exports

$5.041 billion (2019 est.)

$5.073 billion (2018 est.)

$4.733 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 116

Exports - partners

United Arab Emirates 39%, China 36%, India 6% (2019)

Exports - commodities

aluminum, gold, bauxite, diamonds, fish, cashews (2019)

Imports

$7.924 billion (2019 est.)

$8.76 billion (2018 est.)

$7.317 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 117

Imports - partners

China 39%, India 8%, Netherlands 6%, Belgium 5%, United Arab Emirates 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

rice, refined petroleum, packaged medicines, delivery trucks, cars (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$331.8 million (31 December 2017 est.)

$383.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 165

Debt - external

$1.458 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$1.462 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 160

Exchange rates

Guinean francs (GNF) per US dollar -

9,953 (2020 est.)

9,542.5 (2019 est.)

9,092 (2018 est.)

7,485.5 (2014 est.)

7,014.1 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 46% (2019)

electrification - urban areas: 84% (2019)

electrification - rural areas: 24% (2019)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 0

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 223

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 12,283,911

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 100.8 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 74

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: huge improvement over the last ten years; in May 2019, 4G Wi-Fi was launched in the capital; the regional administrative centers all have 3G access; the 2018 set up of an IXP (Internet Exchange Point) reduced the cost of Internet bandwidth and improved infrastructure; a National Backbone Network is nearing completion to connect administrative centers (2020)

domestic: there is national coverage and Conakry is reasonably well-served; coverage elsewhere remains inadequate but is improving; fixed-line teledensity is less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership is expanding rapidly and now 101 per 100 persons (2019)

international: country code - 224; ACE submarine cable connecting Guinea with 20 landing points in Western and South Africa and Europe; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean (2019)

note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated

Broadcast media

government maintains marginal control over broadcast media; single state-run TV station; state-run radio broadcast station also operates several stations in rural areas; a dozen private television stations; a steadily increasing number of privately owned radio stations, nearly all in Conakry, and about a dozen community radio stations; foreign TV programming available via satellite and cable subscription services 

(2019)

Internet users

total: 2,133,974

percent of population: 18% (July 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 121

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 1,213

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 194

Transportation

Airports - with paved runways

total: 4 (2019)

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 12 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)

under 914 m: 2 (2013)

Railways

total: 1,086 km (2017)

standard gauge: 279 km 1.435-m gauge (2017)

narrow gauge: 807 km 1.000-m gauge (2017)

country comparison to the world: 88

Roadways

total: 44,301 km (2018)

paved: 3,346 km (2018)

unpaved: 40,955 km (2018)

country comparison to the world: 85

Waterways

1,300 km (navigable by shallow-draft native craft in the northern part of the Niger River system) (2011)

country comparison to the world: 54

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Conakry, Kamsar

Military and Security

Military and security forces

National Armed Forces: Army, Guinean Navy (Armee de Mer or Marine Guineenne, includes Marines), Guinean Air Force (Force Aerienne de Guinee), Presidential Security Battalion (Battailon Autonome de la Sécurité Presidentielle, BASP), Gendarmerie (2020)

Military expenditures

2% of GDP (2019)

2.3% of GDP (2018)

2.5% of GDP (2017)

2.5% of GDP (2016)

3.3% of GDP (2015)

country comparison to the world: 58

Military and security service personnel strengths

Guinean National Armed Forces are comprised of approximately 12,000 active personnel
(9,000 Army; 400 Navy; 800 Air Force; 300 BASP; 1,500 Gendarmerie) (2019)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the inventory of the Guinean military consists largely of ageing and outdated (mostly Soviet-era) equipment; since 2010, it has received small amounts of equipment from France, Russia, and South Africa (2020)

Military deployments

660 Mali (MINUSMA) (Jan 2021)

Military service age and obligation

no compulsory military service (2021)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Sierra Leone considers Guinea's definition of the flood plain limits to define the left bank boundary of the Makona and Moa Rivers excessive and protests Guinea's continued occupation of these lands, including the hamlet of Yenga, occupied since 1998

Trafficking in persons

current situation: Guinea is a source, transit, and, to a lesser extent, a destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the majority of trafficking victims are Guinean children, and trafficking is more prevalent among Guineans than foreign national migrants; Guinean girls are subjected to domestic servitude and commercial sexual exploitation, while boys are forced to beg or to work as street vendors, shoe shiners, or miners; Guinea is a source country and transit point for West African children forced to work as miners in the region; Guinean women and girls are subjected to domestic servitude and sex trafficking in West Africa, the Middle East, the US, and increasingly Europe, while Thai, Chinese, and Vietnamese women are forced into prostitution and some West Africans are forced into domestic servitude in Guinea

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Guinea does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, Guinea was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; no new investigations were conducted in 2014, and the one ongoing case led to the prosecution of four offenders for forced child labor, three of whom were convicted but given inadequate sentences for the crime; the government did not identify or provide protective services to victims and did not support NGOs that assisted victims but continued to refer child victims to NGOs on an ad hoc basis; Guinean law does not prohibit all forms of trafficking, excluding, for example, debt bondage; the 2014 Ebolavirus outbreak negatively affected Guinea’s ability to address human trafficking (2015)