Photos of Mexico

Named after the ancient Mayan Province of Kimpech, the state of Campeche comprises much of the western half of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. Rivers in southern Campeche drain into the immense Terminos Lagoon, the entrance to which is protected by a long barrier island, Isla Del Carmen (upper right). In this false-color satellite image the green jungle canopy shows up as bright red. Image courtesy of USGS.

Introduction

Background

Mexico was the site of several advanced Amerindian civilizations -- including the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, and Aztec -- until Spain conquered and colonized the area in the early 16th century. Administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain for three centuries, it achieved independence early in the 19th century. Elections held in 2000 marked the first time since Mexican Revolution in 1910 that an opposition candidate -- Vicente FOX of the National Action Party (PAN) -- defeated the party in government, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). He was succeeded in 2006 by another PAN candidate Felipe CALDERON, but Enrique PEÑA NIETO regained the presidency for the PRI in 2012. Left-leaning anti-establishment politician and former mayor of Mexico City (2000-05) Andrés Manuel LÓPEZ OBRADOR, from the National Regeneration Movement (MORENA), became president in 2018.

The US-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA, or T-MEC by its Spanish acronym) entered into force in 2020 and replaced its predecessor, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Mexico amended its constitution in 2019 to facilitate the implementation of the labor components of USMCA.

Mexico is currently the US's second-largest goods trading partner, after Canada. Ongoing economic and social concerns include low real wages, high underemployment, inequitable income distribution, and few advancement opportunities, particularly for the largely indigenous population in the impoverished southern states. Since 2007, Mexico's powerful transnational criminal organizations have engaged in a struggle to control criminal markets, resulting in tens of thousands of drug-related homicides and forced disappearances.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

North America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the United States and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the United States

Geographic coordinates

23 00 N, 102 00 W

Map references

North America

Area

total: 1,964,375 sq km

land: 1,943,945 sq km

water: 20,430 sq km

comparison ranking: total 15

Area - comparative

slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 4,389 km

border countries (3): Belize 276 km; Guatemala 958 km; US 3,155 km

Coastline

9,330 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate

varies from tropical to desert

Terrain

high, rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; desert

Elevation

highest point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5,636 m

lowest point: Laguna Salada -10 m

mean elevation: 1,111 m

Natural resources

petroleum, silver, antimony, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber

Land use

agricultural land: 54.9% (2018 est.)

arable land: 11.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 41.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 33.3% (2018 est.)

other: 11.8% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

60,620 sq km (2020)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Laguna de Chapala - 1,140 sq km

salt water lake(s): Laguna de Terminos - 1,550 sq km

Major rivers (by length in km)

Rio Grande river mouth (shared with US [s]) - 3,057 km; Colorado river mouth (shared with US [s]) - 2,333 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Gulf of Mexico) Rio Grande/Bravo (607,965 sq km)
Pacific Ocean drainage: (Gulf of California) Colorado (703,148 sq km)

Major aquifers

Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains Aquifer

Population distribution

most of the population is found in the middle of the country between the states of Jalisco and Veracruz; approximately a quarter of the population lives in and around Mexico City

Natural hazards

tsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts

volcanism: volcanic activity in the central-southern part of the country; the volcanoes in Baja California are mostly dormant; Colima (3,850 m), which erupted in 2010, is Mexico's most active volcano and is responsible for causing periodic evacuations of nearby villagers; it has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Popocatepetl (5,426 m) poses a threat to Mexico City; other historically active volcanoes include Barcena, Ceboruco, El Chichon, Michoacan-Guanajuato, Pico de Orizaba, San Martin, Socorro, and Tacana; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

Geography - note

note 1: strategic location on southern border of the US; Mexico is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire

note 2: some of the world's most important food crops were first domesticated in Mexico; the "Three Sisters" companion plants - winter squash, maize (corn), and climbing beans - served as the main agricultural crops for various North American Indian groups; all three apparently originated in Mexico but then were widely disseminated through much of North America; avocado, amaranth, and chili peppers also emanate from Mexico, as does vanilla, the world's most popular aroma and flavor spice; although cherry tomatoes originated in Ecuador, their domestication in Mexico transformed them into the larger modern tomato

note 3: the Sac Actun cave system at 348 km (216 mi) is the longest underwater cave in the world and the second longest cave worldwide, after Mammoth Cave in the United States (see "Geography - note" under United States)

note 4: the prominent Yucatán Peninsula that divides the Gulf of Mexico from the Caribbean Sea is shared by Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize; just on the northern coast of Yucatan, near the town of Chicxulub (pronounce cheek-sha-loob), lie the remnants of a massive crater (some 150 km in diameter and extending well out into the Gulf of Mexico); formed by an asteroid or comet when it struck the earth 66 million years ago, the impact is now widely accepted as initiating a worldwide climate disruption that caused a mass extinction of 75% of all the earth's plant and animal species - including the non-avian dinosaurs

People and Society

Population

total: 130,739,927

male: 63,899,138

female: 66,840,789 (2024 est.)

comparison rankings: female 10; male 10; total 10

Nationality

noun: Mexican(s)

adjective: Mexican

Ethnic groups

Mestizo (Indigenous-Spanish) 62%, predominantly Indigenous 21%, Indigenous 7%, other 10% (mostly European) (2012 est.)

note: Mexico does not collect census data on ethnicity

Languages

Spanish only 93.8%, Spanish and indigenous languages 5.4%, indigenous only 0.6%, unspecified 0.2%; note - indigenous languages include various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional languages (2020 est.)

major-language sample(s):
La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Spanish audio sample:

Religions

Roman Catholic 78%, Protestant/evangelical Christian 11.2%, other 0.002%, unaffiliated (includes atheism) 10.6% (2020 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 23.3% (male 15,647,805/female 14,754,004)

15-64 years: 68.6% (male 43,651,105/female 45,983,174)

65 years and over: 8.2% (2024 est.) (male 4,600,228/female 6,103,611)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 49.4

youth dependency ratio: 37.3

elderly dependency ratio: 12.2

potential support ratio: 8.2 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 30.8 years (2024 est.)

male: 28.8 years

female: 32.7 years

comparison ranking: total 132

Population growth rate

0.72% (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 122

Birth rate

14.3 births/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 118

Death rate

6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 134

Net migration rate

-0.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 131

Population distribution

most of the population is found in the middle of the country between the states of Jalisco and Veracruz; approximately a quarter of the population lives in and around Mexico City

Urbanization

urban population: 81.6% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.4% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

22.281 million MEXICO CITY (capital), 5.420 million Guadalajara, 5.117 million Monterrey, 3.345 million Puebla, 2.626 million Toluca de Lerdo, 2.260 million Tijuana (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2024 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

21.3 years (2008 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

59 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 94

Infant mortality rate

total: 12.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2024 est.)

male: 13.4 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 10.9 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 109

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 74.6 years (2024 est.)

male: 71.6 years

female: 77.7 years

comparison ranking: total population 140

Total fertility rate

1.79 children born/woman (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 142

Gross reproduction rate

0.88 (2024 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 98.3% of population

total: 99.7% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 1.7% of population

total: 0.3% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

6.2% of GDP (2020)

Physician density

2.43 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

1 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.9% of population

rural: 96.4% of population

total: 99.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.1% of population

rural: 3.6% of population

total: 0.8% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: intermediate (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

28.9% (2016)

comparison ranking: 28

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 4.25 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 3.72 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.19 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.19 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.15 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 91

Tobacco use

total: 13.1% (2020 est.)

male: 19.9% (2020 est.)

female: 6.2% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 116

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 3.6%

women married by age 18: 20.7% (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

4.3% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 107

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 95.2%

male: 96.1%

female: 94.5% (2020)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 15 years

female: 15 years (2020)

Environment

Environment - current issues

scarcity of hazardous waste disposal facilities; rural to urban migration; natural freshwater resources scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; deteriorating agricultural lands; serious air and water pollution in the national capital and urban centers along US-Mexico border; land subsidence in Valley of Mexico caused by groundwater depletion

note: the government considers the lack of clean water and deforestation national security issues

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate

varies from tropical to desert

Land use

agricultural land: 54.9% (2018 est.)

arable land: 11.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 41.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 33.3% (2018 est.)

other: 11.8% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 81.6% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.4% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.1% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 111

Revenue from coal

0.03% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 36

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 17.83 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 486.41 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 135.77 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 53.1 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 2.655 million tons (2013 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 5% (2013 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Laguna de Chapala - 1,140 sq km

salt water lake(s): Laguna de Terminos - 1,550 sq km

Major rivers (by length in km)

Rio Grande river mouth (shared with US [s]) - 3,057 km; Colorado river mouth (shared with US [s]) - 2,333 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Gulf of Mexico) Rio Grande/Bravo (607,965 sq km)
Pacific Ocean drainage: (Gulf of California) Colorado (703,148 sq km)

Major aquifers

Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains Aquifer

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 13.17 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 8.56 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 67.83 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

461.89 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Geoparks

total global geoparks and regional networks: 2

global geoparks and regional networks: Comarca Minera, Hidalgo; Mixteca Alta, Oaxaca (2023)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: United Mexican States

conventional short form: Mexico

local long form: Estados Unidos Mexicanos

local short form: Mexico

former: Mexican Republic, Mexican Empire

etymology: named after the capital city, whose name stems from the Mexica, the largest and most powerful branch of the Aztecs; the meaning of the name is uncertain

Government type

federal presidential republic

Capital

name: Mexico City (Ciudad de Mexico)

geographic coordinates: 19 26 N, 99 08 W

time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: DST was permanently removed in October 2022

time zone note: Mexico has four time zones

etymology: named after the Mexica, the largest and most powerful branch of the Aztecs; the meaning of the name is uncertain

Administrative divisions

32 states (estados, singular - estado); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Cuidad de Mexico, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas

Independence

16 September 1810 (declared independence from Spain); 27 September 1821 (recognized by Spain)

National holiday

Independence Day, 16 September (1810)

Constitution

history: several previous; latest approved 5 February 1917

amendments: proposed by the Congress of the Union; passage requires approval by at least two thirds of the members present and approval by a majority of the state legislatures; amended many times, last in 2020

Legal system

civil law system with US constitutional law influence; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: yes

dual citizenship recognized: not specified

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch

chief of state: President Andrés Manuel LÓPEZ OBRADOR (since 1 December 2018)

head of government: President Andrés Manuel LÓPEZ OBRADOR (since 1 December 2018)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a single 6-year term; election last held on 2 June 2024 (next to be held in 2030)

election results:
2024: Claudia SHEINBAUM Pardo elected president; percent of vote - Claudia SHEINBAUM Pardo (MORENA) 59.4%, Xóchitl GÁLVEZ Ruiz (PAN) 27.9%, Jorge Álvarez MÁYNEZ (MC) 10.4%, other 2.3%; note - SHEINBAUM will take office 1 October 2024

2018:
 Andrés Manuel LÓPEZ OBRADOR elected president; percent of vote - Andrés Manuel LÓPEZ OBRADOR (MORENA) 53.2%, Ricardo ANAYA Cortés (PAN) 22.3%, José Antonio MEADE Kuribreña (PRI) 16.4%, Jaime RODRÍGUEZ Calderón 5.2% (independent), other 2.9%

2012: Enrique PEÑA NIETO elected president; percent of vote - Enrique PEÑA NIETO (PRI) 38.2%, Andrés Manuel LÓPEZ OBRADOR (PRD) 31.6%, Josefina Eugenia VÁZQUEZ Mota (PAN) 25.4%, other 4.8%

note: the president is both chief of state and head of government

Legislative branch

description:

bicameral National Congress or Congreso de la Unión consists of:
Senate or Cámara de Senadores (128 seats; 96 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 32 directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms)
Chamber of Deputies or Cámara de Diputados (500 seats; 300 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 200 directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 3-year terms)



elections: Senate - last held on 2 June 2024 (next to be held in 2030)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 2 June 2024 (next to be held in 2027)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; note - awaiting official results from the 2 June 2024 election

Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; note - awaiting official results from the 2 June 2024 election

note: as of the 2018 election, senators will be eligible for a second term and deputies up to 4 consecutive terms

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación (consists of the chief justice and 11 justices and organized into civil, criminal, administrative, and labor panels) and the Electoral Tribunal of the Federal Judiciary (organized into the superior court, with 7 judges including the court president, and 5 regional courts, each with 3 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president of the republic and approved by two-thirds vote of the members present in the Senate; justices serve 15-year terms; Electoral Tribunal superior and regional court judges nominated by the Supreme Court and elected by two-thirds vote of members present in the Senate; superior court president elected from among its members to hold office for a 4-year term; other judges of the superior and regional courts serve staggered, 9-year terms

subordinate courts: federal level includes circuit, collegiate, and unitary courts; state and district level courts

note: in April 2021, the Mexican congress passed a judicial reform which changed 7 articles of the constitution and preceded a new Organic Law on the Judicial Branch of the Federation

Political parties and leaders

Citizen's Movement (Movimiento Ciudadano) or MC [Clemente CASTAÑEDA Hoeflich]
Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional) or PRI [Claudia RUIZ Massieu]
Labor Party (Partido del Trabajo) or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutiérrez]
Mexican Green Ecological Party (Partido Verde Ecologista de México) or PVEM [Karen CASTREJÓN Trujillo]
Movement for National Regeneration (Movimiento Regeneración Nacional) or MORENA [Mario DELGADO Carillo]
National Action Party (Partido Acción Nacional) or PAN [Antonio CORTÉS Mendoza]
Party of the Democratic Revolution (Partido de la Revolución Democrática) or PRD [Jesús ZAMBRANO Grijalva]
This Is For Mexico (Va Por México) (alliance that includes PAN, PRI, and PRD)
Together We Make History (Juntos Hacemos Historia) (alliance that included MORENA, PT, PVEM) (dissolved 23 December 2020)

International organization participation

ACS, APEC, Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CABEI, CAN (observer), Caricom (observer), CD, CDB, CE (observer), CELAC, CSN (observer), EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-3, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, MIGA, NAFTA, NAM (observer), NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNOOSA, UNWTO, UPU, USMCA, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Esteban MOCTEZUMA Barragán (since 20 April 2021)

chancery: 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006

telephone: [1] (202) 728-1600

FAX: [1] (202) 728-1698

email address and website:
mexembusa@sre.gob.mx

https://embamex.sre.gob.mx/eua/index.php/en/

consulate(s) general: Atlanta (GA), Austin (TX), Boston (MA), Chicago (IL), Dallas (TX), Denver (GA), El Paso (TX), Houston (TX), Laredo (TX), Miami (FL), New York (NY), Nogales (AZ), Phoenix (AZ), Raleigh (NC), Sacramento (CA), San Antonio (TX), San Diego (CA), San Francisco (CA), San Jose (CA), San Juan (Puerto Rico)

consulate(s): Albuquerque (NM), Boise (ID), Brownsville (TX), Calexico (CA), Del Rio (TX), Detroit (MI), Douglas (AZ), Eagle Pass (TX), Fresno (CA), Indianapolis (IN), Kansas City (MO), Las Vegas (NV), Little Rock (AR), Los Angeles (CA), McAllen (TX), Milwaukee (WI), New Orleans (LA), Oklahoma City (OK), Omaha (NE), Orlando (FL), Oxnard (CA), Philadelphia (PA), Portland (OR), Presidio (TX), Salt Lake City (UT), San Bernardino (CA), Santa Ana (CA), Seattle (WA), St. Paul (MN), Tucson (AZ), Yuma (AZ)

 

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Ken SALAZAR (since 14 September 2021)

embassy: Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtémoc, 06500 Mexico, CDMX

mailing address: 8700 Mexico City Place, Washington DC  20521-8700

telephone: (011) [52]-55-5080-2000

FAX: (011) 52-55-5080-2005

email address and website:
ACSMexicoCity@state.gov

https://mx.usembassy.gov/

consulate(s) general: Ciudad Juárez, Guadalajara, Hermosillo, Matamoros, Mérida, Monterrey, Nogales, Nuevo Laredo, Tijuana

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; Mexico's coat of arms (an eagle with a snake in its beak perched on a cactus) is centered in the white band; green signifies hope, joy, and love; white represents peace and honesty; red stands for hardiness, bravery, strength, and valor; the coat of arms is derived from a legend that the wandering Aztec people were to settle at a location where they would see an eagle on a cactus eating a snake; the city they founded, Tenochtitlan, is now Mexico City

note: similar to the flag of Italy, which is shorter, uses lighter shades of green and red, and does not display anything in its white band

National symbol(s)

golden eagle, dahlia; national colors: green, white, red

National anthem

name: "Himno Nacional Mexicano" (National Anthem of Mexico)

lyrics/music: Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA/Jaime Nuno ROCA

note: adopted 1943, in use since 1854; also known as "Mexicanos, al grito de Guerra" (Mexicans, to the War Cry); according to tradition, Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA, an accomplished poet, was uninterested in submitting lyrics to a national anthem contest; his fiancee locked him in a room and refused to release him until the lyrics were completed

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 35 (27 cultural, 6 natural, 2 mixed)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Historic Mexico City (c); Earliest 16th-Century Monasteries on the Slopes of Popocatepetl (c); Teotihuacan (c); Whale Sanctuary of El Vizcaino (n); Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (n); Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley (m); Historic Puebla (c); El Tajin (c); Historic Tlacotalpan (c); Historic Oaxaca and Monte Albán (c); Palenque (c); Chichen-Itza (c); Uxmal (c)

Economy

Economic overview

upper-middle income economy; highly integrated with US via trade and nearshore manufacturing; low unemployment; inflation gradually decreasing amid tight monetary policy; state intervention in energy sector and public infrastructure projects; challenges from income inequality, corruption, and cartel-based violence

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$2.583 trillion (2022 est.)
$2.486 trillion (2021 est.)
$2.349 trillion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 13

Real GDP growth rate

3.9% (2022 est.)
5.84% (2021 est.)
-8.65% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 111

Real GDP per capita

$20,300 (2022 est.)
$19,600 (2021 est.)
$18,600 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 93

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1.466 trillion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

7.9% (2022 est.)
5.69% (2021 est.)
3.4% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 124

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BBB- (2020)

Moody's rating: Baa1 (2020)

Standard & Poors rating: BBB (2020)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 3.6% (2017 est.)

industry: 31.9% (2017 est.)

services: 64.5% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 97; industry 68; agriculture 144

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 67% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 11.8% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 22.3% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.8% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 37.8% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -39.7% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

sugarcane, maize, milk, oranges, sorghum, tomatoes, chicken, wheat, chilies/peppers, lemons/limes (2022)

note: top ten agricultural products based on tonnage

Industries

food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism

Industrial production growth rate

5% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 61

Labor force

58.718 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 12

Unemployment rate

3.26% (2022 est.)
4.09% (2021 est.)
4.44% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 51

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 8.1% (2021 est.)

male: 7.9%

female: 8.6%

comparison ranking: total 169

Population below poverty line

36.3% (2022 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

45.4 (2020 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

comparison ranking: 23

Average household expenditures

on food: 26.2% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 3.6% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.8%

highest 10%: 35.5% (2020 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population

Remittances

4.17% of GDP (2022 est.)
4.12% of GDP (2021 est.)
3.83% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Budget

revenues: $264.261 billion (2020 est.)

expenditures: $313.358 billion (2020 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-1.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 83

Public debt

44.89% of GDP (2021 est.)
45.85% of GDP (2020 est.)
41.29% of GDP (2019 est.)

note: central government debt as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 123

Taxes and other revenues

13.45% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 157

Current account balance

-$18.046 billion (2022 est.)
-$8.343 billion (2021 est.)
$22.522 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 194

Exports

$626.298 billion (2022 est.)
$533.22 billion (2021 est.)
$443.575 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 17

Exports - partners

US 77%, Canada 4%, China 2%, Taiwan 1%, South Korea 1% (2022)

note: top five export partners based on percentage share of exports

Exports - commodities

cars, computers, vehicle parts/accessories, crude petroleum, trucks (2022)

note: top five export commodities based on value in dollars

Imports

$668.59 billion (2022 est.)
$558.969 billion (2021 est.)
$424.896 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 14

Imports - partners

US 56%, China 17%, Germany 3%, South Korea 3%, Japan 2% (2022)

note: top five import partners based on percentage share of imports

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, vehicle parts/accessories, machine parts, integrated circuits, natural gas (2022)

note: top five import commodities based on value in dollars

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$201.119 billion (2022 est.)
$207.799 billion (2021 est.)
$199.069 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 16

Debt - external

$456.713 billion (2019 est.)
$448.268 billion (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 29

Exchange rates

Mexican pesos (MXN) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
20.127 (2022 est.)
20.272 (2021 est.)
21.486 (2020 est.)
19.264 (2019 est.)
19.244 (2018 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2022 est.)

electrification - urban areas: 99.8%

electrification - rural areas: 100%

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 104.318 million kW (2022 est.)

consumption: 296.969 billion kWh (2022 est.)

exports: 1.447 billion kWh (2022 est.)

imports: 4.551 billion kWh (2022 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 39.275 billion kWh (2022 est.)

comparison rankings: transmission/distribution losses 204; imports 48; exports 63; consumption 15; installed generating capacity 14

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 75% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

nuclear: 3.2% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

solar: 3.5% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

wind: 6.1% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

hydroelectricity: 10.2% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

geothermal: 1.5% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

biomass and waste: 0.6% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

Nuclear energy

Number of operational nuclear reactors: 2 (2023)

Net capacity of operational nuclear reactors: 1.55GW (2023 est.)

Percent of total electricity production: 4.9% (2023 est.)

Coal

production: 7.453 million metric tons (2022 est.)

consumption: 18.423 million metric tons (2022 est.)

exports: 2,000 metric tons (2022 est.)

imports: 9.917 million metric tons (2022 est.)

proven reserves: 1.211 billion metric tons (2022 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 2.101 million bbl/day (2023 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 1.737 million bbl/day (2023 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 5.786 billion barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 31.422 billion cubic meters (2022 est.)

consumption: 90.566 billion cubic meters (2022 est.)

exports: 30.129 million cubic meters (2022 est.)

imports: 59.436 billion cubic meters (2022 est.)

proven reserves: 180.322 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

453.6 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 38.781 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 246.324 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 168.494 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 14

Energy consumption per capita

59.319 million Btu/person (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: 81

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 27.185 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 21 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 10

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 127.872 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 100 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 14

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: with a large population and relatively low broadband and mobile penetration, (86 lines for mobile broadband for every 100 habitants in June 2021) Mexico’s telecom sector has potential for growth; adequate telephone service for business and government; improving quality and increasing mobile cellular availability, with mobile subscribers far outnumbering fixed-line subscribers (24.6 million fixed line subscribers and 125 million mobile line subscribers in June 2021); relatively low broadband and mobile penetration, potential for growth and international investment; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable use of fiber-optic cable and coaxial cable; 5G development slow in part due to high costs (2021)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity 19 lines per every 100; mobile-cellular teledensity is 98 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 52; Columbus-2 fiber-optic submarine cable with access to the US, Virgin Islands, Canary Islands, Spain, and Italy; the ARCOS-1 and the MAYA-1 submarine cable system together provide access to Central America, parts of South America and the Caribbean, and the U.S.; Pan-American Crossing (PAC) submarine cable system provides access to Panama, California, U.S., and Costa Rica; Lazaro Cardenas-Manzanillo Santiago submarines cable system (LCMSSCS) provides access to Michoacan, Guerrero, and Colima, Mexico; AMX-1 submarine cable system with access to Colombia, Brazil, Puerto Rico, Gulf of California Cable submarine cable systems that connects La Paz, Baja California Sur and Topolobambo, Sinaloa; and Aurora submarine cable system provides access to Guatemala, Panama, Ecuador, Colombia, Mexico, and the U.S. satellite earth stations - 124 (36 Intelsat, 1 Solidaridad (giving Mexico improved access to South America, Central America, and much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications), 9 Panamsat, numerous Inmarsat mobile earth stations); linked to Central American Microwave System of trunk connections (2022)

Broadcast media

telecom reform in 2013 enabled the creation of new broadcast television channels after decades of a quasi-monopoly; Mexico has 885 TV stations and 1,841 radio stations and most are privately owned; the Televisa group once had a virtual monopoly in TV broadcasting, but new broadcasting groups and foreign satellite and cable operators are now available; in 2016, Mexico became the first country in Latin America to complete the transition from analog to digital transmissions, allowing for better image and audio quality and a wider selection of programming from networks (2022)

Internet users

total: 98.8 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 76% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 9

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 21,936,131 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 11

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 16 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 370

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 64,569,640 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,090,380,000 (2018) mt-km

Airports

1,485 (2024)

comparison ranking: 4

Heliports

460 (2024)

Pipelines

17,210 km natural gas (2022), 9,757 km oil (2017), 10,237 km refined products (2020)

Railways

total: 23,389 km (2017)

standard gauge: 23,389 km (2017) 1.435-m gauge (27 km electrified)

comparison ranking: total 12

Roadways

total: 704,884 km

paved: 175,526 km (includes 10,845 km of expressways)

unpaved: 529,358 km (2017)

comparison ranking: total 12

Waterways

2,900 km (2012) (navigable rivers and coastal canals mostly connected with ports on the country's east coast)

comparison ranking: 35

Merchant marine

total: 674 (2023)

by type: bulk carrier 4, general cargo 11, oil tanker 32, other 627

comparison ranking: total 34

Ports

total ports: 35 (2024)

large: 0

medium: 7

small: 10

very small: 14

size unknown: 4

ports with oil terminals: 21

key ports: Acapulco, Ensenada, Manzanillo, Mazatlan, Tampico, Tuxpan, Veracruz

Military and Security

Military and security forces

the Mexican Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas de México) are divided between the Secretariat of National Defense and the Secretariat of the Navy:

Secretariat of National Defense (Secretaria de Defensa Nacional, SEDENA): Army (Ejercito), Mexican Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Mexicana, FAM), National Guard; Secretariat of the Navy (Secretaria de Marina, SEMAR): Mexican Navy (Armada de Mexico (ARM), includes Naval Air Force (FAN), Mexican Naval Infantry Corps (Cuerpo de Infanteria de Marina, Mexmar or CIM)) (2024)

note: the National Guard was formed in 2019 of personnel from the former Federal Police (disbanded in December 2019) and military police units of the Army and Navy; up until September 2022, the Guard was under the civilian-led Secretariat of Security and Civilian Protection, while the SEDENA had day-to-day operational control and provided the commanders and the training; in September 2022, complete control of the Guard was handed over to the SEDENA/Mexican Army; the Guard, along with state and municipal police, is responsible for enforcing the law and maintaining order; the regular military also actively supports police operations

Military expenditures

0.7% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.7% of GDP (2021)
0.6% of GDP (2020)
0.5% of GDP (2019)
0.5% of GDP (2018)

comparison ranking: 148

Military and security service personnel strengths

information varies; approximately 225,000 armed forces personnel (165,000 Army; 10,000 Air Force; 50,000 Navy, including about 20,000 marines); approximately 110,000 National Guard personnel (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Mexican military inventory includes a mix of domestically produced and imported equipment from a variety of mostly Western suppliers; the US has been the leading supplier of military hardware to Mexico in recent years; Mexico's defense industry produces naval vessels and light armored vehicles, as well as small arms and other miscellaneous equipment (2023)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age (16 with parental consent) for voluntary enlistment for men and women; 18 years of age for compulsory military service for men (selection for service determined by lottery); conscript service obligation is 12 months; those selected serve on Saturdays in a Batallón del Servicio Militar Nacional (National Military Service Battalion) composed entirely of 12-month Servicio Militar Nacional (SMN) conscripts; conscripts remain in reserve status until the age of 40; cadets enrolled in military schools from the age of 15 are considered members of the armed forces; National Guard: single men and women 18-30 years of age may volunteer (2023)

note: as of 2022, women comprised about 15% of the active duty military

Military - note

the Mexican military is responsible for defending the independence, integrity, and sovereignty of Mexico, as well as providing for internal security, disaster response, humanitarian assistance, and socio-economic development; in recent years, internal security duties have been a key focus, particularly in countering narcotics trafficking and organized crime groups, as well as border control and immigration enforcement; the constitution was amended in 2019 to grant the president the authority to use the armed forces to protect internal and national security, and courts have upheld the legality of the armed forces’ role in law enforcement activities in support of civilian authorities through 2028; the military also provides security for strategic facilities, such as oil production infrastructure, and administers most of the country's land and sea ports and customs services, plus the approximately 2,700 branches of a state-owned development bank; in addition, President LOPEZ OBRADOR has placed the military in charge of a growing number of infrastructure projects, such as building and operating a new airport for Mexico City and sections of a train line in the country’s southeast (2023)

Space

Space agency/agencies

Mexican Space Agency (Agencia Espacial Mexicana or AEM; established 2010 and began operating in 2013)  (2024)

Space program overview

the AEM’s focus is on coordinating Mexico’s space policy and the country’s commercial space sector, including developing specialists, technologies, and infrastructure, and acquiring satellites; manufactures and operates communications and scientific satellites; conducts research in a range of space-related capabilities and technologies, including satellites and satellite payloads, telecommunications, remote sensing, robotics, Earth and weather sciences, astronomy, and astrophysics; has relations with a variety of foreign space agencies and commercial space industries, including those of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, the European Space Agency (ESA) and its member states (particularly France, Germany, and the UK), India, Peru, Russia, Ukraine, and the US; leading member of the Latin American and Caribbean Space Agency (ALCE) (2024)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 35,755 (Honduras), 13,531 (El Salvador) (mid-year 2022); 113,108 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum, are recognized as refugees, or have received alternative legal stay) (2023)

IDPs: 386,000 (government's quashing of Zapatista uprising in 1994 in eastern Chiapas Region; drug cartel violence and government's military response since 2007; violence between and within indigenous groups) (2022)

stateless persons: 13 (2022)

Illicit drugs

significant source and transit country for fentanyl, fentanyl-laced counterfeit pills, other synthetic opioids, cocaine from South America, heroin, marijuana, and methamphetamine destined for the United States; a destination for synthetic drug precursor chemicals from China, India, and other countries