Photos of North Macedonia

Countries shown in this late winter satellite image of the southern Balkan Peninsula include Italy (left center edge), Greece (below center), and Turkey (right edge). At upper right is the Black Sea, at center is the Aegean Sea, at upper left is the Adriatic Sea, and at bottom left is the Mediterranean Sea. North of Turkey are Bulgaria and Romania. Moving clockwise from top left are Croatia, Serbia, North Macedonia, and Albania. North of Albania is Montenegro and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Scattered fires appear as red dots. Image courtesy of NASA.



North Macedonia gained its independence peacefully from Yugoslavia in 1991 under the name of "Macedonia." Greece objected to the new country’s name, insisting it implied territorial pretensions to the northern Greek province of Macedonia, and democratic backsliding for several years stalled North Macedonia's movement toward Euro-Atlantic integration. Immediately after Macedonia declared independence, Greece sought to block its efforts to gain UN membership if the name "Macedonia" was used. The country was eventually admitted to the UN in 1993 as "The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia," and at the same time it agreed to UN-sponsored negotiations on the name dispute. In 1995, Greece lifted a 20-month trade embargo and the two countries agreed to normalize relations, but the issue of the name remained unresolved amid ongoing negotiations. As an interim measure, the US and over 130 other nations recognized Macedonia by its constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia.

Ethnic Albanian grievances over perceived political and economic inequities escalated into an armed conflict in 2001 that eventually led to the internationally brokered Ohrid Framework Agreement, which ended the fighting and established guidelines for constitutional amendments and new laws that enhanced the rights of minorities. In 2018, the government adopted a new law on languages, which elevated the Albanian language to an official language at the national level and kept the Macedonian language as the sole official language in international relations, but ties between ethnic Macedonians and ethnic Albanians remain complicated.

In 2018, Macedonia and Greece signed the Prespa Agreement whereby Macedonia agreed to change its name to North Macedonia, and the agreement went in to force on 12 February 2019. North Macedonia joined NATO in 2020 after amending its constitution as agreed and opened EU accession talks in 2022 after a two-year veto by Bulgaria over identity, language, and historical disputes. The 2014 legislative and presidential election triggered a political crisis that lasted almost three years and escalated in 2015 when the opposition party began releasing wiretapped material revealing alleged widespread government corruption and abuse. The country still faces challenges, including fully implementing reforms to overcome years of democratic backsliding, stimulating economic growth and development, and fighting organized crime and corruption. 

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Southeastern Europe, north of Greece

Geographic coordinates

41 50 N, 22 00 E


total: 25,713 sq km

land: 25,433 sq km

water: 280 sq km

comparison ranking: total 149

Area - comparative

slightly larger than Vermont; almost four times the size of Delaware

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 838 km

border countries (5): Albania 181 km; Bulgaria 162 km; Greece 234 km; Kosovo 160 km; Serbia 101 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)


warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall


mountainous with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River


highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,764 m

lowest point: Vardar River 50 m

mean elevation: 741 m

Natural resources

low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 44.3% (2018 est.)

arable land: 16.4% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 26.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 39.8% (2018 est.)

other: 15.9% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

844 sq km (2016)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations

Natural hazards

high seismic risks

Geography - note

landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe

People and Society


total: 2,135,622

male: 1,064,727

female: 1,070,895 (2024 est.)

comparison rankings: female 148; male 149; total 149


noun: Macedonian(s)

adjective: Macedonian

Ethnic groups

Macedonian 58.4%, Albanian 24.3%, Turkish 3.9%, Romani 2.5%, Serb 1.3%, other 2.3%, persons for whom data were taken from administrative sources and no ethnic affiliation data was available 7.2% (2021 est.)

note: data represent total resident population; Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 6.5–13% of North Macedonia’s population


Macedonian (official) 61.4%, Albanian (official) 24.3%, Turkish 3.4%, Romani 1.7%, other (includes Aromanian (Vlach) and Bosnian) 2%, unspecified 7.2% (2021 est.); note - data represent mother tongue; minority languages are co-official with Macedonian in municipalities where they are spoken by at least 20% of the population; Albanian is co-official in Tetovo, Brvenica, Vrapciste, and other municipalities; Turkish is co-official in Centar Zupa and Plasnica; Romani is co-official in Suto Orizari; Aromanian is co-official in Krusevo; Serbian is co-official in Cucer Sandevo

major-language sample(s):
Книга на Светски Факти, неопходен извор на основни информации. (Macedonian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Macedonian audio sample:


Macedonian Orthodox 46.1%, Muslim 32.2%, other Christian 13.8%, other and non-believers 0.5%, unspecified 7.4% (2021 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 16% (male 176,423/female 164,945)

15-64 years: 68.4% (male 740,649/female 719,627)

65 years and over: 15.6% (2024 est.) (male 147,655/female 186,323)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 44.6

youth dependency ratio: 23.2

elderly dependency ratio: 21.4

potential support ratio: 4.7 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 40.5 years (2024 est.)

male: 39.4 years

female: 41.6 years

comparison ranking: total 59

Population growth rate

0.1% (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 187

Birth rate

10.2 births/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 181

Death rate

9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 43

Net migration rate

0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 72

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations


urban population: 59.5% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.61% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

611,000 SKOPJE (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2024 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

26.9 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

3 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 179

Infant mortality rate

total: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (2024 est.)

male: 7.9 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 6 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 156

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 77.3 years (2024 est.)

male: 75.3 years

female: 79.6 years

comparison ranking: total population 92

Total fertility rate

1.53 children born/woman (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 198

Gross reproduction rate

0.74 (2024 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.7% of population

rural: 99% of population

total: 99.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.3% of population

rural: 1% of population

total: 0.6% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

7.9% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

2.87 physicians/1,000 population (2015)

Hospital bed density

4.3 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 98% of population

total: 99.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 2% of population

total: 0.8% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

22.4% (2016)

comparison ranking: 77

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 3.9 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 1.93 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 1.03 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.9 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.03 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 97

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

0.9% (2018/19)

comparison ranking: 119

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 0.3%

women married by age 18: 7.5% (2019 est.)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98.4%

male: 99.1%

female: 97.6% (2020)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 13 years

male: 13 years

female: 14 years (2020)


Environment - current issues

air pollution from metallurgical plants; Skopje has severe air pollution problems every winter as a result of industrial emissions, smoke from wood-buring stoves, and exhaust fumes from old cars

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements


warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall

Land use

agricultural land: 44.3% (2018 est.)

arable land: 16.4% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 26.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 39.8% (2018 est.)

other: 15.9% (2018 est.)


urban population: 59.5% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.61% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.15% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 100

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 119

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 25.17 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 7.05 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 2.28 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 796,585 tons (2016 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 1,434 tons (2013 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 0.2% (2013 est.)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 310 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 20 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 140 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

6.4 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of North Macedonia

conventional short form: North Macedonia

local long form: Republika Severna Makedonija

local short form: Severna Makedonija

former: Democratic Federal Macedonia, People's Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia, Republic of Macedonia

etymology: the country name derives from the ancient kingdom of Macedon (7th to 2nd centuries B.C.)

Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Skopje

geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 21 26 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: Skopje derives from its ancient name Scupi, the Latin designation of a Dardanian and classical era Greco-Roman frontier fortress town; the name goes back to a pre-Hellenic, Illyrian times

Administrative divisions

80 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina) and 1 city* (grad); Aracinovo, Berovo, Bitola, Bogdanci, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Caska, Centar Zupa, Cesinovo-Oblesevo, Cucer Sandevo, Debar, Debarca, Delcevo, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dojran, Dolneni, Gevgelija, Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Jegunovce, Karbinci, Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kocani, Konce, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovo i Rostuse, Mogila, Negotino, Novaci, Novo Selo, Ohrid, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Skopje*, Sopiste, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vrapciste, Zelenikovo, Zelino, Zrnovci. The Greater Skopje area is comprised of 10 municipalities:     Aerodrom, Butel, Centar, Chair, Gazi Baba, Gjorce Petrov, Karposh, Kisela Voda, Saraj, and Shuto Orizari.


8 September 1991 (referendum by registered voters endorsed independence from Yugoslavia)

National holiday

Independence Day, 8 September (1991), also known as National Day


history: several previous (since 1944); latest adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic, by the government, by at least 30 members of the Assembly, or by petition of at least 150,000 citizens; final approval requires a two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; amended several times, last in 2019; this amendment was the result of the 2018 Prespa Agreement with Greece, in which the constitutional name of the country would be modified to Republic of North Macedonia in exchange for assurances that Greece would no longer object to its integration in international organizations; note - a referendum on  amendments to the constitution is expected in 2024

Legal system

civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of North Macedonia

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Gordana SILJANOVSKA-DAVKOVA (since 12 May 2024)

head of government: President Gordana SILJANOVSKA-DAVKOVA (since 12 May 2024)

cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the Assembly by simple majority vote

elections/appointments: president directly elected using a modified 2-round system; a candidate can only be elected in the first round with an absolute majority from all registered voters; in the second round, voter turnout must be at least 40% for the result to be deemed valid; president elected for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 April and 8 May 2024 (next to be held in 2029); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the Assembly

election results: 2024: Gordana SILJANOVSKA-DAVKOVA elected president in the second round; percent of vote - Gordana SILJANOVSKA-DAVKOVA (VMRO-DPMNE) 69%, Stevo PENDAROVSKI (SDSM) 31%

Talat XHAFERI elected caretaker Prime Minister; Assembly vote - 65 for (opposition boycott)

Dimitar KOVACEVSKI elected Prime Minister; Assembly vote - NA

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly - Sobranie in Macedonian, Kuvend in Albanian (between 120 and 140 seats, currently 120; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed-list proportional representation vote; possibility of 3 directly elected in diaspora constituencies by simple majority vote provided there is sufficient voter turnout; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 8 May 2024 (next to be held on 31 May 2028)

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - Your Macedonia 44.6%, For a European Future 15.8%, European Front 14%, VLEN 10.9%, The Left 7%, For Our Macedonia 5.7%, other 1.9%; seats by party/coalition - Your Macedonia 58, For a European Future 18, European Front 18, VLEN 14, The Left 6, For Our Macedonia 6; composition - TBD

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 22 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Judicial Council, a 7-member body of legal professionals, and appointed by the Assembly; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Assembly for nonrenewable, 9-year terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Basic Courts

Political parties and leaders

Alliance for Albanians or AfA or ASH [Arben TARAVARI]
Alternative (Alternativa) or AAA [Afrim GASHI]
Besa Movement or BESA [Bilal KASAMI]
Citizen Option for Macedonia or GROM [Stefcho JAKIMOVSKI]
Democratic Alliance or DS [Pavle TRAJANOV]
Democratic Movement or LD [Izet MEXHITI]
Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSH [Menduh THACI]
Democratic Party of Serbs or DPSM [Ivan STOILJKOVIC]
Democratic Renewal of Macedonia or DOM [Maja MORACHANIN]
Democratic Union for Integration or BDI [Ali AHMETI]
European Democratic Party or PDE [Arianit HOXHA]
Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Hristijan MICKOSKI]
Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - People's Party or VMRO-NP [Ljubco GEORGIEVSKI]
Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Monika ZAJKOVA]
New Social-Democratic Party or NSDP [Goran MISOVSKI]
Social Democratic Union of Macedonia or SDSM [Dimitar KOVACHEVSKI]
Socialist Party of Macedonia or SPM [Ljupcho DIMOVSKI]
Srpska Stranka in Macedonia or SSM [Miroslav JOVANOVIC]
The Left (Levica) [Dimitar APASIEV]
The People Movement or LP [Skender REXHEPI]
Turkish Democratic Party or TDP [Beycan ILYAS]
Turkish Movement Party or THP [Enes IBRAHIM]
We Can! (coalition includes SDSM/BESA/VMRO-NP, DPT, LDP)

International organization participation


note: North Macedonia is an EU candidate country whose satisfactory completion of accession criteria is required before being granted full EU membership

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Zoran POPOV (since 16 September 2022)

chancery: 2129 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 667-0501

FAX: [1] (202) 667-2104

email address and website:

United States (

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Detroit, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Angela AGGELER (since 8 November 2022)

embassy: Str. Samoilova, Nr. 21, 1000 Skopje

mailing address: 7120 Skopje Place, Washington, DC 20521-7120

telephone: [389] (2) 310-2000

FAX: [389] (2) 310-2499

email address and website:

Flag description

a yellow sun (the Sun of Liberty) with eight broadening rays extending to the edges of the red field; the red and yellow colors have long been associated with Macedonia

National symbol(s)

eight-rayed sun; national colors: red, yellow

National anthem

name: "Denes nad Makedonija" (Today Over Macedonia)

lyrics/music: Vlado MALESKI/Todor SKALOVSKI

note: written in 1943 and adopted in 1991, the song previously served as the anthem of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia while part of Yugoslavia

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 2 (both natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Natural and Cultural Heritage of the Ohrid Region; Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians


Economic overview

growing upper middle-income European economy; EU accession stalled due to Bulgarian dispute; new NATO member; private consumption-driven growth; investment declined due to COVID-19; regional economic power gains since Greek naming resolution

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$35.245 billion (2022 est.)
$34.505 billion (2021 est.)
$32.704 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 134

Real GDP growth rate

2.15% (2022 est.)
5.51% (2021 est.)
-6.11% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 164

Real GDP per capita

$17,100 (2022 est.)
$16,700 (2021 est.)
$15,800 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 101

GDP (official exchange rate)

$13.563 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

14.2% (2022 est.)
3.23% (2021 est.)
1.2% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 184

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BB+ (2019)

Standard & Poors rating: BB- (2013)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 10.9% (2017 est.)

industry: 26.6% (2017 est.)

services: 62.5% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 104; industry 100; agriculture 85

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 65.6% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 15.6% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 13.6% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 20.2% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 54% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -69% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, grapes, chilies/peppers, wheat, potatoes, apples, tomatoes, cabbages, maize, barley (2022)

note: top ten agricultural products based on tonnage


food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, iron, steel, cement, energy, pharmaceuticals, automotive parts

Industrial production growth rate

-4.33% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 198

Labor force

916,000 (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 150

Unemployment rate

14.43% (2022 est.)
15.78% (2021 est.)
16.55% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 191

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 34.1% (2021 est.)

male: 31.6%

female: 38.4%

comparison ranking: total 28

Population below poverty line

21.8% (2019 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

33.5 (2019 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

comparison ranking: 119

Average household expenditures

on food: 33.3% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 5.9% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.9%

highest 10%: 22.9% (2019 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population


3.36% of GDP (2022 est.)
3.5% of GDP (2021 est.)
3.8% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities


revenues: $3.505 billion (2020 est.)

expenditures: $4.5 billion (2020 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-2.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 119

Public debt

39.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
39.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: official data from Ministry of Finance; data cover central government debt; this data excludes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; includes treasury debt held by foreign entitites; excludes debt issued by sub-national entities; there are no debt instruments sold for social funds

comparison ranking: 137

Taxes and other revenues

17.39% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 108

Current account balance

-$864.777 million (2022 est.)
-$374.85 million (2021 est.)
-$360.444 million (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 120


$10.126 billion (2022 est.)
$9.208 billion (2021 est.)
$7.19 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 113

Exports - partners

Germany 42%, Serbia 8%, Greece 7%, Bulgaria 5%, Italy 3% (2022)

note: top five export partners based on percentage share of exports

Exports - commodities

reaction and catalytic products, insulated wire, electricity, garments, vehicle parts/accessories (2022)

note: top five export commodities based on value in dollars


$13.008 billion (2022 est.)
$11.362 billion (2021 est.)
$8.773 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 109

Imports - partners

UK 16%, Greece 13%, Germany 9%, Serbia 8%, China 6% (2022)

note: top five import partners based on percentage share of imports

Imports - commodities

platinum, refined petroleum, electricity, precious metal compounds, natural gas (2022)

note: top five import commodities based on value in dollars

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$4.12 billion (2022 est.)
$4.129 billion (2021 est.)
$4.126 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 105

Debt - external

$9.065 billion (2019 est.)
$9.398 billion (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 117

Exchange rates

Macedonian denars (MKD) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
58.574 (2022 est.)
52.102 (2021 est.)
54.144 (2020 est.)
54.947 (2019 est.)
52.107 (2018 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)


installed generating capacity: 1.928 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 6,350,982,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 639 million kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 2.965 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 979 million kWh (2019 est.)

comparison rankings: imports 53; exports 70; installed generating capacity 119; transmission/distribution losses 102; consumption 116

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 71.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 2.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 24.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 1.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)


production: 5.026 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 5.211 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 1,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 174,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 332 million metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 22,700 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 163

Refined petroleum products - exports

3,065 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 99

Refined petroleum products - imports

23,560 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 111

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 218.917 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 218.917 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

7.383 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 3.866 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 3.094 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 423,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 123

Energy consumption per capita

53.572 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 96


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 436,000 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 21 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 99

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 2.048 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 98 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 151

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: as part of the EU pre-accession process, North Macedonia has built closer economic ties with the Union which accounts for 79% of Macedonia’s exports and 49% of its imports; closer regulatory and administrative ties with European Commission (EC) institutions have done much to develop the telecom sector and prepare the market for the competitive environment encouraged in the EU; as part of EU integration legislation North Macedonia has implemented the principles of the EU’s regulatory framework for communications, established an independent regulator and set out several provisions to provide for a competitive telecom market, including wholesale access to the incumbent’s fixed-line network; broadband services are widely available, with effective competition between DSL and cable platforms complemented by wireless broadband and a developing fiber sector; the number of DSL subscribers has continued to fall in recent years as customers are migrated to fiber networks; the MNOs are increasingly focused on expanding their 5G networks, seeking stronger coverage across North Macedonia’s high value urban areas; mobile data services are also becoming increasingly important following investments in LTE network rollouts and in upgrades to LTE-A technology (2022)

domestic: fixed-line roughly 20 per 100 and mobile-cellular 92 per 100 subscriptions (2021)

international: country code - 389

Broadcast media

public service TV broadcaster Macedonian Radio and Television operates 5 national terrestrial TV channels and 2 satellite TV channels; additionally, there are 11 regional TV stations broadcasting nationally, 29 regional and local broadcasters, a large number of cable operators offer domestic and international programming; the public radio broadcaster operates 3 stations; there are 4 privately owned national radio stations that broadcast and 60 regional and local operators (2023)

Internet users

total: 1.743 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 83% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 140

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 475,569 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 23 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 93



13 (2024)

comparison ranking: 151


8 (2024)


262 km gas, 120 km oil (2017)


total: 699 km (2020) 313 km electrified

comparison ranking: total 99


total: 15,170 km (2022)

comparison ranking: total 124

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Army of the Republic of North Macedonia (ARSM or ARNM): joint force with air, ground, reserve, special operations, and support forces (2024)

note: the Police of Macedonia maintain internal security, including migration and border enforcement, and report to the Ministry of the Interior

Military expenditures

1.7% of GDP (2023 est.)
1.6% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.5% of GDP (2021)
1.2% of GDP (2020)
1.2% of GDP (2019)

comparison ranking: 77

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 7,000 active-duty personnel (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory is a mix of Soviet-era and increasing amounts of more modern Western-origin equipment from countries such as France, Turkey, and the US (2023)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2007 (2023)

note: as of 2023, women made up about 10% of the military's full-time personnel

Military - note

the Army of the Republic of North Macedonia (ARSM) is responsible for the defense of the country’s territory and independence, fulfilling North Macedonia’s commitments to NATO and European security, and contributing to EU, NATO, and UN peace and security missions; the ARSM has participated in multinational missions and operations in Afghanistan (NATO), Bosnia and Herzegovina (EU), Eastern Europe (NATO), Iraq (NATO), Kosovo (NATO), and Lebanon (UN); a key area of focus over the past decade has been improving capabilities and bringing the largely Soviet-era-equipped ARSM up to NATO standards; it has increased its participation in NATO training exercises since becoming the 30th member of the Alliance in 2020 and currently has small numbers of combat troops deployed to Bulgaria and Romania as part of NATO’s Enhance Forward Presence mission implemented because of Russian military aggression against Ukraine

the ARSM is a joint force led by a general staff with subordinate commands for operations, logistics, reserves, special operations, and training; the Operational Command includes the active air and ground combat forces, which include a mechanized infantry brigade, an air brigade with a small combat helicopter squadron, and a ground air defense unit; the Special Operations Command has battalions of rangers and special forces, while the Reserve Forces Command has an infantry brigade (2024)


Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 18,915 (Ukraine) (as of 22 February 2024)

stateless persons: 521 (2022)

note: 579,828 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-February 2024)

Illicit drugs

major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe; although not a financial center and most criminal activity is thought to be domestic, money laundering is a problem due to a mostly cash-based economy and weak enforcement