Photos of Andorra

Introduction

Background

The Moorish invasion of Spain in the 8th century and subsequent incursions into France were finally stemmed at the Pyrenees by Frankish King Charlemagne, who in 795 created the Hispanic March, a series of buffer states to keep the Muslim Moors from advancing into Christian France. The landlocked Principality of Andorra, one of the smallest states in Europe and nestled high in the Pyrenees between the French and Spanish borders, is the last independent survivor of these March states. For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique coprincipality, ruled by French and Spanish leaders (from 1607 onward, the French chief of state and the Bishop of Urgell). In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the introduction of a modern constitution; the co-princes remained as titular heads of state, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy.

Andorra has become a popular tourist destination visited by approximately 8 million people each year drawn by the winter sports, summer climate, and duty-free shopping. Andorra has also become a wealthy international commercial center because of its mature banking sector and low taxes. As part of its effort to modernize its economy, Andorra has opened to foreign investment, and engaged in other reforms, such as advancing tax initiatives aimed at supporting a broader infrastructure. Although not a member of the EU, Andorra enjoys a special relationship with the bloc that is governed by various customs and cooperation agreements and uses the euro as its national currency.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Southwestern Europe, Pyrenees mountains, on the border between France and Spain

Geographic coordinates

42 30 N, 1 30 E

Area

total: 468 sq km

land: 468 sq km

water: 0 sq km

comparison ranking: total 195

Area - comparative

2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 118 km

border countries (2): France 55 km; Spain 63 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain

rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Elevation

highest point: Pic de Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m

mean elevation: 1,996 m

Natural resources

hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use

agricultural land: 40% (2018 est.)

arable land: 1.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 38.3% (2018 est.)

forest: 34% (2018 est.)

other: 26% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

0 sq km (2022)

Population distribution

population is unevenly distributed and is concentrated in the seven urbanized valleys that make up the country's parishes (political administrative divisions)

Natural hazards

avalanches

Geography - note

landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the Pyrenees

People and Society

Population

85,468 (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 199

Nationality

noun: Andorran(s)

adjective: Andorran

Ethnic groups

Andorran 48.3%, Spanish 24.8%, Portuguese 11.2%, French 4.5%, Argentine 1.4%, other 9.8% (2021 est.)

note: data represent population by nationality

Languages

Catalan (official) 35.7%, Castilian 43.2%, Portuguese 17.1%, French 8.9%, English 1.8%, other 5% (2018 est.)

note: data represent mother tongue

Religions

Christian (predominantly Roman Catholic) 89.5, other 8.8%, unaffiliated 1.7% (2020 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 12.31% (male 5,426/female 5,096)

15-64 years: 68.17% (male 29,845/female 28,419)

65 years and over: 19.52% (2023 est.) (male 8,471/female 8,211)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 38.1

youth dependency ratio: 18.1

elderly dependency ratio: 20.1

potential support ratio: 5 (2021)

Median age

total: 46.2 years

male: 46.3 years

female: 46.1 years (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 6

Population growth rate

-0.11% (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 203

Birth rate

6.87 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 226

Death rate

7.98 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 89

Net migration rate

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 83

Population distribution

population is unevenly distributed and is concentrated in the seven urbanized valleys that make up the country's parishes (political administrative divisions)

Urbanization

urban population: 87.8% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.11% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

23,000 ANDORRA LA VELLA (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.03 male(s)/female

total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 3.39 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 3.49 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: total 199

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 83.61 years

male: 81.4 years

female: 85.97 years (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: total population 9

Total fertility rate

1.46 children born/woman (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 210

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

9.1% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

3.63 physicians/1,000 population (2015)

Hospital bed density

2.5 beds/1,000 population

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

25.6% (2016)

comparison ranking: 50

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 10.99 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 3.59 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 4.98 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 2.32 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 12

Tobacco use

total: 31.8% (2020 est.)

male: 35.3% (2020 est.)

female: 28.3% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 23

Education expenditures

2.9% of GDP (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: 163

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 100%

male: 100%

female: 100% (2016)

Environment

Environment - current issues

deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate

temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Land use

agricultural land: 40% (2018 est.)

arable land: 1.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 38.3% (2018 est.)

forest: 34% (2018 est.)

other: 26% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 87.8% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.11% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 191

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 9.95 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 0.47 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 0.05 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 43,000 tons (2012 est.)

Total renewable water resources

320 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Principality of Andorra

conventional short form: Andorra

local long form: Principat d'Andorra

local short form: Andorra

etymology: the origin of the country's name is obscure; the name may derive from the Arabic "ad-darra" meaning "the forest," a reference to its location as part of the Spanish March (defensive buffer zone) against the invading Moors in the 8th century; an alternate explanation is that the name originates from a Navarrese word "andurrial" meaning "shrub-covered land"

Government type

parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains its chiefs of state in the form of a co-principality; the two princes are the President of France and Bishop of Seu d'Urgell, Spain

Capital

name: Andorra la Vella

geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 31 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: translates as "Andorra the Old" in Catalan

Administrative divisions

7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, Escaldes-Engordany, La Massana, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

Independence

1278 (formed under the joint sovereignty of the French Count of Foix and the Spanish Bishop of Urgell)

National holiday

Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)

Constitution

history: drafted 1991, approved by referendum 14 March 1993, effective 28 April 1993

amendments: proposed by the coprinces jointly or by the General Council; passage requires at least a two-thirds majority vote by the General Council, ratification in a referendum, and sanctioning by the coprinces

Legal system

mixed legal system of civil and customary law with the influence of canon (religious) law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the mother must be an Andorran citizen or the father must have been born in Andorra and both parents maintain permanent residence in Andorra

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 25 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Co-prince Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017); represented by Patrick STROZDA (since 14 May 2017); and Co-prince Archbishop Joan-Enric VIVES i Sicilia (since 12 May 2003); represented by Josep Maria MAURI (since 20 July 2012)

head of government: Xavier Espot ZAMORA (since 16 May 2019)

cabinet: Executive Council of 12 ministers designated by the head of government

elections/appointments: head of government indirectly elected by the General Council (Andorran parliament), formally appointed by the co-princes for a 4-year term; election last held on 2 April 2023 (next to be held in April 2027); the leader of the majority party in the General Council is usually elected head of government

election results:
2023:
Xaviar Espot ZAMORA (DA) re-elected head of government; percent of General Council vote - 57.1%

2019:
  Xaviar Espot ZAMORA (DA) elected head of government; percent of General Council vote - 60.7

Legislative branch

description: unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de les Valls (a minimum of 28 seats; 14 members directly elected in two-seat constituencies (7 parishes) by simple majority vote and 14 directly elected in a single national constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms); note - voters cast two separate ballots - one for national and one for their parish

elections: last held on 2 April 2023 (next to be held in April 2027)

election results:
percent of vote by party - DA 57.1%, Concord 17.8%, Forward 10.7%, SDP 10.7%, L'A 3.6%; seats by party - DA 16, Concord 5, Forward 3, SDP 3, L'A 1; composition as of August 2023 - men 14, women 14, percent of women 50%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal Superior de la Justicia d'Andorra (consists of the court president and 8 judges organized into civil, criminal, and administrative chambers); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 4 magistrates)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and judges appointed by the Supreme Council of Justice, a 5-member judicial policy and administrative body appointed 1 each by the coprinces, 1 by the General Council, 1 by the executive council president, and 1 by the courts; judges serve 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional magistrates - 2 appointed by the coprinces and 2 by the General Council; magistrates' appointments limited to 2 consecutive 8-year terms

subordinate courts: Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts

Political parties and leaders

Concord [Cerni ESCALE Cabre]
Democrats for Andorra or DA [Xaviar ESPOT ZAMORA]
Forward Andorra [Carine Montaner RAYNAUD]
Liberals of Andorra or L'A [Joseph Maria CABANES]
Social Democracy and Progress or SDP [Pere Lopez AGRAS]

note: Andorra has several smaller parties at the parish level (one is Lauredian Union)

International organization participation

CE, FAO, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITU, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union Latina, UNWTO, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Elisenda VIVES BALMANA (since 2 March 2016)

chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York, NY 10017

telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064

FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630

email address and website:
contact@andorraun.org

https://www.exteriors.ad/en/embassies-of-andorra/andorra-usa-embassy

Diplomatic representation from the US

embassy: the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the US Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda de Montcada, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Espana; telephone: [34] (93) 280-22-27; FAX: [34] (93) 280-61-75; email address: Barcelonaacs@state.gov

Flag description

three vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red, with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the latter band is slightly wider than the other 2 so that the ratio of band widths is 8:9:8; the coat of arms features a quartered shield with the emblems of (starting in the upper left and proceeding clockwise): Urgell, Foix, Bearn, and Catalonia; the motto reads VIRTUS UNITA FORTIOR (Strength United is Stronger); the flag combines the blue and red French colors with the red and yellow of Spain to show Franco-Spanish protection

note: similar to the flags of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem

National symbol(s)

red cow (breed unspecified); national colors: blue, yellow, red

National anthem

name: "El Gran Carlemany" (The Great Charlemagne)

lyrics/music: Joan BENLLOCH i VIVO/Enric MARFANY BONS

note: adopted 1921; the anthem provides a brief history of Andorra in a first person narrative

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites:  1 (cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Madriu-Perafita-Claror Valley

Economy

Economic overview

high GDP; low unemployment; non-EU Euro user; co-principality duty-free area between Spain and France; tourist hub but hit hard by COVID-19; modern, non-tax haven financial sector; looking for big tech investments; new member of SEPA and IMF

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$3.327 billion (2015 est.)
$3.363 billion (2014 est.)
$3.273 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars

comparison ranking: 190

Real GDP growth rate

8.95% (2021 est.)
-11.18% (2020 est.)
2.02% (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 32

Real GDP per capita

$49,900 (2015 est.)
$51,300 (2014 est.)
$50,300 (2013 est.)

comparison ranking: 29

GDP (official exchange rate)

$2.712 billion (2016 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

-0.9% (2015 est.)
-0.1% (2014 est.)

comparison ranking: 225

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: A- (2022)

Moody's rating: Baa2 (2022)

Standard & Poors rating: BBB+ (2023)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 11.9% (2015 est.)

industry: 33.6% (2015 est.)

services: 54.5% (2015 est.)

comparison rankings: agriculture 80; industry 52; services 159

Agricultural products

small quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables, tobacco, sheep, cattle

Industries

tourism (particularly skiing), banking, timber, furniture

Industrial production growth rate

-3.9% (2020 est.) NA

comparison ranking: 184

Labor force

39,750 (2016)

comparison ranking: 197

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 0.5%

industry: 4.4%

services: 95.1% (2015)

Unemployment rate

3.7% (2016 est.)
4.1% (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 183

Budget

revenues: $1.872 billion (2016)

expenditures: $2.06 billion (2016)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-6.9% (of GDP) (2016)

comparison ranking: 192

Public debt

41% of GDP (2014 est.)
41.4% of GDP (2013 est.)

comparison ranking: 133

Taxes and other revenues

69% (of GDP) (2016)

comparison ranking: 3

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

$448.869 million (2020 est.)
$568.257 million (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 57

Exports

$1.842 billion (2020 est.)
$2.335 billion (2019 est.)

note: Data are in current year dollars and do not include illicit exports or re-exports.

comparison ranking: 162

Exports - partners

Spain 40%, France 19%, United States 11%, Mauritania 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

integrated circuits, dental fitting supplies, cars, gold, essential oils (2021)

Imports

$1.727 billion (2020 est.)
$2.032 billion (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 179

Imports - partners

Spain 71%, France 17% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, perfumes, shaving products, liquors (2019)

Debt - external

$0 (2016)

comparison ranking: 205

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.885 (2017 est.)
0.903 (2016 est.)
0.921 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)

note: while not an EU member state, Andorra has a 2011 monetary agreement with the EU to produce limited euro coinage—but not banknotes—that began enforcement in April 2012

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2016)

comparison ranking: 115

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 50,000 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 63 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 156

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 89,000 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 110 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 194

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Andorra has a modern telecommunications system with microwave radio relay connections between the exchanges and land line circuits to France and Spain (2020)

domestic: about 63 per 100 fixed-line, 110 per 100 mobile-cellular (2021)

international: country code - 376; landline circuits to France and Spain; modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges (2019)

Broadcast media

1 public TV station and 2 public radio stations; about 10 commercial radio stations; good reception of radio and TV broadcasts from stations in France and Spain; upgraded to terrestrial digital TV broadcasting in 2007; roughly 25 international TV channels available (2019)

Internet users

total: 74,260 (2021 est.)

percent of population: 94% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 193

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 37,000 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 48 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 146

Transportation

Roadways

total: 320 km (2019)

comparison ranking: total 201

Military and Security

Military and security forces

no regular military forces; Police Corps of Andorra (under the Ministry of Justice and Interior)

Military - note

defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Andorra-France: none identified

Andorra-Spain: none identified