Field Listing

Political parties and leaders

This entry includes a listing of significant political parties, coalitions, and electoral lists as of each country's last legislative election, unless otherwise noted. kParties that do not win a seat in national elections are usually not included.

  • Afghanistan

    the Taliban’s so-called “interim government” includes mostly Taliban members and not other political parties; before 15 August, 2021, the Ministry of Justice had licensed 72 political parties as of April 2019

  • Albania

    Alliance for Change (electoral coalition led by PD)
    Democratic Party or PD [Enkelejd ALIBEAJ, interim leader]
    Party for Justice, Integration and Unity or PDIU [Shpetim IDRIZI] (part of the Alliance for Change)
    Social Democratic Party or PSD [Tom DOSHI]
    Socialist Movement for Integration or LSI [Monika KRYEMADHI]
    Socialist Party or PS [Edi RAMA]

  • Algeria

    Algerian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]
    Algerian Popular Movement or MPA [Amara BENYOUNES]
    Algerian Rally or RA [Ali ZAGHDOUD]
    Algeria's Hope Rally or TAJ [Fatma Zohra ZEROUATI]
    Democratic and Social Movement or MDS [Fethi GHARES]
    Dignity or El Karama [Mohamed DAOUI]
    El-Bina (Harakat El-Binaa El-Watani) [Abdelkader BENGRINA]
    El-Islah [Filali GHOUINI]
    Ennour El Djazairi Party (Algerian Radiance Party) or PED [Badreddine BELBAZ]
    Front for Justice and Development or El Adala [Abdallah DJABALLAH]
    Future Front or El Mostakbel [Abdelaziz BELAID]
    Islamic Renaissance Movement or Ennahda Movement [Mohamed DOUIBI]
    Justice and Development Front or FJD [Abdellah DJABALLAH]
    Movement for National Reform or Islah [Filali GHOUINI]
    Movement of National Understanding or MEN
    Movement of Society for Peace or MSP [Abderrazak MAKRI]
    National Construction Movement (Harakat Al-bina' Al-watanii) [Abdelkader BENGRINA]
    National Democratic Rally (Rassemblement National Democratique) or RND [Tayeb ZITOUNI]
    National Front for Social Justice or FNJS [Khaled BOUNEDJEMA]
    National Liberation Front or FLN [Abou El Fadhel BAADJI]
    National Party for Solidarity and Development or PNSD [Dalila YALAQUI]
    National Reform Movement or Islah [Djahid YOUNSI]
    National Republican Alliance or ANR [Belkacem SAHLI]
    New Dawn Party (El-Fajr El-Jadid) [Tahar BENBAIBECHE]
    New Generation (Jil Jadid) [Soufiane DJILALI]
    Oath of 1954 or Ahd 54 [Ali Fawzi REBAINE]
    Party of Justice and Liberty or PLJ [Djamel Ben ZIADI]
    Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD [Mohcine BELABBAS]
    Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Youcef AOUCHICHE]
    Union for Change and Progress or UCP [Zoubida ASSOUL]
    Union of Democratic and Social Forces or UFDS [Noureddine BAHBOUH]
    Vanguard of Liberties (Talaie El Hurriyet) [Abdelkader SAADI]
    Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUNE]
    Youth Party or PJ [Hamana BOUCHARMA]

    note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted in March 1997

  • American Samoa

    Democratic Party [T'ia REID, chairman]
    Republican Party [Taulapapa William SWORD, chairman]

  • Andorra

    Democrats for Andorra or DA [Xaviar ESPOT ZAMORA]
    Liberals of Andorra or L'A [Jordi GALLARDO FERNANDEZ]
    Social Democracy and Progress or SDP [Victor NAUDI ZAMORA]
    Social Democratic Party or PS [Susanna VELA]
    Third Way/Lauredian Union [Josep PINTAT FORNE]
    United for the Progress of Andorra or UPA [Alfons CLAVERA ARIZTI]

    note: Andorra has several smaller parties at the parish level (one is Lauredian Union)

  • Angola

    Broad Convergence for the Salvation of Angola Electoral Coalition or CASA-CE [Manuel FERNANDES]
    National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA; note - party has two factions; one led by Lucas NGONDA; the other by Ngola KABANGU
    National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Adalberto Costa JUNIOR] (largest opposition party)
    Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Joao LOURENCO]; note- ruling party in power since 1975
    Social Renewal Party or PRS [Benedito DANIEL] (2022)

  • Anguilla

    Anguilla Progressive Movement or APM [Dr. Ellis WEBSTER]; (formerly Anguilla United Movement or AUM)
    Anguilla United Front or AUF [Cora RICHARDSON-HODGE]

  • Antigua and Barbuda

    Antigua Labor Party or ABLP [Gaston BROWNE]
    Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Trevor WALKER]
    Democratic National Alliance or DNA [Joanne MASSIAH]
    Go Green for Life or GGL [Owen GEORGE]
    United Progressive Party or UPP [Harold LOVELL]

  • Argentina

    Avanza Libertad or AL [Jose Luis ESPERT]
    Civic Coalition ARI or CC-ARI [Elisa CARRIO, Maximiliano FERRARO]
    Federal Consensus or CF [Roberto LAVAGNA, Juan Manuel URTUBEY]
    Frente Civico por Santiago (Civic Front for Santiago) [Gerardo ZAMORA]
    Frente de Izquierda (Workers' Left Front) or FIT-U [Nicolas DEL CANO, Miriam BREGMAN] (coalition of leftist parties in lower house; includes PTS, PO, and MST)
    Frente de la Concordia Misionero (Front for the Renewal of Social Concord) or FRCS [Carlos Eduardo ROVIRA]
    Frente de Todos (Everyone's Front) or FdT [Alberto FERNANDEZ] (includes FR, La Campora, and PJ); note - ruling coalition since 2019; includes several national and provincial Peronist political parties
    Frente Renovador (Renewal Front) or FR [Sergio MASSA, Pablo MIROLO]
    Generacion por un Encuentro Nacional (Generation for a National Encounter) or GEN [Margarita STOLBIZER]
    Hacemos por Cordoba (We do for Cordoba) or HC [Juan SCHIARETTI]
    Juntos por el Cambio (Together for Change) or JxC [Horacio Rodríguez LARRETA] (includes CC-ARI, PRO, and UCR); note - primary opposition coalition since 2019
    Juntos Somos Rio Negro (Together We Are Rio Negro) or JSRN [Alberto WERETILNECK]   
    Justicialist Party or PJ [Alberto Angel FERNANDEZ]
    La Campora [Maximo KIRCHNER]
    La Libertad Avanza or LLA [Javier MILEI]
    Movimiento Popular Neuquino (Neuquen People's Movement) or MPN [Omar GUTIERREZ]
    Partido Socialista or PS [Monica Haydee FEIN]
    Propuesta Republicana or PRO [Mauricio MACRI]
    Radical Civic Union or UCR [Gerardo MORALES]
    Socialist Workers' Party or PTS [Nicolas DEL CANO]
    Unidad Federal (coalition of provencial parties in the lower house; includes FRCS and JSRN)
    Workers' Party or PO [Gabriel SOLANO]
    Workers' Socialist Movement or MST [Alejandro BODART]
    Vamos con Vos (Let's Go with You) or VcV [Florencio RANDAZZO]

  • Armenia

    the below parties received 1% or more of the vote:
    5165 National Conservative Movement Party [Karin TONOYAN]
    Alliance of Democrats [Arman BABAJANYAN]
    Armenia Alliance or HD [Robert KOCHARYAN] (alliance of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation and the Reborn Armenia Party)
    Armenian National Congress or ANC [Levon TER-PETROSSIAN] (bloc of independent and opposition parties)
    Bright Armenia [Edmon MARUKYAN]
    Civil Contract or KP [Nikol PASHINYAN]
    Homeland of Armenians [Artak GALSTYAN]
    Homeland Party [Artur VANETSYAN]
    I Have Honor Alliance (alliance of the RPA and the Homeland Party, co-led by the two allied parties' leaders)
    Liberal Party [Samvel BABAYAN]
    National Democratic Party [Vahe GASPARYAN]
    Prosperous Armenia or BHK [Gagik TSARUKYAN]
    Republic Party (Hanrapetutyun Party) [Aram SARGSYAN]
    Republican Party of Armenia or RPA [Serzh SARGSIAN]

  • Aruba

    Accion21 [Miguel MANSUR]
    Aruban People's Party or AVP [Michiel "Mike" EMAN]
    Democratic Network or RED [Ricardo CROES]
    Movimiento Aruba Soberano (Aruban Sovereignty Movement) or MAS [Marisol LOPEZ-TROMP]
    People's Electoral Movement Party or MEP [Evelyn WEVER-CROES]
    Pueblo Orguyoso y Respeta or POR [Alan Howell]
    RAIZ (ROOTS) [Ursell ARENDS]

  • Australia

    Australian Greens Party or The Greens [Adam BANDT]
    Australian Labor Party or ALP [Anthony ALBANESE]
    Liberal Party of Australia [Peter DUTTON]
    The Nationals [David LITTLEPROUD]
    Pauline Hanson’s One Nation or PHON or ONP [Pauline HANSON]

  • Austria

    Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Karl NEHAMMER]
    Communist Party of Austria or KPOe [Mirko MESSNER]
    Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Herbert KICKI]
    The Greens - The Green Alternative [Werner KOGLER]
    NEOS - The New Austria and Liberal Forum [Beate MEINL-REISINGER]
    Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Pamela RENDI-WAGNER]

  • Azerbaijan

    Azerbaijan Democratic Enlightenment Party or ADMP [Elshan MASAYEV]
    Civic Solidarity Party or VHP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLI]
    Civic Unity Party or CUP [Sabir HAJIYEV]
    Great Order Party [Fazil MUSTAFA]
    Islamic Party of Azerbaijan or AiP [Mavsum SAMADOV]
    Musavat [Arif HAJILI]
    Popular Front Party [Ali KARIMLI]
    Motherland Party or AVP [Fazail AGAMALI]
    National Front Party [Razi NURULLAYEV]
    National Revival Movement Party [Faraj GULIYEV]
    Party for Democratic Reforms or PDR [Asim MOLLAZADE]
    Republican Alternative Party or REAL [Ilgar MAMMADOV]
    Social Democratic Party [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]
    Social Prosperity Party [Asli KAZIMOVA]
    Unity Party or VP [Tahir KARIMLI]
    Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front Party [Gudrat HASANGULIYEV]
    New Azerbaijan Party (Yeni Azərbaycan Partiyasi) or YAP [Ilham ALIYEV]

  • Bahamas, The

    Democratic National Alliance or DNA [Arinthia KOMOLAFE]
    Free National Movement or FNM [Michael PINTARD]
    Progressive Liberal Party or PLP [Philip "Brave" DAVIS]

  • Bahrain

    note: political parties are prohibited, but political societies were legalized under a July 2005 law

  • Bangladesh

    Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]
    Bangladesh Jamaat-i-Islami or JIB [Shafiqur RAHMAN]
    Bangladesh Nationalist Front or BNF [S. M. Abul Kalam AZAD]
    Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP [Tarique RAHMAN, acting chairperson; Khaleda ZIA]
    Bangladesh Tariqat Federation or BTF [Syed Nozibul Bashar MAIZBHANDARI]
    Jatiya Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Rowshan ERSHAD]
    Jatiya Party or JP (Manju faction) [Anwar Hossain MANJU]
    Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Oli AHMED]
    National Socialist Party (Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal) or JSD [Hasanul Haque INU]
    Workers Party or WP [Rashed Khan MENON]

  • Barbados

    Alliance Party for Progress or APP [Joseph ATHERLEY]
    Barbados Labor Party or BLP [Mia MOTTLEY]
    Democratic Labor Party or DLP [Ronnie YEARWOOD]

  • Belarus

    pro-government parties:
    Belarusian Agrarian Party or BAP [Mikhail RUSY]
    Belarusian Patriotic Party or BPP [Mikalay ULAKHOVICH]
    Belarusian Social Sport Party or BSSP [Uladzimir ALEKSANDROVICH]
    Communist Party of Belarus or KPB [Alyaksey SOKOL]
    Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Aleh GAYDUKEVICH]
    Republican Party [Uladzimir BELAZOR]
    Republican Party of Labor and Justice [Alyaksandr STSYAPANAW]
    Social Democratic Party of Popular Accord [Syarhey YERMAK]
    opposition parties:
    Belarusian Christian Democracy Party [Paval SEVYARYNETS, Volha KAVALKOVA, Vital RYMASHEWSKI] (unregistered)
    Belarusian Party of the Green [Dzimtry KUCHUK]
    Belarusian Party of the Left "Just World" [Syarhey KALYAKIN]
    Belarusian Social-Democratic Assembly of BSDH [Syarhey CHERACHEN]
    Belarusian Social Democratic Party ("Assembly") or BSDPH [Ihar BARYSAW]
    Belarusian Social Democratic Party (People's Assembly) or BSDP [Mikalay STATKEVICH] (unregistered)
    BPF Party [Ryhor KASTUSYOW]
    Christian Conservative Party or BPF [Zyanon PAZNYAK]
    United Civic Party or UCP [Mikalay KAZLOW]

  • Belgium

    Flemish parties:
    Christian Democratic and Flemish or CD&V [Sammy MAHDI]
    Forward [Conner ROUSSEAU] (formerly Social Progressive Alternative or SP.A)
    Groen or Green [Nadia NAJI and Jeremie VANEECKHOUT] (formerly AGALEV, Flemish Greens)
    New Flemish Alliance or N-VA [Bart DE WEVER]
    Open Flemish Liberals and Democrats or Open VLD [Egbert LACHAERT]
    Vlaams Belang (Flemish Interest) or VB [Tom VAN GRIEKEN]
    Francophone parties:
    Ecolo (Francophone Greens) [Jean-Marc NOLLET, Rajae MAOUANE]
    Francophone Federalist Democrats or Defi [Francois DE SMET]
    Les Engages [Maxine PREVOT] (formerly Humanist and Democratic Center or CDH)
    People's Party or PP [Mischael MODRIKAMEN] (dissolved 18 June 2019)
    Reform Movement or MR [George-Louis BOUCHEZ]
    Socialist Party or PS [Paul MAGNETTE]
    Workers' Party or PVDA-PTB [Raoul HEDEBOUW]

  • Belize

    Belize Progressive Party or BPP [Wil MAHEIA] (formed in 2015 from a merger of the People's National Party, elements of the Vision Inspired by the People, and other smaller political groups)
    People's United Party or PUP [Juan Antonio "Johnny" BRICENO]
    United Democratic Party or UDP [Dean Oliver Barrow and Patrick FABER]
    Vision Inspired by the People or VIP [Hubert ENRIQUEZ]

  • Benin

    African Movement for Development and Progress or MADEP [Sefou FAGBOHOUN]
    Alliance for a Triumphant Benin or ABT [Abdoulaye BIO TCHANE]
    Benin Renaissance or RB [Lehady SOGLO]
    Cowrie Force for an Emerging Benin or FCBE [Yayi BONI]
    Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Adrien HOUNGBEDJI]
    National Alliance for Development and Democracy or AND [Valentin Aditi HOUDE]
    New Consciousness Rally or NC [Pascal KOUPAKI]
    Patriotic Awakening or RP [Janvier YAHOUEDEOU]
    Social Democrat Party or PSD [Emmanuel GOLOU]
    Sun Alliance or AS [Sacca LAFIA]
    Union Makes the Nation or UN [Adrien HOUNGBEDJI] (includes PRD, MADEP)
    United Democratic Forces or FDU [Mathurin NAGO]

    note: approximately 20 additional minor parties

  • Bermuda

    Free Democratic Movement or FDM [Marc A. R. BEAN]
    One Bermuda Alliance or OBA [N. H. Cole SIMONS]
    Progressive Labor Party or PLP [E. David BURT]

  • Bhutan

    Bhutan Kuen-Nyam Party
    Bhutan Peace and Prosperity Party (Druk Phuensum Tshogpa) or DPT [Dorji WANGDI] (Druk Chirwang Tshogpa or DCT merged with DPT in March 2018)
    People's Democratic Party or PDP [Tshering TOBGAY]
    United Party of Bhutan (Druk Nyamrup Tshogpa) or DNT [Lotay TSHERING]

  • Bolivia

    Community Citizen Alliance or ACC [Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert]
    Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Juan Evo MORALES Ayma]
    National Unity or UN [Samuel DORIA MEDINA Auza]
    Revolutionary Left Front or FRI [Edgar GUZMAN Jauregui]
    Social Democrat Movement or MDS [Ruben COSTAS Aguilera]
    We Believe or Creemos [Luis Fernando CAMACHO Vaca]

    note: We Believe or Creemos [Luis Fernando CAMACHO Vaca] is a coalition comprised of several opposition parties that participated in the 2020 election, which includes the Christian Democratic Party (PDC) and Solidarity Civic Unity (UCS)

  • Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Alliance for a Better Future of BiH or SBB BiH [Fahrudin RADONCIC]
    Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]
    Alternative Party for Democratic Activity or A-SDA [Nermin OGRESEVIC] (merged with Independent Bosnian Herzegovinian List to form NES)
    Croat Peasants' Party or HSS [Mario KARAMATIC]
    Croatian Christian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HKDU [Ivanka BARIC]
    Croatian Democratic Union or HDU [Miro GRABOVAC-TITAN]
    Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HDZ-BiH [Dragan COVIC]
    Croatian Democratic Union 1990 or HDZ-1990 [Ilija CVITANOVIC]
    Croatian Party of Rights dr. Ante Starcevic or HSP-AS Bih [Stanko PRIMORAC]
    Democratic Alliance or DEMOS [Nedeljko CUBRILOVIC]
    Democratic Front of DF [Zeljko KOMSIC]
    Democratic Peoples' Alliance or DNS [Nenad NESIC]
    Independent Bloc or NB [Senad SEPIC]
    Movement for Democratic Action or PDA [Elzina PIRIC]
    National Democratic Movement or NDP [Dragan CAVIC]
    Our Party or NS/HC [Edin FORTO]
    Party for Democratic Action or SDA [Bakir IZETBEGOVIC]
    Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Branislav BORENOVIC]
    People and Justice Party or NiP [Elmedin KONAKOVIC]
    People's European Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or NES [Nermin OGRESEVIC]
    Progressive Srpska or NS [Goran DORDIC]
    Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Mirko SAROVIC]
    Serb Radical Party-Dr. Vojislav Seselj or SRS-VS [Vojislav SESELJ] (merged with PDP)
    Social Democratic Party or SDP [Nermin NIKSIC]
    Socialist Party or SP [Petar DOKIC]
    United Srpska or US [Nenad STEVANDIC]

  • Botswana

    Alliance of Progressives or AP [Ndaba GAOLATHE]
    Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Dumelang SALESHANDO]
    Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Mokgweetsi MASISI]
    Botswana Movement for Democracy or BMD [Sidney PILANE]
    Botswana National Front or BNF [Duma BOKO]
    Botswana Patriotic Front or BPF [Biggie BUTALE]
    Botswana Peoples Party or BPP [Motlatsi MOLAPISI]
    Real Alternative Party or RAP [Gaontebale MOKGOSI]
    Umbrella for Democratic Change or UDC [Duma BOKO] (various times the coalition has included the BMD, BPP, BCP and BNF) (2019)

  • Brazil

    Act (Agir) [Daniel TOURINHO] (formerly Christian Labor Party or PTC)
    Avante [Luis Henrique de Oliveira RESENDE] (formerly Labor Party of Brazil or PTdoB)
    Brazil Union (Uniao Brasil); note - founded from a merger between the Democrats (DEM) and the Social Liberal Party (PSL) 
    Brazilian Communist Party or PCB [Astrogildo PEREIRA]
    Brazilian Democratic Movement or MDB [Luiz Felipe Baleia TENUTO Rossi]
    Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Kassyo Santos RAMOS]
    Brazilian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Aiceia RODRIGUES and Hamilton MOURAO]
    Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Bruno ARAUJO]
    Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Carlos Roberto SIQUEIRA de Barros]
    Christian Democracy or DC [Jose Maria EYMAEL] (formerly Christian Social
    Cidadania [Roberto Joao Pereira FREIRE] (formerly Popular Socialist Party or PPS)
    Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Luciana SANTOS]
    Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos LUPI]
    Democratic Party or PSDC
    Democrats or DEM [Jose AGRIPINO] (formerly Liberal Front Party or PFL); note - dissolved in February 2022
    Green Party or PV [Jose Luiz PENNA]
    Liberal Party or PL [Luciano BIVAR and Antonio de RUEDA] (formerly Party of the Republic or PR)
    National Mobilization Party or PMN [Antonio Carlos Bosco MASSAROLLO]
    New Party or NOVO [Eduardo RIBEIRO]
    Patriota [Adilson BAROSSO Oliveira] (formerly National Ecologic Party or PEN)
    Podemos [Renata ABREU] (formerly National Labor Party or PTN)
    Progressive Party or PP [Ciro NOGUEIRA]
    Republican Social Order Party or PROS [Euripedes JUNIOR]
    Republicans (Republicanos) [Marcos Antonio PEREIRA] (formerly Brazilian Republican Party or PRB)
    Social Christian Party or PSC [Everaldo Dias PEREIRA]
    Social Democratic Party or PSD [Alfredo COATIT Neto]
    Social Liberal Party or PSL [Luciano Caldas BIVAR]
    Socialism and Freedom Party or PSOL [Juliano MEDEIROS]
    Solidarity or SD [Paulinho DA FORCA]
    Sustainability Network or REDE [Marina SILVA]
    United Socialist Workers' Party or PSTU [Jose Maria DE ALMEIDA]
    Workers' Cause Party or PCO [Rui Costa PIMENTA]
    Workers' Party or PT [Gleisi HOFFMANN]

  • British Virgin Islands

    National Democratic Party or NDP [Marlon PENN]
    Progressive Virgin Islands Movement or PVIM [Ronnie SKELTON]
    Progressives United or PU [Julian FRASER]
    Virgin Islands Party or VIP [Natalio WHEATLEY]

  • Brunei

    National Development Party or NDP [YASSIN Affendi]

    note: Brunei National Solidarity Party or PPKB [Abdul LATIF bin Chuchu] and People's Awareness Party or PAKAR [Awang Haji MAIDIN bin Haji Ahmad] were deregistered in 2007; parties are small and have limited activity

  • Bulgaria

    Agrarian People's Union or ZNS [Roumen YONCHEV]
    Bulgaria of the Citizens or DBG [Dimitar DELCHEV]
    Bulgarian Agrarian People’s Union or BZNS [Nikolay NENCHEV]
    Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Korneliya NINOVA] (alliance of BSP, PKT, New Dawn, Ecoglasnost)
    Citizens for the European Development of Bulgaria or GERB [Boyko BORISOV] (alliance with SDS) 
    Democratic Bulgaria or DB (alliance of Yes! Bulgaria, DSB, and The Greens) [Atanas ATANASOV, Hristo IVANOV]
    Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria or DSB [Atanas ATANASOV]
    Ecoglasnost [Emil GEORGIEV]
    Green Movement or The Greens [Borislav SANDOV, Vladislav PENEV]
    Middle European Class or SEC [Konstantin BACHIISKI]
    Movement for Rights and Freedoms or DPS [Mustafa KARADAYI]
    Movement 21 or D21 [Tatyana DONCHEVA]
    New Dawn [Mincho MINCHEV]
    Political Club Thrace or PKT [Stefan NACHEZ]
    Political Movement "Social Democrats" or PDS  [Elena NONEVA]
    Revival [Kostadin KOSTADINOV]
    Stand Up.BG or IS.BG [Maya MONOLOVA]
    Stand Up.BG, We Are Coming! or IBG-NI [Maya MONOLOVA, Nikolay HADZHIGENOV] (coalition of IS.BG, D21, DBG, ENP, and ZNS)
    There is Such a People or ITN [Slavi TRIFONOV]
    United People's Party or ENP [Valentina VASILEVA-FILADELFEVS]
    Union of Democratic Forces or SDS [Rumen HRISTOV] (alliance with GERB) 
    Yes! Bulgaria [Hristo IVANOV]
    Volt Bulgaria or Volt [Nastimir ANANIEV]
    We Continue the Change of PP [Kiril PETKOV and Asen VASILEV] (electoral alliance of PP, PDS, SEC, and Volt)

  • Burkina Faso

    Act Together [Kadre OUEDRAOGO]
    African Democratic Rally/Alliance for Democracy and Federation or ADF/RDA [Gilbert Noel OUEDRAOGO]
    Congress for Democracy and Progress or CDP [Eddie KOMBOIGO]
    Convergence for Progress and Solidarity-Generation 3 or CPS-G3
    Movement for the Future Burkina Faso or MBF
    National Convention for Progress or CNP
    New Era for Democracy or NTD [Vincent DABILGOU]
    Pan-African Alliance for Refoundation or APR
    Party for Democracy and Socialism/Metba or PDS/Metba [Philippe OUEDRAOGO]
    Party for Development and Change or PDC [Aziz SEREME]
    Patriotic Rally for Integrity or RPI
    Peoples Movement for Progress or MPP [Roch Marc Christian KABORE]
    Progressives United for Renewal or PUR
    Union for Progress and Reform or UPC [Zephirin DIABRE]
    Union for Rebirth - Sankarist Party or UNIR-PS [Benewende Stanislas SANKARA]

    note: only parties with seats in the National Assembly included

  • Burma

    Arakan National Party or ANP [THAR TUN HLA]
    Democratic Party or DP [U THU WAI]
    Kayah State Democratic Party or KySDP
    Kayin People's Party or KPP [TUN AUNG MYINT]
    Kokang Democracy and Unity Party or KDUP [LUO XINGGUANG]
    La Hu National Development Party or LHNDP [KYA HAR SHAL]
    Lisu National Development Party or LNDP [U ARKI DAW]
    Mon Unity Party (formed in 2019 from the All Mon Region Democracy Party and Mon National Party)
    National Democratic Force or NDF [KHIN MAUNG SWE]
    National League for Democracy or NLD [AUNG SAN SUU KYI]
    National Unity Party or NUP [U HAN SHWE]
    Pa-O National Organization or PNO [AUNG KHAM HTI]
    People's Party [KO KO GYI]
    Shan Nationalities Democratic Party or SNDP [SAI AI PAO]
    Shan Nationalities League for Democracy or SNLD 
    Ta'ang National Party or TNP [AIK MONE]
    Tai-Leng Nationalities Development Party or TNDP [ U SAI HTAY AUNG]
    Union Solidarity and Development Party or USDP [THAN HTAY]
    Unity and Democracy Party of Kachin State or UDPKS [U KHAT HTEIN NAN]
    Wa Democratic Party or WDP [KHUN HTUN LU]
    Wa National Unity Party or WNUP [NYI PALOTE]
    Zomi Congress for Democracy or ZCD [PU CIN SIAN THANG]
    numerous smaller parties

  • Burundi

    Front for Democracy in Burundi-Nyakuri or FRODEBU-Nyakuri [Keffa NIBIZI]
    Front for Democracy in Burundi-Sahwanya or FRODEBU-Sahwanya [Pierre Claver NAHIMANA]
    National Congress for Liberty or CNL [Agathon RWASA]
    National Council for the Defense of Democracy - Front for the Defense of Democracy or CNDD-FDD [Evariste NDAYISHIMIYE]
    National Liberation Forces or FNL [Jacques BIGITIMANA]
    Union for National Progress (Union pour le Progress Nationale) or UPRONA [Abel GASHATSI]

  • Cabo Verde

    African Party for Independence of Cabo Verde or PAICV [Janira Hopffer ALMADA]
    Democratic and Independent Cabo Verdean Union or UCID [João DOS SANTOS LUIS]
    Democratic Christian Party or PDC [Manuel RODRIGUES]
    Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Victor FIDALGO]
    Movement for Democracy or MPD [Ulisses CORREIA E SILVA]
    Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO]
    Party of Work and Solidarity or PTS [Anibal MEDINA]
    Social Democratic Party or PSD [Joao ALEM]

  • Cambodia

    Cambodian People's Party or CPP [HUN SEN]
    National United Front for Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia or FUNCINPEC [Prince NORODOM CHAKRAVUTH]
    League for Democracy Party or LDP [KHEM Veasna]
    Khmer Will Party [KONG MONIKA]
    Khmer National Unity Party or KNUP (an offshoot of FUNCINPEC) [NHEK BUN CHHAY]
    Candlelight Party or CP (the latest incarnation of the Sam Rainsy Party or SRP and the former Human Rights Party or HRP, which joined to form the Cambodia National Rescue Party or CNRP in 2012; the CNRP was dissolved in 2017)

    Other minor parties that registered for the 2022 commune-level elections included: Cambodia National Love Party, Cambodia Nationality Party, Cambodian Youth Party, Cambodia Reform Party, Kampucheaniyum Party, Grassroots Democratic Party, Khmer United Party, Beehive Social Democratic Party, Cambodia Indigenous People's Democracy Party, Ekpheap Cheat Khmer Party, Reaksmey Khemara Party, Khmer Economic Development Party (2022)

    note(s): following the 2017 commune election, the CPP-led government arrested the CNRP president Kem SOKHA for treason, dissolved the party on similar grounds, and forced most of its senior leadership into exile, where the party’s former president, Sam RAINSY, had been living since late 2015; as of March 2022, a total of 17 political parties had registered to run in the June 2022 commune-level elections, and opposition parties, particularly the Candlelight Party, continued to report, intimidation, harassment, and arrests by the Cambodian Government

  • Cameroon

    Alliance for Democracy and Development
    Cameroon People's Democratic Movement or CPDM [Paul BIYA]
    Cameroon People's Party or CPP [Edith Kah WALLA]
    Cameroon Renaissance Movement or MRC [Maurice KAMTO]
    Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC [Adamou Ndam NJOYA]
    Cameroonian Party for National Reconciliation or PCRN [Cabral LIBII]
    Front for the National Salvation of Cameroon or FSNC [Issa Tchiroma BAKARY]
    Movement for the Defense of the Republic or MDR [Dakole DAISSALA]
    Movement for the Liberation and Development of Cameroon or MLDC [Marcel YONDO]
    National Union for Democracy and Progress or UNDP [Maigari BELLO BOUBA]
    Progressive Movement or MP [Jean-Jacques EKINDI]
    Social Democratic Front or SDF [John FRU NDI]
    Union of Peoples of Cameroon or UPC [Provisionary Management Bureau]
    Union of Socialist Movements

  • Canada

    Bloc Quebecois [Yves-Francois BLANCHET]
    Conservative Party of Canada or CPC [Candice BERGEN (interim)]
    Green Party [Amita KUTTNER (interim)]
    Liberal Party [Justin TRUDEAU]
    New Democratic Party or NDP [Jagmeet SINGH]
    People's Party of Canada [Maxime BERNIER]

  • Cayman Islands

    Cayman Islands Peoples Party or CIPP [Ezzard MILLER]
    People's Progressive Movement or PPM [Roy McTAGGART]

  • Central African Republic

    African Party for Radical Transformation and Integration of States or PATRIE [Crepin MBOLI-GOUMBA]
    Central African Democratic Rally or RDC [Desire KOLINGBA]
    Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People or MLPC [Martin ZIGUELE]
    National Convergence (also known as Kwa Na Kwa) or KNK [Francois BOZIZE]
    National Movement of Independents or MOUNI
    National Union for Democracy and Progress or UNDP [Michel AMINE]
    National Union of Republican Democrats or UNADER
    Party for Democratic Governance or PGD
    Path of Hope [Karim MECKASSOUA]
    Union for Central African Renewal or URCA [Anicet-Georges DOLOGUELE]
    United Hearts Movement or MCU [Faustin-Archange TOUADERA]

    note: only parties with seats in the Parliament included

  • Chad

    Chadian Convention for Peace and Development or CTPD [Laoukein Kourayo MEDARD]
    Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]
    National Rally for Development and Progress or Viva-RNDP [Dr. Nouradine Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE]
    National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]
    Party for Unity and Reconstruction or PUR
    Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [formerly Idriss DEBY] 
    Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Mahamat Allahou TAHER]
    Rally of Chadian Nationalists/Awakening or RNDT/Le Reveil [Albert Pahimi PADACKE]
    Social Democratic Party for a Change-over of Power or PDSA [Malloum YOBODA]
    Union for Democracy and the Republic or UDR
    Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Felix Romadoumngar NIALBE]
     
    note 1: 19 additional parties each contributed one member
    note 2:
    only parties with at least two seats in the last elected National Assembly (February 2011) included

    note: on 5 October 2021, Interim President Mahamat Idriss DEBY appointed 93 members to the interim National Transitional Council (NTC); 30% of the NTC members were retained from parties previously represented in the National Assembly

  • Chile

    Approve Dignity (Apruebo Dignidad) coalition or AD (includes PC, FA, and FREVS) [Gabriel BORIC]
    Broad Front Coalition (Frente Amplio) or FA (includes RD, CS, and Comunes) [Gonzalo WINTER]
    Broad Social Movement of Leftist Citizens (includes former MAS and Izquierda Ciudadana) [Fernando ZAMORANO]
    Chile We Can Do More or ChP+ [Sebastian SICHEL] (coalition includes EVOPOLI, PRI, RN, UDI)
    Christian Conservative Party or PCC [Antaris VARELA]
    Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Carmen FREI Ruiz-Tagle]
    Christian Social Front or FSC [Jose Antonio KAST] (includes PCC, PLR)
    Citizens or CIU [María Ignacia GOMEZ Martinez]
    Commons (Comunes) [Jorge RAMIREZ]
    Communist Party of Chile or PCCh [Guillermo TEILLIER del Valle]
    Democratic Revolution or RD [Margarita PORTUGUEZ]
    Green Ecological Party or PEV [Felix GONZALEZ] (dissolved 7 February 2022)
    Humanist Party or PH [Octavio GONZALEZ]
    Independent Democratic Union or UDI [Javier MACAYA]
    Independent Regionalist Democratic Party or PRI [Hugo ORTIZ de Filippi]
    Liberal Party (Partido Liberal de Chile) or PL [Patricio MORALES]
    National Renewal or RN [Francisco CHAHUAN]
    New Social Pact or NPS [Yasna PROVOSTE] (includes PDC, PL, PPD, PRSD, PS)
    Party for Democracy or PPD [Natalia PERGIENTILI Domenech]
    Party of the People or PDG [Franco Aldo PARISI Fernandez]
    Political Evolution or EVOPOLI [Luz POBLETE Coddou]
    Radical Social Democratic Party or PRSD [Carlos MALDONADO Curti]
    Republican Party or PLR [Rojo EDWARDS]
    Social Convergence or CS [Alondra ARELLANO Hernandez]
    Social Green Regionalist Federation or FREVS [Flavia TORREALBA Diaz]
    Socialist Party or PS [Alvaro Antonio ELIZALDE Soto]
    United Independents or IU [Cristian Alejandro CONTRERAS Radovic]

  • China

    Chinese Communist Party or CCP [XI Jinping]

    note: China has 8 nominally independent small parties controlled by the CCP

  • Christmas Island

    none

  • Cocos (Keeling) Islands

    none

  • Colombia

    Alternative Democratic Pole or PDA [Alexander LOPEZ Maya]
    Citizens Option (Opcion Ciudadana) or OC [Angel ALIRIO Moreno] (formerly known as the National Integration Party or PIN)
    The Commons (formerly People's Alternative Revolutionary Force or FARC) [Rodrigo LONDONO Echeverry]
    Conservative Party or PC [Carlos Andres TRUJILLO]
    Democratic Center Party or CD [Alvaro URIBE Velez]
    Fair and Free Colombia (Colombia Justa Libres) [Eduardo Canas Estrada and Ricardo Arias Mora]
    Green Alliance [Claudia LOPEZ Hernandez]
    Historic Pact for Colombia or PHxC (coalition composed of several left-leaning political parties and social movements)
    Humane Colombia [Gustavo PETRO]
    Independent Movement of Absolute Renovation or MIRA [Carlos Eduardo GUEVARA]
    League of Anti-Corruption Rulers or LIGA [Rodolfo HERNANDEZ Suarez]
    Liberal Party or PL [Cesar GAVIRIA]
    People's Alternative Revolutionary Force or FARC [Rodrigo LONDONO Echeverry]
    Radical Change or CR [German VARGAS Lleras]
    Team for Colombia - also known as the Experience Coalition or Coalition of the Regions (coalition composed of center-right and right-wing parties)
    Union Party for the People or U Party [Dilian Francisca TORO]
    We Believe Colombia or CREEMOS [Federico GUTIERREZ]

    note: Colombia has numerous smaller political parties and movements

  • Comoros

    only parties with seats in the Assembly of the Union listed:
    Convention for the Renewal of the Comoros or CRC [AZALI Assoumani]
    Orange Party [Mohamed DAOUDOU]
    Independents (2018)

  • Congo, Democratic Republic of the

    Christian Democrat Party or PDC [Jose ENDUNDO]
    Congolese Rally for Democracy or RCD [Azarias RUBERWA]
    Convention of Christian Democrats or CDC
    Engagement for Citizenship and Development or ECiDe [Martin FAYULU]
    Forces of Renewal or FR [Mbusa NYAMWISI]
    Lamuka coalition [Martin FAYULU] (includes ECiDe, MLC, Together for Change, CNB, and, Nouvel Elan)
    Movement for the Liberation of the Congo or MLC [Jean-Pierre BEMBA]
    Nouvel Elan [Adolphe MUZITO]
    Our Congo or CNB ("Congo Na Biso") [Freddy MATUNGULU]
    People's Party for Reconstruction and Democracy or PPRD [Henri MOVA Sakanyi]
    Social Movement for Renewal or MSR [Pierre LUMBI]
    Together for Change ("Ensemble") [Moise KATUMBI]
    Unified Lumumbist Party or PALU
    Union for the Congolese Nation or UNC [Vital KAMERHE]
    Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Felix TSHISEKEDI]

  • Congo, Republic of the

    Alliance of the Presidential Majority or AMP
    Action Movement for Renewal or MAR [Roland BOUITI-VIAUDO]
    Citizen's Rally or RC [Claude Alphonse NSILOU]
    Congolese Labour Party or PCT [Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO]
    Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development or MCDDI [VACANT]
    Movement for Unity, Solidarity, and Work or MUST [Claudine MUNARI]
    Pan-African Union for Social Development or UPADS [Pascal Tsaty MABIALA]
    Party for the Unity and the Republic or PUR [Wilfrid NGUESSO]
    Patriotic Union for Democracy and Progress or UPDP [Auguste-Celestin GONGARD NKOUA]
    Perspectives and Realities Club or CPR
    Rally for Democracy and Social Progress or RDPS [Jean-Pierre Thystère TCHICAYA]
    Republican and Liberal Party or PRL [Bonaventure MIZIDY]
    Union of Democratic Forces or UDF [Josué Rodrigue NGOUONIMBA]
    Union for Democracy and Republic or UDR [Guy Kinfoussia ROMAIN]
    Union for the Republic or UR [Michel Bidimbou POUELA]

  • Cook Islands

    Cook Islands Party or CIP [Mark BROWN]
    Democratic Party or Demo [Tina BROWNE]
    One Cook Islands Movement [Teina BISHOP]

  • Costa Rica

    Accessibility Without Exclusion or PASE [Oscar Andres LOPEZ Arias]
    Broad Front (Frente Amplio) or PFA [Ana Patricia MORA Castellanos]
    Christian Democratic Alliance or ADC [Mario REDONDO Poveda]
    Citizen Action Party or PAC [Marta Eugenia SOLANO Arias]
    Costa Rican Renewal Party or PRC [Justo OROZCO Alvarez]
    Liberal Progressive Party or PLP [Eliecer FEINZAIG Mintz]
    Libertarian Movement Party or ML [Victor Danilo CUBERO Corrales]
    National Integration Party or PIN [Walter MUNOZ Cespedes]
    National Liberation Party or PLN [Kattia RIVERA Soto]
    National Restoration Party or PRN [Carlos Luis AVENDANO Calvo]
    New Generation or PNG [Rodolfo SOLIS Herrera]
    New Republic Party or PNR [Francisco Javier PRENDAS Rodriguez]
    Patriotic Alliance [Jorge ARAYA Westover]
    Social Christian Republican Party or PRS [Otto ROBERTO Vargas]
    Social Christian Unity Party or PUSC of UNIDAD [Randall QUIROS Bustamante]
    Social Democratic Progress Party or PPSD [Luz Mary ALPIZAR Loaiza]

  • Cote d'Ivoire

    African Peoples' Party-Cote d'Ivoire or PPA-CI [Laurent GBAGBO]
    Democratic Party of Cote d'Ivoire or PDCI [Henri Konan BEDIE]
    Ivorian Popular Front or FPI [Pascal Affi N'GUESSAN]
    Liberty and Democracy for the Republic or LIDER [Mamadou KOULIBALY]
    Movement of the Future Forces or MFA [Innocent Augustin ANAKY KOBENA]
    Pan-African Congress for People's Justice and Equality or COJEP [Charles BLE GOUDE]
    Rally of Houphouetists for Democracy and Peace or RHDP [Alassane Dramane OUATTARA] 
    Rally of the Republicans or RDR [Henriette DIABATE]
    Together for Democracy and Sovereignty or EDS [Georges Armand OUEGNIN]
    Together to Build (UDPCI, FPI,and allies) [Toikeuse MABRI]
    Union for Cote d'Ivoire or UPCI [Gnamien KONAN]
    Union for Democracy and Peace in Cote d'Ivoire or UDPCI [Albert Toikeusse MABRI]

  • Croatia

    Bloc for Croatia or BLOK or BZH [Zlatko HASANBEGOVIC]
    The Bridge or Most [Bozo PETROV] (formerly the Bridge of Independent Lists)
    Center or Centar [Ivica PULJAK] (formerly Pametno and Party with a First and Last Name or SSIP) 
    Civic Liberal Alliance or GLAS [Ankar Mrak TARITAS]
    Croatian Demochristian Party or HDS [Goran DODIG]
    Croatian Democratic Alliance of Slavonia and Baranja or HDSSB [Branimir GLAVAS]
    Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Andrej PLENKOVIC]
    Croatian Democratic Union-led coalition (includes HSLS, HDS, HDSSB)
    Croatian Party of Pensioners or HSU [Veselko GABRICEVIC]
    Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Kreso BELJAK]
    Croatian People's Party - Liberal Democrats or HNS-LD [Stjepan CURAJ]
    Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Dario HREBAK]
    Croatian Sovereignists or HS [Marijan PAVLICEK]
    Focus on the Important or Focus [Davor NADI]
    Green-Left coalition [collective leadership] (includes MOZEMO!, NL)
    Homeland Movement or DP [Ivan PENAVA] (also known as Miroslav Škoro Homeland Movement or DPMS)
    Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Milorad PUPOVAC]
    Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Dalibor PAUS]
    New Left or NL [Ivana KEKIN]
    People's Party - Reformists or NS-R [Radimir CACIC]
    Restart Coalition (includes SDP, HSS, HSU, GLAS, IDS, NS-R)
    Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Peda GRBIN]
    We Can! or Mozemo! [collective leadership]
    Workers' Front or RF [collective leadership]

  • Cuba

    Cuban Communist Party or PCC [Miguel DIAZ-CANEL Bermudez]

  • Curacao

    Korsou di Nos Tur or KdnT [Amparo dos SANTOS]
    Korsou Esun Miho or KEM [Michelangelo MARTINES]
    Movementu Futuro Korsou or MFK [Gilmar PISAS]
    Movementu Progresivo or MP [Marylin MOSES]
    Movishon Antia Nobo or MAN [Hensley KOEIMAN]
    Partido Antia Restruktura or PAR [Eugene RHUGGENAATH]
    Partido Inovashon Nashonal or PIN [Suzanne CAMELIA-ROMER]
    Partido Nashonal di Pueblo or PNP [Ruthmilda LARMONIE-CECILIA]
    Pueblo Soberano or PS [Ben WHITEMAN] 
    Trabou pa Kòrsou or TPK [Rennox CALMES] 
    Un Korsou Hustu [Omayra LEEFLANG]

  • Cyprus

    area under government control:
    Citizens' Alliance or SP [Giorgos LILLIKAS] (dissolved 2 December 2021)
    Democratic Front or DiPa [Marios GAROYIAN]
    Democratic Party or DIKO [Nikolas PAPADOPOULOS]
    Democratic Rally or DISY [Averof NEOPHYTOU]
    Movement of Ecologists - Citizens' Alliance [Charalambos THEOPEMPTOU]
    Movement of Social Democrats EDEK [Marinos SIZOPOULOS]
    National Popular Front or ELAM [Christos CHRISTOU]
    Progressive Party of the Working People or AKEL (Communist Party) [Stefanos STEFANOU]
    Solidarity Movement [Eleni THEOCHAROUS]

    area administered by Turkish Cypriots:
    Communal Democracy Party or TDP [Mine ATLI]
    Communal Liberation Party - New Forces or TKP-YG [Mehmet CAKICI]
    Cyprus Socialist Party or KSP [Mehmet BIRINCI]
    Democratic Party or DP [Fikri ATAOGLU]
    National Democratic Party or NDP [Buray BUSKUVUTCU]
    National Unity Party or UBP [Faiz SUCUOGLU]
    New Cyprus Party or YKP [Murat KANATLI]
    People's Party or HP [Kudret OZERSAY]
    Rebirth Party or YDP [Erhan ARIKLI]
    Republican Turkish Party or CTP [Tufan ERHURMAN]
    United Cyprus Party or BKP [Izzet IZCAN]

  • Czechia

    Christian Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Marian JURECKA]
    Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Petr FIALA]
    Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Katerina KONECNA]
    Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Michal SMARDA]
    Czech Sovereignty [Jana VOLFOVA] (formerly Free Bloc or VB)
    Freedom and Direct Democracy or SPD [Tomio OKAMURA]
    Mayors and Independents or STAN [Vit RAKUSAN]
    Movement of Dissatisfied Citizens or ANO [Andrej BABIS]
    Oath or Prisaha or PSH [Robert SLACHTA]
    Pirate Party or Pirates [Ivan BARTOS]
    Tradition Responsibility Prosperity 09 or TOP 09 [Marketa PEKAROVA ADAMOVA]
    Tricolor Freedomites Freeholders or TSS [Zuzana MAJEROVA ZAHRADNIKOVA]

  • Denmark

    The Alternative AP (Franciska ROSENKILDE)
    Conservative People's Party or DKF or C [Soren PAPE POULSEN]
    Danish People's Party or DF or O [Morten MESSERSCHMIDT]
    Green Left or SF or F [Pia OLSEN DYHR] (formerly Socialist People's Party or SF or F)
    Liberal Alliance or LA or I [Alex VANOPSLAGH]
    Liberal Party (Venstre) or V [Jakob ELLEMANN-JENSEN]
    New Right Party or NB or D [Pernille VERMUND]
    Red-Green Alliance (Unity List) or EL [collective leadership, Mai VILLADSEN, spokesperson]
    Social Democrats or SDP or A [Mette FREDERIKSEN]
    Social Liberal Party or SLP or B [Sofie CARSTEN NIELSEN]

  • Djibouti

    Center for United Democrats or CDU [Ahmed Mohamed YOUSSOUF, chairman]
    Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Abdillahi HAMARITEH]
    Djibouti Development Party or PDD [Mohamed Daoud CHEHEM]
    Front for Restoration of Unity and Democracy (Front pour la Restauration de l'Unite Democratique) or FRUD [Ali Mohamed DAOUD]
    Movement for Democratic Renewal and Development or MRD (previously Democratic Renewal Party or PRD) [Daher Ahmed FARAH]
    National Democratic Party or PND [Aden Robleh AWALEH]
    People's Rally for Progress or RPP [Ismail Omar GUELLEH] (governing party)
    Peoples Social Democratic Party or PPSD [Hasna Moumin BAHDON]
    Republican Alliance for Democracy or ARD [Aden Mohamed ABDOU]
    Union for Democracy and Justice or UDJ [Ilya Ismail GUEDI Hared]
    Union for the Presidential Majority coalition or UMP [collective leadership] (electoral coalition includes RPP, FRUD, PPSD, and UPR)
    Union for National Salvation coalition or USN [collective leadership] (electoral coalition includes ARD, PRD, PDD, UDJ, and PND)
    Union of Reform Partisans or UPR [Ibrahim Daoud CHEHEM]

    note: only parties with seats in the National Assembly included

  • Dominica

    Dominica Freedom Party or DFP [Bernard HURTAULT]
    Dominica Labor Party or DLP [Roosevelt SKERRIT]
    Dominica United Workers Party or UWP [Lennox LINTON]

  • Dominican Republic

    Alliance for Democracy or APD
    Broad Front (Frente Amplio) [Fidel SANTANA]
    Country Alliance or AP [Guillermo Antonio MORENO Garcia]
    Dominican Liberation Party or PLD [Danilo MEDINA Sánchez]
    Dominican Revolutionary Party or PRD [Miguel VARGAS Maldonado]
    Dominicans For Change or DXC [Manuel OVIEDO Estrada]
    Institutional Social Democratic Bloc or BIS
    Liberal Reformist Party or PRL (formerly the Liberal Party of the Dominican Republic or PLRD)
    Modern Revolutionary Party or PRM [Luis ABINADER]
    National Progressive Front or FNP [Vinicio CASTILLO, Pelegrin CASTILLO]
    People's Force or FP [Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna]
    Social Christian Reformist Party or PRSC [Federico Augusto "Quique" ANTUN Batile]

  • Ecuador

    Avanza Party or AVANZA [Javier ORTI Torres]
    Central Democratic Movement or CD [Jimmy JAIRALA]
    Citizen Revolution Movement or MRC or RC5 [Rafael CORREA]
    Creating Opportunities Movement or CREO [Guillermo LASSO]
    Democratic Left or ID [Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos]
    Forward Ecuador Movement [Alvaro NOBOA]
    Pachakutik Plurinational Unity Movement or MUPP [Marlon Rene SANTI Gualinga]
    Patriotic Society Party or PSP [Lucio Edwin GUTIERREZ Borbua]
    Popular Democracy Movement or MPD [Luis VILLACIS]
    Social Christian Party or PSC [Jaime NEBOT Saadi]
    Socialist Party [Gustavo VALLEJO]
    Society United for More Action or SUMA [Guillermo CELI]

  • Egypt

    Al-Nour [Yunis MAKHYUN]
    Arab Democratic Nasserist Party [El Etehad el Masri el ARABI]
    Congress Party [Omar Al-Mokhtar SEMIDA]
    Conservative Party [El Mohafezin]
    Democratic Peace Party [Ahmed FADALY]
    Egyptian National Movement Party [Gen. Raouf EL SAYED]
    Egyptian Social Democratic Party [Farid ZAHRAN]
    El Ghad Party [Moussa Mostafa MOUSSA]
    El Serh El Masry el Hor [Tarek Ahmed Abbas NADIM]
    Eradet Geel Party [Tayseer MATAR]
    Free Egyptians Party [Essam KHALIL]
    Freedom Party [Mamdouuh HASSAN]
    Justice Party
    Homeland’s Protector Party [Lt. Gen. (retired) Galal AL-HARIDI]
    Modern Egypt Party [Nabil DEIBIS]
    My Homeland Egypt Party [Gen. Seif El Islam ABDEL BARY ]
    Nation's Future Party (Mostaqbal Watan) [Abdel Wahab Abdel RAZEQ]
    National Progressive Unionist (Tagammu) Party [Sayed Abdel AAL]
    Reform and Development Party [Mohamad Anwar al-SADAT]
    Republican People’s Party [Hazim AMR]
    Revolutionary Guards Party [Magdy EL-SHARIF]
    Wafd Party [Abdel Sanad YAMAMA]

  • El Salvador

    Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Reynaldo CARBALLO]
    Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front or FMLN [Oscar ORTIZ]
    Great Alliance for National Unity or GANA [Nelson GUARDADO]
    National Coalition Party or PCN [Manuel RODRIGUEZ]
    Nationalist Republican Alliance or ARENA [Erick SALGUERO]
    New Ideas (Nuevas Ideas) or NI [Xavier Zablah BUKELE]
    Our Time (Nuestro Tiempo) or NT [Juan VALIENTE]
    Vamos or V [Josue ALVARADO Flores]

  • Equatorial Guinea

    Convergence Party for Social Democracy or CPDS [Andres ESONO ONDO]
    Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea or PDGE [Teodoro Obiang NGUEMA MBASOGO]
    Electoral Coalition or EC
    Juntos Podemos (coalition includes CPDS, FDR, UDC)
    National Congress of Equatorial Guinea [Agustin MASOKO ABEGUE]
    National Democratic Party [Benedicto OBIANG MANGUE]
    National Union for Democracy [Thomas MBA MONABANG]
    Popular Action of Equatorial Guinea or APGE [Carmelo MBA BACALE]
    Popular Union or UP [Daniel MARTINEZ AYECABA]
    Center Right Union or UCD [Avelino MOCACHE MEHENGA]
    not officially registered parties:
    Citizens for Innovation or CI [Gabriel Nse Obiang OBONO]
    Democratic Republican Force or FDR [Guillermo NGUEMA ELA]
    Party for Progress of Equatorial Guinea or PPGE [Severo MOTO NSA]

  • Eritrea

    People's Front for Democracy and Justice or PFDJ [ISAIAS Afwerki] (the only party recognized by the government)

  • Estonia

    Center Party of Estonia (Keskerakond) or K [Juri RATAS]
    Estonia 200 [Kristina KALLAS]
    Estonian Conservative People's Party (Konservatiivne Rahvaerakond) or EKRE [Martin HELME]
    Estonian Reform Party (Reformierakond) or RE [Kaja KALLAS]
    Pro Patria (Isamaa) [Helir-Valdor SEEDER]
    Social Democratic Party or SDE [Lauri LAANEMETS]

  • Eswatini

    political parties exist but conditions for their operations, particularly in elections, are undefined, legally unclear, or culturally restricted; the following are considered political associations:
    African United Democratic Party or AUDP [Sibusiso DLAMINI]
    Ngwane National Liberatory Congress or NNLC [Sibongile MAZIBUKO]
    People's United Democratic Movement or PUDEMO [Mlungisi MAKHANYA]
    Swazi Democratic Party or SWADEPA [Jan SITHOLE]

  • Ethiopia

    House of People's Representatives:
    Ethiopian Citizens for Social Justice and Democracy or EZEMA [BERHANU Nega]   
    Gedeo People's Democratic Party
    Independent 
    Kucha People Democratic Party 
    National Movement of Amhara or NAMA
    Prosperity Party or PP

    note: Ethiopia has over fifty national-level and regional-level political parties. The ruling party, the Prosperity Party, was created by Prime Minister ABIY in November 2019 from member parties of the former Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), which included the Amhara Democratic Party (ADP), Oromo Democratic Party (ODP), Southern Ethiopian People's Democratic Movement (SEPDM), plus other EPRDF-allied parties such as the Afar National Democratic Party (ANDP), Benishangul Gumuz People’s Democratic Party (BGPDP), Gambella People’s Democratic Movement (GPDM), Somali People’s Democratic Party (SPDP), and the Harari National League (HNL). Once the Prosperity Party was created, the various ethnically-based parties that comprised or were affiliated with the EPRDF were subsequently disbanded; in January 2021, the Ethiopian electoral board de-registered the Tigray People’s Liberation Front or TPLF; national level parties are qualified to register candidates in multiple regions across Ethiopia; regional parties can register candidates for both national and regional parliaments, but only in one region of Ethiopia

  • European Union

    European United Left-Nordic Green Left or GUE/NGL [Manon AUBRY and Martin SCHIRDEWAN]
    European Conservatives and Reformists or ECR [Raffaele FITTO and Ryszard LEGUTKO]
    European Greens/European Free Alliance or Greens/EFA [Ska KELLER and Philippe LAMBERTS]
    European People's Party or EPP [Manfred WEBER]
    Identity and Democracy Party or ID [Marco ZANNI]
    Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats or S&D [Iratxe GARCIA]
    Renew Europe or RE (successor to Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe or ALDE) [Stephane SEJOURNE]

  • Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

    none; all independents

  • Faroe Islands

    Center Party (Midflokkurin) [Jenis av RANA]
    People's Party (Folkaflokkurin) [Jorgen NICLASEN]
    Progress Party (Framsokn) [Ruth VANG]
    Republic (Tjodveldi) [Hogni HOYDAL] (formerly the Republican Party)
    Self-Government Party (Sjalvstyri or Sjalvstyrisflokkurin) [Jogvan SKORHEIM]
    Social Democratic Party (Javnadarflokkurin) or JF [Aksel V. JOHANNESEN]
    Union Party (Sambandsflokkurin) [Bardur A STEIG NIELSEN]

  • Fiji

    FijiFirst [Veroqe "Frank" BAINIMARAMA]
    Fiji Labor Party or FLP [Mahendra CHAUDHRY]
    Freedom Alliance [Jagath KARUNARATNE] (formerly Fiji United Freedom Party or FUFP)
    National Federation Party or NFP [Biman PRASAD] (primarily Indian)
    Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Lynda TABUYA]
    Social Democratic Liberal Party or SODELPA [Viliame Rogoibulu GAVOKA]
    Unity Fiji [Savenaca NARUBE]

  • Finland

    Aland Coalition (a coalition of several political parties on the Aland Islands)
    Center Party or Kesk [Annika SAARIKKO]
    Christian Democrats or KD [Sari ESSAYAH]
    Finns Party or PS [Riikka PURRA]
    Green League or Vihr [Maria OHISALO]
    Left Alliance or Vas [Li ANDERSSON]
    National Coalition Party or Kok [Petteri ORPO]
    Social Democratic Party or SDP [Sanna MARIN]
    Swedish People's Party or RKP or SFP [Anna-Maja HENRIKSSON]

  • France

    Citizen and Republican Movement or MRC [Jean-Luc LAURENT]
    Debout la France or DLF [Nicolas DUPONT-AIGNAN]
    Democratic Movement or MoDem [Francois BAYROU]
    Ecologist Pole or PE
    Europe Ecology - the Greens or EELV [Julien BAYOU]
    French Communist Party or PCF [Fabien ROUSSEL]
    Horizons [Hubert VALADE]
    La France Insoumise or FI [Jean-Luc MELENCHON]
    La Republique en Marche! or LREM [Stanislas GUERINI]
    Movement of Progressives or MDP  [Robert HUE]
    National Rally or RN [Jordan BARDELLA, acting president] (formerly National Front or FN)
    New Democrats or LND [Aurelien TACHE, Emilie CARIOU] (formerly Ecology Democracy Solidarity or EDS)
    New Ecological and Social People's Union or NUPES [collective leadership] (electoral coalition including FI, PE, PS, PCF)
    Radical Party of the Left or PRV [Laurent HENART]
    Reconquete [Eric ZEMMOUR]
    Resistons! [Jean LASSALLE]
    Socialist Party or PS [Olivier FAURE]
    The Patriots or LP [Florian PHILIPPOT]
    The Republicans or LR [Christian JACOB]
    Together or ENS [Richard Ferrand] (electoral coalition including LREM, MoDem, Horizons, PRV)
    Union of Democrats and Independents or UDI [Jean-Christophe LAGARDE]
    Union of Right and Center or UDC [Christian JACOB] (electoral coalition including LR, UDI)

  • French Polynesia

    A Tia Porinetia [Teva ROHFRITSCH]
    Alliance for a New Democracy or ADN (includes The New Star [Philip SCHYLE], This Country is Yours [Nicole BOUTEAU])
    List of the People (Tapura Huiraatira) [Edouard FRITICH]
    New Fatherland Party (Ai'a Api) [Emile VERNAUDON]
    Our Home alliance
    People's Servant Party (Tavini Huiraatira) [Oscar TEMARU]
    Rally of the Maohi People (Amuitahiraʻa o te Nunaʻa Maohi)  [Gaston FLOSSE] (formerly known as Popular Rally (Tahoeraa Huiraatira))
    Union for Democracy alliance or UPD [Oscar TEMARU]

  • Gabon

    Circle of Liberal Reformers or CLR [Gen. Jean-Boniface ASSELE]
    Democratic and Republican Alliance or ADERE [DIDJOB Divungui di Ndinge]
    Gabonese Democratic Party or PDG [Ali BONGO Ondimba]
    Independent Center Party of Gabon or PGCI [Luccheri GAHILA]
    Legacy and Modernity Party or RH&M
    National Woodcutters' Rally - Rally for Gabon or RNB-RPG [Paul Mba ABESSOLE]
    Restoration of Republican Values or RV
    Social Democratic Party or PSD [Pierre Claver MAGANGA-MOUSSAVOU]
    Social Democrats of Gabon 
    The Democrats or LD [Guy NZOUBA-NDAMA]
    Union for the New Republic or UPRN [Louis Gaston MAYILA]
    Union of Forces for Change or UFC [Jean PING]
    Union of Gabonese People or UPG [Richard MOULOMBA]

    Paul Mba Abessole

  • Gambia, The

    Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction or APRC [Fabakary JATTA]
    Coalition 2016 [collective leadership] (electoral coalition includes UDP, PDOIS, NRP, GMC, GDC, PPP, and GPDP)
    Gambia Democratic Congress or GDC [Mama KANDEH]
    Gambia Moral Congress or GMC [Mai FATTY]
    Gambia Party for Democracy and Progress or GPDP [Sarja JARJOU]
    National Convention Party or NCP [Yaya  SANYANG and Majanko SAMUSA (both claiming leadership)]
    National Democratic Action Movement or NDAM [Lamin Yaa JUARA]
    National People's Party or NPP [Adama BARROW]
    National Reconciliation Party or NRP [Hamat BAH]
    People's Democratic Organization for Independence and Socialism or PDOIS [Halifa SALLAH]
    People's Progressive Party or PPP [Yaya CEESAY)]
    United Democratic Party or UDP [Ousainou DARBOE]

  • Georgia

    Alliance of Patriots [Irma INASHVILI]
    Citizens Party [Aleko ELISASHVILI]
    European Georgia-Movement for Liberty [Giga BOKERIA]
    European Socialists [Fridon INJIA]
    For Georgia [Giorgi GAKHARIA]
    Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia [Irakli KOBAKHIDZE]
    Girchi-More Freedom [Zurab JAPARIDZE]
    Labor Party [Shalva NATELASHVILI]
    Lelo for Georgia [Mamuka KHAZARADZE]
    New Political Centre-Girchi [Iago KHVICHIA]
    Republican Party [Khatuna SAMNIDZE]
    Strategy Aghmashenebeli [Giorgi VASHADZE]
    United National Movement or UNM [Nikanor "Nika" MELIA]

  • Germany

    Alliance '90/Greens [Ricarda LANG and Omid NOURIPOUR]
    Alternative for Germany or AfD [Alice WEIDEL and Tino CHRUPALLA]
    Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Friedrich MERZ]
    Christian Social Union or CSU [Markus SOEDER]
    Free Democratic Party or FDP [Christian LINDNER]
    Free Voters [Hubert AIWANGER]
    The Left or Die Linke [Janine WISSLER and Martin SCHIRDEWAN]
    Social Democratic Party or SPD [Saskia ESKEN and Lars KLINGBEIL]

  • Ghana

    All Peoples Congress or APC [Hassan AYARIGA]
    Convention People's Party or CPP [Onsy Kwame NKRUMAH, acting]
    Ghana Freedom Party or GFP [Akua DONKOR]
    Ghana Union Movement or GUM [Christian Kwabena ANDREWS]
    Great Consolidated Popular Party or GCPP [Henry Herbert LARTEY]
    Liberal Party of Ghana or LPG [Kofi AKPALOO]
    National Democratic Congress or NDC [John Dramani MAHAMA]
    National Democratic Party or NDP [Nana Konadu Agyeman RAWLINGS]
    New Patriotic Party or NPP [Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO]
    People's National Convention or PNC [David APASERA]
    Progressive People's Party or PPP [Paa Kwesi NDUOM]
    United Front Party or UFP [Dr. Nana A. BOATENG]
    United Progressive Party or UPP [Akwasi Addai ODIKE]

    note: Ghana has more than 20 registered parties; included are those which participated in the 2020 general election

  • Gibraltar

    Gibraltar Liberal Party or Liberal Party of Gibraltar or LPG [Joseph GARCIA]
    Gibraltar Social Democrats or GSD [Keith AZOPARDI]
    Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or GSLP [Fabian PICARDO]
    GSLP-Liberal Alliance (includes GSLP and LPG)
    Together Gibraltar or TG [Marlene HASSAN-NAHON]

  • Greece

    Anticapitalist Left Cooperation for the Overthrow or ANTARSYA [collective leadership]
    Coalition of the Radical Left or SYRIZA [Alexios (Alexis) TSIPRAS]
    Communist Party of Greece or KKE [Dimitrios KOUTSOUMBAS]
    Democratic Left or DIMAR [Athanasios (Thanasis) THEOCHAROPOULOS]
    European Realistic Disobedience Front or MeRA25 [Ioannis (Yanis) VAROUFAKIS]
    Greek Solution [Kyriakos VELOPOULOS]
    Independent Greeks or ANEL [Panagiotis (Panos) KAMMENOS]
    New Democracy or ND [Kyriakos MITSOTAKIS]
    PASOK - Movement for Change or PASOK-KINAL [Nikos ANDROULAKIS]
    Popular Unity or LAE [Nikolaos CHOUNTIS]
    Union of Centrists or EK [Vasileios (Vasilis) LEVENTIS]

  • Greenland

    Democrats Party (Demokraatit) or D [Jens Frederik NIELSEN]
    Fellowship Party (Atassut) or A [Aqqalu JERIMIASSEN]
    Forward Party (Siumut) or S [Erik JENSEN]
    Inuit Community (Inuit Ataqatigiit) or IA [Mute Bourup EGEDE]
    Signpost Party (Naleraq) or N [Pele BROBERG] (formerly Partii Naleraq)

  • Grenada

    National Democratic Congress or NDC [Dickon MITCHELL]
    New National Party or NNP [Keith MITCHELL]

  • Guam

    Democratic Party [Anthony "Tony" M. BABAUTA]
    Republican Party [Juan Carlos BENITEZ]

  • Guatemala

    Bienestar Nacional or BIEN [Fidel REYES LEE]
    Citizen Prosperity or PC [Hernan MEJIA and Jorge GARCIA SILVA]
    Commitment, Renewal, and Order or CREO [Rodolfo NEUTZE]
    Everyone Together for Guatemala or TODOS [Felipe ALEJOS]
    Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity or URNG-MAIZ or URNG [Walter FELIX]
    Humanist Party of Guatemala or PHG [Rudio MERIDA]
    Movement for the Liberation of Peoples or MLP [Thelma CABRERA and Vincenta JERONIMO]
    Movimiento Semilla or SEMILLA [Samuel PEREZ Alvarez]
    National Advancement Party or PAN [Manuel CONDE]
    National Convergence Front or FCN-NACION [Javier HERNANDEZ]
    National Unity for Hope or UNE [Sandra TORRES and Jorge VARGAS]
    Nationalist Change Union or UCN [Carlos ROJAS and Sofia HERNANDEZ] (dissolved 16 December 2021)
    PODEMOS [Jose LEON]
    Political Movement Winaq or Winaq [Sonia GUTIERREZ Raguay]
    Value or VALOR [Zury RIOS and Lucrecia MARROQUIN]
    Vamos por una Guatemala Diferente or VAMOS [Alejandro GIAMMATTEI]
    Victory or VICTORIA [Abraham RIVERA and his four sons  Amilcar, Juan, Manuel, and Edgar]
    Vision with Values or VIVA [Armando Damian CASTILLO Alvarado]

  • Guernsey

    none; all independents

  • Guinea

    African Congress for Democracy and Renewal or CADRE [Daniel KOLIE]
    Alliance for National Renewal or ARN [Pepe Koulemou KOULEMOU]
    Alliance for National Renewal or ARENA [Sekou Koureissy CONDE]
    Bloc Liberal or BL [Faya MILLIMONO]
    Citizen Generation or GECI [Mohamed SOUMAH]
    Citizen Party for the Defense of Collective Interests or PCDIC [Hamidou BARRY]
    Democratic Alliance for Renewal or ADR [Alpha Oumar Taran DIALLO]
    Democratic National Movement or MND [Ousmane DORE]
    Democratic Union for Renewal and Progress or UDRP [Edouard Zoutomou KPOGHOMOU]
    Democratic Union of Guinea or UDG [Mamadou SYLLA]
    Democratic People's Movement of Guinea or MPDG [Siaka BARRY]
    Democratic Workers' Party of Guinea or PDTG [Talibi Dos CAMARA]
    Front for the National Alliance or FAN [Makale CAMARA]
    Generation for Reconciliation Union and Prosperity or GRUP [Papa Koly KOUROUMA]
    Guinea for Democracy and Balance or GDE [Aboubacar SOUMAH]
    Guinean Party for Peaceful Coexistence and Development or PGCD [Nene Moussa Maleya CAMARA]
    Guinean Party for Solidarity and Democracy or PGSD [Elie KAMANO]
    Guinean Union for Democracy and Development or UGDD [Francis HABA]
    Guinean Rally for Development or RGD [Abdoul Kabele CAMARA]
    Guinean Rally for Unity and Development or RGUD [Abraham BOURE]
    Guinean Renaissance Party or PGR [Ibrahima Sory CONDE]
    Modern Guinea [Thierno Yaya DIALLO]
    Movement for Solidarity and Development or MSD [Abdoulaye DIALLO]
    National Front for Development or FND [Alhousseine Makanera KAKE]
    National Union for Prosperity or UNP [Alpha Mady SOUMAH]
    National Party for Hope and Development or PEDN [Lansana KOUYATE]
    New Democratic Forces or NFD [Mouctar DIALLO]
    New Generation for the Republic or NGR [Abbe SYLLA]
    New Guinea or NG [Mohamed CISSE]
    New Political Generation or NGP [Badra KONE]
    Party for Progress and Change or PPC [Aboubacar Biro SOUMAH]
    Party of Citizen Action through Labor or PACT [Makale TRAORE]
    Party of Democrats for Hope or PADES [Ousmane KABA]
    Party of Freedom and Progress or PLP [Laye Souleymane DIALLO]
    Party of Hope for National Development or PEDN [Lansana KOUYATE]
    Rally for Renaissance and Development or RRD [Abdoulaye KOUROUMA]
    Rally for the Guinean People or RPG [vacant]
    Rally for the Integrated Development of Guinea or RDIG [Jean Marc TELIANO]
    Rally for the Republic or RPR [Diabaty DORE]
    Union for Progress and Renewal or UPR [Ousmane BAH]
    Union for the Defense of Republican Interests or UDIR [Bouya KONATE]
    Union for the Progress of Guinea or UPG [Jacques GBONIMY]
    Union of Democratic Forces or UFD [Mamadou Baadiko BAH]
    Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea or UFDG [Cellou Dalein DIALLO]
    Union of Democrats for the Renaissance of Guinea or UDRG [Amadou Oury BAH]
    Union of Republican Forces or UFR [Sidya TOURE]
    Unity and Progress Party or PUP [Fode BANGOURA]

    Ruling party

    Guinea is currently lead by the National Committee for Reconciliation and Development, the transition government
    (Comité national du rassemblement et du développement, CNRD)


    Opposition parties



  • Guinea-Bissau

    African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cabo Verde or PAIGC [Domingos SIMOES PEREIRA]
    Democratic Convergence Party or PCD [Vicente FERNANDES]
    Movement for Democratic Alternation Group of 15 or MADEM-G15 [Braima CAMARA]
    National People’s Assembly – Democratic Party of Guinea Bissau or APU-PDGB [Nuno Gomes NABIAM]
    New Democracy Party or PND [Mamadu Iaia DJALO]
    Party for Social Renewal or PRS [Alberto NAMBEIA]
    Republican Party for Independence and Development or PRID [Aristides GOMES]
    Union for Change or UM [Agnelo REGALA]

  • Guyana

    A New and United Guyana or ANUG [Ralph RAMKARRAN]
    A Partnership for National Unity or APNU [Joseph HARMON]
    Alliance for Change or AFC [Khemraj RAMJATTAN]
    Justice for All Party [Chandra Narine SHARMA]
    Liberty and Justice Party or LJP [Lenox SHUMAN]
    National Independent Party or NIP [Saphier Husain SUBEDAR]
    People's Progressive Party/Civic or PPP/C [Dr. Bharrat JAGDEO]
    The New Movement or TNM [Dr. Asha KISSOON]
    The United Force or TUF [Marissa NADIR]
    United Republican Party or URP [Vishnu BANDHU]

  • Haiti

    Alternative League for Haitian Progress and Emancipation (Ligue Alternative pour le Progres et l’Emancipation Haitienne) or LAPEH [Jude CELESTIN]
    Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MCNH or Mochrenha [Luc MESADIEU]
    Christian National Movement for the Reconstruction of Haiti or UNCRH [Jean Chavannes JEUNE]
    Combat of Peasant Workers to Liberate Haiti (Konbit Travaye Peyizan Pou Libere Ayiti) or Kontra Pep La [Jean William JEANTY]
    Convention for Democratic Unity or KID [Evans PAUL]
    Cooperative Action to Rebuild Haiti or KONBA [Jean William JEANTY]
    December 16 Platform or Platfom 16 Desanm [Dr. Gerard BLOT]
    Democratic Alliance Party or ALYANS [Evans PAUL] (coalition includes KID and PPRH)
    Democratic Centers' National Council or CONACED [Osner FEVRY]
    Democratic and Popular Sector (Secteur Democratique et Populaire) or SDP [Nenel CASSY, Andre MICHEL, and Marjorie MICHEL]
    Democratic Unity Convention (Konvansyon Inite Demokratik) or KID [Enold JOSEPH]
    Dessalinian Patriotic and Popular Movement or MOPOD [Jean Andre VICTOR]
    Effort and Solidarity to Create an Alternative for the People or ESKAMP [Joseph JASME]
    Fanmi Lavalas or FL [Maryse NARCISSE and former President Jean Bertrand ARISTIDE]
    Forward (En Avant) [Jerry TARDIEU]
    Fusion of Haitian Social Democrats (Fusion Des Sociaux-Démocrates Haïtiens) or FHSD [Edmonde Supplice BEAUZILE]
    G18 Policy Platform (Plateforme Politique G18) [Joseph WUILSON]
    Haiti in Action (Ayiti An Aksyon Haiti's Action) or AAA [Youri LATORTUE]
    Haitian Tet Kale Party (Parti Haitien Tet Kale) or PHTK [Line Sainphaar BALTHAZAR]
    Independent Movement for National Reconciliation or MIRN [Luc FLEURINORD]
    Lavni Organization or LAVNI [Yves CRISTALIN]
    Lod Demokratik [Jean Renel SENATUS]
    Love Haiti (Renmen Ayiti) or RA [Jean Henry CEANT]
    MTV Ayiti [Reginald BOULOS]
    National Consortium of Haitian Political Parties (Consortium National des Partis Politiques Haitiens) or CNPPH [Jeantel JOSEPH]
    National Shield Network (Reseau Bouclier National) [Victor PROPHANE and Garry BODEAU]
    Organization of the People's Struggle (Oganizasyon Pep Kap Lite) or OPL [Edgard LEBLANC]
    Patriotic Unity (Inite Patriyotik) or Inite [Sorel YACINTHE and Levaillant Louis JEUNE]
    Platform Pitit Desalin (Politik Pitit Dessalines) or PPD [Jean-Charles MOISE]
    Political Party for Us All or Bridge (Pont) or Pou Nou Tout [Jean Marie CHERESTAL]
    Popular Patriotic Dessalinien Movement (Mouvement Patriotique Populaire Dessalinien) or MOPOD [Jean Andre VICTOR]
    Rally of Progressive National Democrats (Rassemblement des Democrates Nationaux Progressistes) or RDNP [Eric JEAN-BAPTISTE]
    Respe (Respect) [Charles Henry BAKER]
    Women and Families Political Parties (Defile Pati Politik Fanm Ak Fanmi) [Marie Rebecca GUILLAUME]

  • Holy See (Vatican City)

    none

  • Honduras

    Anti-Corruption Party or PAC [Marlene ALVARENGA]
    Christian Democratic Party or DC [Carlos PORTILLO]
    Democratic Liberation of Honduras or Liderh [Lempira VIANA]
    Democratic Unification Party or UD [Alfonso DIAZ Narvaez]
    The Front or El Frente [Kelin PEREZ]
    Honduran Patriotic Alliance or AP [Romeo VASQUEZ Velasquez]
    Innovation and Unity Party or PINU [Guillermo VALLE]
    Liberal Party or PL [Yani Benjamin ROSENTHAL Hidalgo]
    Liberty and Refoundation Party or LIBRE [Jose Manuel ZELAYA Rosales]
    National Party of Honduras or PNH [Juan Nasry ASFURA]
    New Route or NR [Esdras Amado LOPEZ]
    Opposition Alliance against the Dictatorship or Alianza de Oposicion contra la Dictadura [Salvador NASRALLA] (electoral coalition)
    Savior Party of Honduras or PSH [Salvador Alejandro Cesar NASRALLA Salum]
    Vamos or Let’s Go [Jose COTO]
    We Are All Honduras (Todos Somos Honduras) or TSH [Marlon Oniel ESCOTO Valerio]

  • Hong Kong

    parties:
    Bauhinia Party or BP [WONG Chau-chi and LI Shan]
    Business and Professionals Alliance for Hong Kong or BPA [LO Wai-kwok]
    Civic Party [vacant]
    Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong or DAB [Starry LEE Wai-king]
    Democratic Party [LO Kin-hei]
    Hong Kong Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood of ADPL [Bruce LIU]
    Labor Party [Steven KWOK Wing-kin; arrested in 2020]
    League of Social Democrats or LSD [CHAN Po-ying]
    Liberal Party or LP [led by Tommy CHEUNG; chaired by Peter SHIU]
    Neighborhood and Workers Service Center or NWSC [LEUNG Yui-chung]
    New People's Party or NPP [Regina IP]
    People Power or PP [LEUNG Ka-shing]
    Third Side [TIK Chi-yeun]

    other:
    Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions or HKFTU [labor and political group presided over by NG Chau-pei and chaired by WONG Kwok]
    Hong Kong Federation of Education Workers or HKFEW [WONG Kwan-yu]
    Federation of Hong Kong and Kowloon Labour Unions or HKFLU [represented by POON Siu-Ping]
    Roundtable [Michael TIEN Puk-sun]
    Professional Power [Christine FONG Kwok Shan]
    Kowloon West New Dynamic or KWND [Priscilla LEUNG]
    New Prospect for Hong Kong [Gary ZHANG Xinyu]
    New Century Forum [MA Fung-kwak]
    Path of Democracy [Ronny TONG] (think tank) (2022)

    note(s) - pro-democracy - Civic Party, Democratic Party, Labor Party, LSD, PP, Professional Commons; pro-Beijing - DAB, FTU, Liberal Party, NPP, BPA, BP; non-establishment - Third Side, Path of Democracy; there is no political party ordinance, so there are no registered political parties; politically active groups register as societies or companies

    by the end of 2021, the leading pro-democracy figures in Hong Kong had been effectively removed from the political arena under the provisions of Beijing's 2021 electoral changes or via charges under the 2020 national security law; in addition, dozens of pro-democracy organizations, including political parties, unions, churches, civil rights groups, and media organizations have disbanded or closed

  • Hungary

    Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Zsolt SEMJEN]
    Democratic Coalition or DK [Ferenc GYURCSANY]
    Dialogue for Hungary (Parbeszed) or PM [Bence TORDAI, Rebeka SZABO]
    Fidesz-Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz [Viktor ORBAN]
    Hungarian Socialist Party or MSZP [Bertalan TOTH, Agnes KUNHALMI]
    LMP-Hungary's Green Party [Peter UNGAR, Erzsebet SCHMUCK]
    Mi Hazank (Our Homeland Movement) or MHM [Laszlo TOROCZKAI]
    Momentum Movement (Momentum Mozgalom) [Ferenc GELENCSER]
    Movement for a Better Hungary or Jobbik [Marton GYONGYOSI]
    National Self-Government of Germans in Hungary or LdU [Ibolya HOCK-ENGLENDER]
    United for Hungary (a coalition of Jobbik, MSZP, Dialogue, DK, LMP, and Momentum)

  • Iceland

    Centrist Party (Midflokkurinn) or CP [Sigmundur David GUNNLAUGSSON]
    Independence Party (Sjalfstaedisflokkurinn) or IP [Bjarni BENEDIKTSSON] 
    Left-Green Movement (Vinstrihreyfingin-graent frambod) or LGM [Katrin JAKOBSDOTTIR]
    People's Party (Flokkur Folksins) [Inga SAELAND]
    Pirate Party (Piratar) [Halldora MOGENSEN]
    Progressive Party (Framsoknarflokkurinn) or PP [Sigurdur Ingi JOHANNSSON]
    Reform Party (Vidreisn) [Thorgerdur Katrin GUNNARSDOTTIR]
    Social Democratic Alliance (Samfylkingin) or SDA [Logi Mar EINARSSON]

  • India

    Aam Aadmi Party or AAP [Arvind KEJRIWAL]
    All India Trinamool Congress or AITC [Mamata BANERJEE]
    Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]
    Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Jagat Prakash NADDA]
    Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]
    Communist Party of India-Marxist or CPI(M) [Sitaram YECHURY]
    Dravida Munnetra Khazhagam [Muthuvel Karunanidhi STALIN]
    Indian National Congress or INC [Sonia GANDHI]
    Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]
    Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Lalu Prasad YADAV]
    Samajwadi Party or SP [Akhilesh YADAV]
    Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Sukhbir Singh BADAL]
    Shiv Sena or SS [Uddhav THACKERAY]
    Telegana Rashtra Samithi or TRS [K. Chandrashekar RAO]
    Telugu Desam Party or TDP [N. Chandrababu NAIDU]
    YSR Congress or YSRCP or YCP [Y.S. Jaganmohan REDDY]

    note: India has dozens of national and regional political parties

  • Indonesia

    Berkarya Party [Muchdi PURWOPRANJONO]
    Crescent Star Party or PBB [Yusril Ihza MAHENDRA]
    Democrat Party or PD [Agus Harimurti YUDHOYONO]
    Functional Groups Party or GOLKAR [Airlangga HARTARTO]
    Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA [PRABOWO Subianto Djojohadikusumo]
    Garuda Party or Change Indonesia Movement Party [Ahmad Ridha SABANA]
    Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]
    Indonesian Justice and Unity Party or PKPI [Yussuf SOLICHIEN]
    Indonesian Solidarity Party or PSI [GIRING GANESHA]
    National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]
    National Democratic Party or NasDem [Surya PALOH]
    National Mandate Party or PAN [Zulkifli HASAN]
    People's Conscience Party or Hanura [Oesman Sapta ODANG]
    Perindo Party [Hary TANOESOEDIBJO]
    Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Ahmad SYAIKHU]
    United Development Party or PPP [Suharso MONOARFA] (2021)

  • Iran

    Combatant Clergy Association [Mostafa POURMOHAMMADI] (an active political group)
    Executives of Construction Party [Hossein MARASHI]
    Followers of the Guardianship of the Jurisprudent [Ali LARIJANI]
    Front of Islamic Revolutionary Stability [Sadegh MAHSOULI, secretary general]
    Islamic Coalition Party [Asadollah BADAMCHIAN]
    Islamic Iran Participation Front [associated with former President Mohammed KHATAMI]
    Islamic Law Party
    Militant Clerics Society (Majma-e Ruhaniyoun-e Mobarez) or MRM [Mohammad Mousavi KHOEINIHA]
    Moderation and Development Party [Hassan ROUHANI]
    National Trust Party (Hezb-e E'temad-eMelli) or HEM [Elias HAZRATI]
    National Unity Party
    Pervasive Coalition of Reformists [Ali SUFI, chairman] (includes Council for Coordinating the Reforms Front, National Trust Party, Union of Islamic Iran People Party, Moderation and Development Party)
    Principlists Grand Coalition (includes Combatant Clergy Association and Islamic Coalition Party, Society of Devotees and Pathseekers of the Islamic Revolution, Front of Islamic Revolution Stability)
    Progress, Welfare, and Justice Front [Mohammad Saeed AHADIAN]
    Progress and Justice Population of Islamic Iran or PJP [Hosein GHORBANZADEH, general secretary]
    Resistance Front of Islamic Iran [Yadollah HABIBI, general secretary]
    The Society of the Militant Clergy of Tehran (Jame’eh-ye Ruhaniyyat-e Mobarez-e Tehran) or JRM)
    Union of Islamic Iran People's Party (Hezb-e Ettehad-e Iran-e Eslami) [Azar MANSOURI]
    Wayfarers of the Islamic Revolution

  • Iraq

    Al Fatah Alliance [Hadi al-AMIRI]
    Azm Alliance [Khamis al-KHANJAR]
    Babylon Movement [Rayan al-KILDANI]
    Imtidad
    Ishraqet Konoon [Jaafar AZIZ]
    Kurdistan Democratic Party or KDP [Masoud BARZANI]
    National Contract Alliance [Falih al-FAYYADH]
    National State Forces Alliance [Ammar al-HAKIM]
    National Wisdom Trend [Ammar al-HAKIM]
    New Generation Movement or Naway Nwe [SHASWAR Abd al-Wahid Qadir]
    Patriotic Union of Kurdistan or PUK [Bafel TALABANI]
    Sadrist Movement [Muqtada al-SADR]
    State of Law Coalition [Nuri al-MALIKI]
    Taqadum or Progress Party [Muhammad al-HALBUSI]
    Tasmin Alliance [Sarah al-SALIHI]

    numerous smaller independent, religious, local, tribal, and minority parties

  • Ireland

    Aontu [Peadar TOIBIN]
    Solidarity-People Before Profit or PBPS [collective leadership]
    Fianna Fail [Micheal MARTIN]
    Fine Gael [Leo VARADKAR]
    Green Party [Eamon RYAN]
    Human Dignity Alliance [Ronan MULLEN]
    Labor (Labour) Party Ivana BACIK]
    Renua Ireland (vacant)
    Right to Change or RTC [Joan COLLINS]
    Sinn Fein [Mary Lou McDONALD]
    Social Democrats [Catherine MURPHY, Roisin SHORTALL]
    Socialist Party [collective leadership]
    The Workers' Party [collective leadership]

  • Isle of Man

    Green Party [Andrew LANGAN-NEWTON]
    Liberal Vannin Party or LVP [Lawrie HOOPER]
    Manx Labor Party [Joney FARAGHER]
    Mec Vannin [Mark KERMODE] (sometimes referred to as the Manx Nationalist Party)

    note: most members sit as independents

  • Israel

    Blue and White [Benny GANTZ]
    Joint Arab List [Ayman ODEH] (alliance includes Hadash, Ta’al, Balad)
    Labor Party or HaAvoda [Merav MICHAELI]
    Likud [Binyamin NETANYAHU]
    Meretz [Zehava GAL-ON]
    New Hope [Gideon SA'AR]
    Religious Zionist Party [Bezalel SMOTRICH, chairperson]
    SHAS [Aryeh DERI]
    United Arab List [Mansour ABBAS]
    United Torah Judaism or UTJ [Moshe GAFNI] (alliance includes Agudat Israel and Degel HaTorah)
    Yamina [Ayelet SHAKED]
    Yesh Atid [Yair LAPID]
    Yisrael Beiteinu [Avigdor LIEBERMAN]

  • Italy

    Action-Italia Viva [Carlo CALENDA and Matteo RENZI]
    Associative Movement of Italians Abroad or MAIE [Ricardo Antonio MERIO]
    Brothers of Italy or FdI [Giorgia MELONI]
    Democratic Party or PD [Enrico LETTA]
    Five Star Movement or M5S [Giuseppe CONTE]
    Forza Italia or FI [Silvio BERLUSCONI]
    Free and Equal (Liberi e Uguali) or LeU [Pietro GRASSO]
    Greens and Left Alliance or AVS [Angelo BONELLI]
    Italexit [Gianluigi PARAGONE]]
    League or Lega [Matteo SALVINI]
    More Europe or +EU [Emma BONINO]
    Popular Union or PU [Luigi DE MAGISTRIS]
    South calls North or ScN [Cateno DE LUCA] 
    South Tyrolean Peoples Party or SVP [Philipp ACHAMMER]
    other minor parties

  • Jamaica

    Jamaica Labor Party or JLP [Andrew Michael HOLNESS]
    Jamaica Progressive Party or JPP [Gilbert Alexander EDWARDS]
    People's National Party or PNP [Mark GOLDING]
    United Independents' Congress or UIC [Joseph L. PATTERSON]

  • Japan

    Constitutional Democratic Party of Japan or CDP [Kenta IZUMI]
    Democratic Party for the People Japan or DPFP [Yuichiro TAMAKI]
    Group of Reformists [Sakihito OZAWA]
    Japan Communist Party or JCP [Kazuo SHII]
    Japan Innovation Party or Nippon Ishin no kai or Ishin [Ichiro MATSUI]
    Komeito [Natsuo YAMAGUCHI]
    Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Fumio KISHIDA]
    Liberal Party [Ichiro OZAWA] (formerly People's Life Party & Taro Yamamoto and Friends or PLPTYF)
    Party of Hope or Kibo no To [Nariaki NAKAYAMA]
    Reiwa Shinsengumi [Taro YAMAMOTO]
    Social Democratic Party or SDP [Mizuho FUKUSHIMA]

  • Jersey

    Better Way or BW (group of independent candidates)
    Jersey Alliance or JA [Mark BOLEAT]
    Jersey Liberal Conservatives or JLC [Sir Philip BAILHACHE]
    Progress Party or PP [Steve PALLETT]
    Reform Jersey or RJ [Sam MEZEC]

    note: most deputies sit as independents

  • Jordan

    Jordan has 54 registered political parties, four of which currently have seats in the elected Chamber of Deputies including the Islamic Action Front, the Islamic Centrist Party, the United Jordanian Front Party, and the National Loyalty Party

  • Kazakhstan

    Adal [Serik SULTANGALI] (formerly Birlik (Unity) Party)
    Ak Zhol (Bright Path) Party or Democratic Party of Kazakhstan Ak Zhol [Azat PERUASHEV]
    Amanat [Erlan QOSANOV] (formerly Nur Otan (Radiant Fatherland))
    National Social Democratic Party or NSDP [Ashat Nurmagambetuly RAHYMJANOV]
    People's Democratic (Patriotic) Party or Auyl or AHDPP [Ali BEKTAYEV]
    People's Party of Kazakhstan or QHP [Eruhamet ERTISBAEV]

  • Kenya

    Azimio La Umoja–One Kenya Coalition Party [Raila ODINGA] (includes DAP-K, JP, KANU, KUP, MCC, MDG, ODM, PAA, UDM, UDP, UPA, UPIA, and WDM-K)
    Amani National Congress or ANC [Musalia MUDAVADI]
    Chama Cha Kazi or CCK [Moses KURIA]
    Democratic Action Party or DAP-K [Wafula WAMUNYINYI]
    Democratic Party or DP [Joseph MUNYAO, Chairman]
    Forum for the Restoration of Democracy–Kenya or FORD-Kenya  [Moses WETANGULA]
    Grand Dream Development Party or GDDP [Fabian KYULE]           
    Independents  
    Jubilee Party or JP [Uhuru KENYATTA]
    Kenya African National Union or KANU [Gideon MOI]
    Kenya Kwanza coalition [William RUTO] (includes ANC, CCK, DP, FORD-Kenya, TSP, and UDA)
    Kenya Union Party or KUP [John LONYANGAPUO]
    Maendeleo Chap Chap Party or MCC [Alfred MUTUA]
    Movement for Democracy and Growth or MDG [David OCHIENG]
    National Agenda Party or NAP-K [Alfayo AGUFANA]                        
    National Ordinary People Empowerment Union or NOPEU [Rodgers MPURU, Secretary General}
    Orange Democratic Movement or ODM [Raila ODINGA]
    Pamoja African Alliance or PAA [Amason KINGI]
    The Service Party or TSP [Mwangi KIUNJURI]
    United Democratic Alliance or UDA [William RUTO]
    United Democratic Movement or UDM [Philip MURGOR]
    United Democratic Party or UDP [Cyrus Jirongo]                                                
    United Party of Independent Alliance or UPIA [Ukur YATANI]                                      
    United Progressive Alliance or UPA [Kenneth NYAMWAMU]                                        
    Wiper Democratic Movement-Kenya or WDM-K [Kalonzo MUSYOKA]   

    note: only parties with seats in the National Assembly and Senate included             

  • Kiribati

    Boutokaan Kiribati Moa Party or BKM [Tessie LAMBOURNE]
    Tobwaan Kiribati Party or TKP [Taneti MAAMAU]

  • Korea, North

    major parties:
    Korean Workers' Party or KWP [KIM Jong Un, general secretary]
    General Association of Korean Residents in Japan (Chongryon) [HO Chong Man]
    minor parties:
    Chondoist Chongu Party [RI Myong Chol] (under KWP control)
    Social Democratic Party or KSDP [PAK Yong Il] (under KWP control) (2021)

  • Korea, South

    Basic Income Party [SHIN Ji-hye] (formed in January 2020)
    Democratic Party or DP [LEE Jae-myung] (renamed from Minjoo Party of Korea or MPK in October 2016; formerly New Politics Alliance for Democracy or NPAD, which was a merger of the Democratic Party or DP (formerly DUP) [KIM Han-gil] and the New Political Vision Party or NPVP [AHN Cheol-soo] in March 2014; includes the former Open Democratic Party [CHOI Kong-wook], which merged with the DP in January 2022; also includes the Together Citizens' Party or Platform Party [WOO Hee-jong, CHOI Bae-geun], which merged with the DP in May 2022)
    Justice Party or JP [YEO Young-kug]
    People Power Party or PPP [LEE Jun-seok] (renamed from United Future Party in September 2020, formerly Liberty Korea Party)
    People's Party or PP [AHN Cheol-soo] (formed in February 2020)
    Transition Korea [CHO Jung-hun] (formed in February 2020) (2022)

    note - the Democratic (Minjoo) Party is South Korea’s largest party and its main progressive party; the People Power Party (PPP) is a conservative grouping and is South Korea’s second-largest party; the PPP and its predecessor parties have controlled the National Assembly for all but nine of the 33 years since the 1987 Constitution went into effect

  • Kosovo

    Alliance for the Future of Kosovo or AAK [Ramush HARADINAJ]
    Alternativa [Mimoza KUSARI-LILA]
    Ashkali Party for Integration or PAI [Bekim ARIFI]
    Democratic League of Kosovo or LDK [Lumir ABDIXHIKU]
    Democratic Party of Kosovo or PDK [Memli KRASNIQI]
    Guxo! [Donika GERVALLA-SCHWARZ]
    Independent Liberal Party or SLS [Slobodan PETROVIC]
    New Democratic Initiative of Kosovo or IRDK [Elbert KRASNIQI]
    New Democratic Party or NDS [Emilja REDXEPI]
    New Kosovo Alliance or AKR [Behgjet PACOLLI]
    Progressive Movement of Kosovar Roma or LPRK [Erxhan GALUSHI]
    Romani Initiative [Gazmend SALIJEVCI]
    Self-Determination Movement (Lëvizja Vetevendosje) or LVV [Albin KURTI]
    Serb List or SL [Goran RAKIC]
    Social Democratic Initiative or NISMA [Fatmir LIMAJ] (formerly Initiative for Kosovo)
    Social Democratic Party of Kosovo or PSD [Dardan MOLLIQAJ]
    Social Democratic Union or SDU [Duda BALJE]
    Turkish Democratic Party of Kosovo or KDTP [Fikrim DAMKA]
    Unique Gorani Party JGP [Adem HODZA]
    Vakat Coalition or VAKAT [Rasim DEMIRI]

  • Kuwait

    none; the government does not recognize any political parties or allow their formation, although no formal law bans political parties

  • Kyrgyzstan

    Alliance [Mirlan JEENCHOROEV]
    Ata-Jurt Kyrgyzstan (Homeland) or AJK [Aybek MATKERIMOV]
    Butun Kyrgyzstan (All Kyrgyzstan) [Adakhan MADUMAROV]
    Ishenim (Trust in Kyrgyz) [Rysbat AMATOV]
    Mekenchil (Patriotic Party) [Sadyr JAPAROV]
    Social Democratic Party of Kosovo or SDPK (dissolved in 2020)
    Social Democrats or SDK [Temirlan SULTANBEKOV]
    United Kyrgyzstan [Adakhan Kumsanbayevich MADUMAROV]
    Yntymak (Unity) [Marlen MAMATALIEV]
    Yyman Nuru (Light of Faith) [Nurjigit KADYRBEKOV]

  • Laos

    Lao People's Revolutionary Party or LPRP [THONGLOUN Sisoulit]

    note: other parties proscribed

  • Latvia

    Development/For! or AP! [Daniels PAVLUTS, Juris PUCE]
    For a Humane Latvia or PCL [Maris MOZVILLO] (formerly known as Who Owns the State?)
    National Alliance "All For Latvia!"-"For Fatherland and Freedom/LNNK" or NA [Raivis DZINTARS]
    New Unity or JV [Arturs Krišjānis KARINS]
    Social Democratic Party "Harmony" or S [Janis URBANOVICS]
    The Conservatives or K [Janis BORDANS] (formerly known as New Conservative Party or JKP)
    Union of Greens and Farmers or ZZS [Aivars LEMBERGS]
    United List or AS [Uldis PILENS] (electoral coalition including the Latvian Green Party or LZP, Latvian Association of Regions or LRA, Liepaja Party)

  • Lebanon

    Al-Ahbash or Association of Islamic Charitable Projects or AICP [Shaykh Hussam QARAQIRA]
    Amal Movement ("Hope Movement") [Nabih BERRI]
    Azm Movement [Najib MIQATI]
    Ba’th Arab Socialist Party of Lebanon [leader disputed]
    Free Patriotic Movement or FPM [Gibran BASSIL]
    Future Movement Bloc or FM [Sa'ad al-HARIRI]
    Hizballah [Hassan NASRALLAH]
    Islamic Action Front or IAF [Sheikh Zuhayr al-JU’AYD]
    Kata'ib Party [Sami GEMAYEL]
    Lebanese Democratic Party [Talal ARSLAN]
    Lebanese Forces or LF [Samir JA'JA]
    Marada Movement [Sulayman FRANJIEH]
    Progressive Socialist Party or PSP [Walid JUNBLATT]
    Social Democrat Hunshaqian Party [Sabuh KALPAKIAN]
    Syrian Social Nationalist Party or SSNP [Rabi BANAT]
    Tashnaq or Armenian Revolutionary Federation [Hagop PAKRADOUNIAN]

  • Lesotho

    All Basotho Convention or ABC [Nkaku KABI]
    Alliance of Democrats or AD [Monyane MOLELEKI]
    Basotho Action Party or BAP [Nqosa MAHAO]
    Basotho National Party or BNP [Thesele MASERIBANE]
    Democratic Congress or DC [Mathibeli MOKHOTHU]
    Democratic Party of Lesotho or DPL [Limpho TAU]
    Lesotho Congress for Democracy or LCD [Mothetjoa METSING]
    Movement of Economic Change or MEC [Selibe MOCHOBOROANE]
    National Independent Party or NIP [Kimetso MATHABA]
    Popular Front for Democracy of PFD [Lekhetho RAKUOANE]
    Reformed Congress of Lesotho or RCL [Keketso RANTSO]

  • Liberia

    All Liberian Party or ALP [Benoi UREY]
    Alliance for Peace and Democracy or APD [Marcus S. G. DAHN]
    Alternative National Congress or ANC [Orishil GOULD]
    Coalition for Democratic Change [George WEAH] (includes CDC, NPP, and LPDP) Congress for Democratic Change or CDC [Mulbah MORLU]
    Liberia Destiny Party or LDP [Nathaniel BARNES]
    Liberia National Union or LINU [Nathaniel BLAMA]
    Liberia Transformation Party or LTP [Julius SUKU]
    Liberian People Democratic Party or LPDP [Alex J. TYLER]
    Liberian People's Party or LPP [Yanqui ZAZA] 
    Liberty Party or LP [Musa Hassan BILITY]
    Movement for Democracy and Reconstruction or MDR [Prince Y. JOHNSON]
    Movement for Economic Empowerment [Dr. J. Mill JONES]
    Movement for Progressive Change or MPC [Simeon FREEMAN]
    National Democratic Coalition or NDC [Dew MAYSON]
    National Democratic Party of Liberia or NDPL [D. Nyandeh SIEH]
    National Patriotic Party or NPP [Jewel HOWARD TAYLOR]
    National Reformist Party or NRP [Maximillian T. W. DIABE]
    National Union for Democratic Progress or NUDP [Victor BARNEY]
    People's Unification Party or PUP [Isobe GBORKORKOLLIE]
    Unity Party or UP [Rev. J. Luther TARPEH]
    United People's Party [MacDonald WENTO]
    Victory for Change Party or VCP [Marcus R. JONES]

    Musa Hassan Bility

  • Libya

    NA

  • Liechtenstein

    Democrats for Liechtenstein (Demokraten pro Liechtenstein) or DpL [Thomas REHAK]
    Fatherland Union (Vaterlaendische Union) or VU [Guenther FRITZ]
    Progressive Citizens' Party (Fortschrittliche Buergerpartei) or FBP [Thomas BANZER]
    The Free List (Die Freie Liste) or FL [Pepo FRICK and Conny BUECHEL BRUEHWILER]
    The Independents (Die Unabhaengigen) or DU [Harald "Harry" QUADERER]

  • Lithuania

    Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles or LLRA [Valdemar TOMASEVSKI]
    Freedom and Justice Party or LT [Remigijus ZEMAITAITIS] (formerly Lithuanian Freedom Union (Liberals))
    Freedom Party or LP [Ausrine ARMONAITE]
    Homeland Union-Lithuanian Christian Democrats or TS-LKD [Gabrielius LANDSBERGIS]
    Labor Party or DP [Andrius MAZURONIS]
    Lithuanian Center Party or LCP [Naglis PUTEIKIS]
    Lithuanian Farmers and Greens Union or LVZS [Ramunas KARBAUSKIS]
    Lithuanian Green Party or LZP [Remigijus LAPINSKAS]
    Lithuanian Liberal Movement or LS or LRLS [Viktorija CMILYTE-NIELSEN]
    Lithuanian List or LL [Darius KUOLYS]
    Lithuanian Regions Party or LRP [Jonas PINSKUS] (formerly Lithuanian Social Democratic Labor Party or LSDDP)
    Lithuanian Social Democratic Party or LSDP [Vilija BLINKEVICIUTE]

  • Luxembourg

    Alternative Democratic Reform Party or ADR [Fred KEUP]
    Christian Social People's Party or CSV [Claude WISELER]
    Democratic Party or DP [Corinne CAHEN]
    Green Party [Djuna BERNARD, Meris SEHOVIC]
    Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Yves CRUCHTEN]
    The Left (dei Lenk/la Gauche) [collective leadership, Central Committee]
    Pirate Party [Sven CLEMENT, Marc GOERGEN]

  • Macau

    Alliance for Change or APM [Melinda CHAN Mei-yi]
    Alliance for a Happy Home or ABL [WONG Kit-cheng] (an electoral list of UPP)
    Macau Civic Power [Agnes LAM Iok-fong]
    Macau-Guangdong Union or UMG [MAK Soi-kun]
    Macau Citizens' Development Association or ACDM [Becky SONG Pek-kei]
    New Democratic Macau Association or ANMD [AU Kam-san]
    New Hope or NE [Jose Maria Pereira COUTINHO]
    New Macau Association (New Macau Progressives) or AMN or ANPM [Sulu SOU Ka-hou]
    New Union for Macau's Development or NUDM [Angela LEONG On-kei]
    Progress Promotion Union
    Prosperous Democratic Macau Association or APMD (an electoral list of AMN)
    Union for Development or UPD [HO Sut Hen]
    Union for Promoting Progress or UPP [HO Ion-sang]
    United Citizens Association of Macau or ACUM [CHAN Meng-kam]

    note: there is no political party ordinance, so there are no registered political parties; politically active groups register as societies or companies

  • Madagascar

    Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery or LEADER FANILO [Jean Max RAKOTOMAMONJY]
    FOMBA [Ny Rado RAFALIMANANA]
    Gideons Fighting Against Poverty in Madagascar (Gedeona Miady amin'ny Fahantrana eto Madagascar) or GFFM [Andre Christian Dieu Donne MAILHOL]
    Green Party or VERTS (Antoko Maintso) [Alexandre GEORGET]
    I Love Madagascar (Tiako I Madagasikara) or TIM [Marc RAVALOMANANA]
    Irmar
    Malagasy Aware (Malagasy Tonga Saina) or MTS [Roland RATSIRAKA]
    Malagasy Raising Together (Malagasy Miara-Miainga) or MMM [Hajo ANDRIANAINARIVELO]
    New Force for Madagascar (Hery Vaovao ho an'ny Madagasikara) or HVM [Hery Martial RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA Rakotoarimanana]
    Total Refoundation of Madagascar (Refondation Totale de Madagascar) or RTM [Joseph Martin RANDRIAMAMPIONONA]
    Vanguard for the Renovation of Madagascar (Avant-Garde pour la renovation de Madagascar) or AREMA [Didier RATSIRAKA]
    Young Malagasies Determined (Malagasy: Tanora malaGasy Vonona) or TGV [Andry RAJOELINA] and MAPAR [Andry RAJOELINA], and IRD (We are all with Andry Rajoelina) [Andry RAJOELINA]

  • Malawi

    Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [Peter MUTHARIKA]
    Malawi Congress Party or MCP [Lazarus CHAKWERA]
    People's Party or PP [Joyce BANDA]
    United Democratic Front or UDF
    United Transformation Movement or UTM [Saulos CHILIMA]

  • Malaysia

    National Front (Barisan Nasional) or BN:

    Malaysian Chinese Association (Persatuan Cina Malaysia) or MCA [Wee Ka SIONG]
    Malaysian Indian Congress (Kongres India Malaysia) or MIC [Vigneswaran SANASEE]
    United Malays National Organization (Pertubuhan Kebansaan Melayu Bersatu) or UNMO [Ahmad Zahid HAMIDI]
    United Sabah People's Party (Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah) or PBRS [Joseph KURUP]

    Coalition of Hope (Pakatan Harapan) or PH:
    Democratic Action Party (Parti Tindakan Demokratik) or DAP [LIM Guan Eng]
    Kadazan Dusun Bersatu) or UPKO [Wilfred Madius TANGAU]
    National Trust Party (Parti Amanah Negara) or AMANAH [Mohamad SABU]
    People's Justice Party (Parti Keadilan Rakyat) or PKR [ANWAR Ibrahim]
    United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organization (Pertubuhan Pasko Momogun

    Coalition Perikatan Nasional (National Alliance) or PN
    Homeland Solidarity Party (Parti Solidariti Tanah Airku) or STAR [Datuk Seri Jeffrey Kitingan]
    Malaysian People's Movement Party (Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia) or GERAKAN or PGRM [Dominic Lau Hoe CHAI]
    Malaysian United Indigenous Party (Parti Pribumi Bersatu Malaysia) or PPBM or BERSATU [Tan Sri MUHYIDDIN Yassin]
    Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (Parti Islam se Malaysia) or PAS [Abdul HADI Awang]
    Sabah Progressive Party or SAPP [Yong Teck LEE]
    United Sabah Party (Parti Bersatu Sabah) or PBS [Maximus ONGKILI]

    Sarawak Parties Alliance (Gabungan Parti Sarawak) or GPS [ABANG JOHARI Openg]

    Progressive Democratic Party or PDP [TIONG King Sing]
    Sarawak People's Party (Parti Rakyat Sarawak) or PRS [James MASING]
    Sarawak United People's Party (Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sarawak) or SUPP [Dr. SIM Kui Hian]
    United Traditional Bumiputera Party (Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersata) or PBB [Abang Abdul Rahman Johari Abang Openg or "Abang Jo"]

    Other:
    Fighters of the Nation Party (Parti Pejuang Tanah Air) or PEJUANG [Mukhris MAHATIR]
    Malaysian Nation Party or PBM [Larry Sng Wei SHIEN] (formerly Sarawak Workers Party)
    Malaysian United Democratic Alliance or MUDA [Syed SADDIQ bin Syed Abdul Rahman]
    Malaysian United Indigenous Party (Parti Pribumi Bersatu Malaysia) or PPBM [Tan Sri MUHYIDDIN Yassin]
    Sabah Heritage Party (Parti Warisan Sabah) or WARISAN [SHAFIE Apdal]
    United Sabah Alliance or USA (Gabungan Sabah) (dissolved 13 June 2018)
    United Sarawak Party (Parti Sarawak Bersatu) or PSB [WONG Soon Koh]

  • Maldives

    Adhaalath (Justice) Party or AP [Sheikh Imran ABDULLA]
    Dhivehi Rayyithunge Party or DRP [Abdulla JABIR]
    Maldives Development Alliance or MDA [Ahmed Shiyam MOHAMED]
    Maldivian Democratic Party or MDP [Mohamed NASHEED]
    Maldives Labor and Social Democratic Party or MLSDP [Ahmed SHIHAM]
    Maldives Third Way Democrats or MTD [Ahmed ADEEB]
    Maumoon/Maldives Reform Movement or MRM [Ahmed Faris MAUMOON]
    National Democratic Congress [Yousuf Maaniu]
    People's National Congress or PNC [Abdul Raheem ABDULLA]
    Progressive Party of Maldives or PPM [Abdulla YAMEEN]
    Republican (Jumhooree) Party or JP [Qasim IBRAHIM]

    (2020)

  • Mali

    African Solidarity for Democracy and Independence or SADI [Oumar MARIKO]
    Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP-Maliba [Amadou THIAM]
    Alliance for Democracy in Mali-Pan-African Party for Liberty, Solidarity, and Justice or ADEMA-PASJ [Tiemoko SANGARE]
    Alliance for the Solidarity of Mali-Convergence of Patriotic Forces or ASMA-CFP [Amadou CISSE, vice-president, acting]
    Convergence for the Development of Mali or CODEM [Housseyni Amion GUINDO]
    Democratic Alliance for Peace or ADP-Maliba [Aliou Boubacar DIALLO]
    Movement for Mali or MPM [Brahima DIANESSY, deputy]                                                                                           
    Party for National Renewal (also Rebirth or Renaissance or PARENA) [Tiebile DRAME]
    Rally for Mali or RPM [Boucary TRETA] 
    Social Democratic Convention or CDS [Mamadou Bakary "Blaise" SANGARE]
    Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Hassane BARRY]                                             
    Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Soumaïla CISSE]
    Yéléma [Moussa MARA]

    note 1: only parties with 2 or more seats in the last National Assembly parliamentary elections (30 March and 19 April 2020) listed

    note 2:
      the National Assembly was dissolved on 18 August 2020 following a military coup and replaced with a National Transition Council; currently 121 members, party affiliations unknown

  • Malta

    AD+PD or ADPD [Carmel CACOPARDO] (formed from the merger of Democratic Alternative or AD and Democratic Party (Partit Demokratiku) or PD)
    Labor Party (Partit Laburista) or PL [Robert ABELA]
    Nationalist Party (Partit Nazzjonalista) or PN [Bernard GRECH]

  • Marshall Islands

    traditionally there have been no formally organized political parties; what has existed more closely resembles factions or interest groups because they do not have party headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures

  • Mauritania

    Alliance for Justice and Democracy/Movement for Renewal or AJD/MR [Ibrahima Moctar SARR]
    Burst of Youth for the Nation or Sursaut or PSJN [Lalla Mint CHERIF]
    El Insaf or Equity Party [Mohamed Melainine Ould EYIH]
    El Islah Party [Mohamed Ould TALEBNA]
    El Karama Party [Cheikhna Ould Mohamed Ould HAJBOU]
    Initiative for the Resurgence of the Abolitionist Movement or IRA [Biram Dah ABEID]
    National Democratic Alliance or AND [Yacoub Ould MOINE]
    National Rally for Reform and Development or RNRD or TAWASSOUL [Mohamed Mahmoud Ould SEYIDI]
    Party for Conciliation and Prosperity or HIWAR [Valle Mint Mini]
    Popular (or People's) Progressive Alliance or APP [Messaoud Ould BOULKHEIR]
    Rally (or Assembly) of Democratic Forces or RFD [Ahmed Ould DADDAH]
    Sawab Party [Ahmed Salem Ould HORMA]
    Union for Democracy and Progress or UDP [Naha Mint MOUKNASS]
    Union of the Forces of Progress or UFP [Mohamed Ould MAOULOUD]

  • Mauritius

    Alliance Morisien (Mauritian Alliance 2019; coalition includes MSM, ML, Patriotic Movement, and Militant Platform) [Pravind JUGNAUTH] 
    Mauritian Militant Movement (Mouvement Militant Mauricien) or MMM [Paul BERENGER]
    Mauritian People's Union (Linion Pep Morisien) [Bruneau LAURETTE and Dev SUNNASY]
    Mauritian Rally (Rassemblement Mauricien) [Nando BODHA]
    Mauritian Social Democratic Party (Parti Mauricien Social Democrate) or PMSD [Xavier Luc DUVAL]
    Mauritius Labor Party (Parti Travailliste) or PTR or MLP [Navinchandra RAMGOOLAM]
    Militant Platform (Plateforme Militante) [Steven OBEEGADOO]
    Militant Socialist Movement (Mouvement Socialist Mauricien) or MSM [Pravind JUGNAUTH]
    Muvman Liberater or ML [Ivan COLLENDAVELLOO]
    Patriotic Movement (Mouvement Patriotic) [Alan GANOO]
    Rodrigues Peoples Organization (Organisation du Peuple Rodriguais) or OPR [Serge CLAIR]

  • Mexico

    Citizen's Movement (Movimiento Ciudadano) or MC [Clemente CASTANEDA Hoeflich]
    Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional) or PRI [Claudia RUIZ Massieu]
    Labor Party (Partido del Trabajo) or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutierrez]
    Mexican Green Ecological Party (Partido Verde Ecologista de Mexico) or PVEM [Karen CASTREJON Trujillo]
    Movement for National Regeneration (Movimiento Regeneracion Nacional) or MORENA [Mario DELGADO Carillo]
    National Action Party (Partido Accion Nacional) or PAN [Antonio CORTES Mendoza]
    Party of the Democratic Revolution (Partido de la Revolucion Democratica) or PRD [Jesus ZAMBRANO Grijalva]
    This Is For Mexico (Va Por Mexico) – alliance that includes PAN, PRI, and PRD
    Together We Make History (Juntos Hacemos Historia) - alliance that includes MORENA, PT, PVEM (dissolved 23 December 2020)

  • Micronesia, Federated States of

    no formal parties

  • Moldova

    Party of Action and Solidarity or PAS [Igor GROSU]
    Electoral Bloc of Communists and Socialists or BCS [Vlad BATRINCEA, PSRM and Vladimir VORONIN, PCRM]
    Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN]
    Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova or PSRM [Vlad BATRINCEA]
    SOR Party or PS [Ilan SHOR]

  • Monaco

    Horizon Monaco [Laurent NOUVION]
    Priorite Monaco or Primo! [Stephane VALERI]
    Union Monegasque [Jean-Francois ROBILLON]

  • Mongolia

    Civil Will-Green Party or CWGP [Tserendorj GANKHUYAG]
    Democratic Party or DP [Tsogtgerel ODON]
    Justice Party [Batbayar NASANBILEG]
    Mongolian National Democratic Party or MNDP [Bayanjargal TSOGTGEREL]
    Mongolian People's Party or MPP [Luvsannamsrai OYUN-ERDENE]
    Mongolian Social Democratic Party or MSDP [Adiya GANBAATAR]
    Mongolian Traditionally United Party or MTUP [Batdelgeriin BATBOLD]
    National Labor Party or HUN [Togmid Dorhkhand]
    Our Coalition (coalition of the MPRP, Civil Will-Green Party, and Mongolian Traditionally United Party formed for the 2020 election)
    Right Person Electorate Coalition of ZKEE (coalition of the National Labor Party, Mongolian Social  [Badrakhyn NAIDALAA]

    note - there were 35 total registered parties as of December 2021

  • Montenegro

    Albanian Alternative or AA [Nik DELJOSAJ]
    Albanian Coalition (includes DP, DSCG, DUA for 2020 election)
    Albanian Coalition Perspective or AKP
    Albanian List or AL [Nik DELJOSAJ and Nazif CUNGU] (coalition includes AA, Forca, AKP, DSA)
    Bosniak Party or BS [Ervin IBRAHIMOVIC]
    Croatian Civic Initiative or HGI [Adrian VUKSANOVIC]
    Croatian Reform Party [Marija VUCINOVIC]
    Democratic Alliance or DEMOS [Miodrag LEKIC]
    Democratic Front or DF [collective leadership] (coalition includes NOVA, PZP, DNP, RP)
    Democratic League in Montenegro or DSCG [Mehmet BARDHI]
    Democratic League of Albanians or DSA
    Democratic Montenegro or DCG [Aleksa BECIC]
    Democratic Party or DP [Fatmir GJEKA]
    Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC]
    Democratic Party of Unity or DSJ [Nebojsa JUSKOVIC]
    Democratic People's Party or DNP [Milan KNEZEVIC]
    Democratic Serb Party or DSS [Dragica PEROVIC]
    Democratic Union of Albanians or DUA [Mehmet ZENKA]
    For the Future of Montenegro or ZBCG [Zdravko KRIVOKAPIC] (electoral coalition includes SNP and 2 alliances - DF, NP)
    In Black and White [Dritan ABAZOVIC] (electoral list)
    Liberal Party or LP [Andrija POPOVIC]
    Movement for Changes or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC]
    New Democratic Power or FORCA [Nazif CUNGU]
    New Serb Democracy or NSD or NOVA [Andrija MANDIC]
    Party of Pensioners, Disabled, and Restitution or PUPI [Momir JOKSIMOVIC]
    Peace is Our Nation or MNIM [Aleksa BECIC] (coalition includes Democrats, DEMOS, New Left, PUPI)
    Popular Movement or NP [Miodrag DAVIDOVIC] (coalition includes DEMOS, RP, UCG, and several minor parties)
    Social Democratic Party or SDP [Rasko KONJEVIC]
    Social Democrats or SD [Damir SEHOVIC]
    Socialist People's Party or SNP [Vladimir JOKOVIC]
    True Montenegro or PRAVA or PCG [Marko MILACIC]
    United Montenegro or UCG [Goran DANILOVIC] (split from DEMOS)
    United Reform Action or URA [Dritan ABAZOVIC]
    Workers' Party or RP [Maksim VUCINIC]

  • Montserrat

    Movement for Change and Prosperity or MCAP [Easton Taylor FARRELL]
    People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Paul LEWIS]

  • Morocco

    Action Party or PA [Mohammed EL IDRISSI]
    Amal (hope) Party [Mohamed BANI]
    An-Nahj Ad-Dimocrati or An-Nahj or Democratic Way [Mustapha BRAHMA]
    Authenticity and Modernity Party or PAM [Abdellatif OUAHBI]
    Constitutional Union Party or UC [Mohamed SAJID]
    Democratic and Social Movement or MDS [Mahmoud ARCHANE]
    Democratic Forces Front or FFD [Mustapha BENALI]
    Democratic Society Party or PSD [Zhour CHAKKAFI]
    Green Left Party or PGV [Mohamed FARES]
    Istiqlal (Independence) Party or PI [Nizar BARAKA]
    Moroccan Liberal Party or PML [Isaac CHARIA]
    Moroccan Union for Democracy or UMD [Jamal MANDRI]
    National Democratic Party [Abdellah KADIRI]
    National Ittihadi Congress or CNI [Abdesalam EL AZIZ]
    National Rally of Independents or RNI [Aziz AKHANNOUCH]
    Neo-Democrats Party [Mohamed DARIF]
    Party of Development Reform or PRD [Abderrahmane EL KOHEN]
    Party of Justice and Development or PJD [Abdelilah BENKIRANE]
    Party of Liberty and Social Justice [Miloud MOUSSAOUI]
    Party of Progress and Socialism or PPS [Nabil BENABDELLAH]
    Popular Movement or MP [Mohand LAENSER]
    Renaissance and Virtue Party [Mohamed KHALIDI]
    Renaissance Party [Said EL GHENNIOUI]
    Renewal and Equity Party or PRE [Chakir ACHEHABAR]
    Shoura (consultation) and Istiqlal Party [Ahmed BELGHAZI]
    Socialist Union of Popular Forces or USFP [Driss LACHGAR]
    Unified Socialist Party or GSU [Nabila MOUNIB]
    Unity and Democracy Party [Ahmed FITRI]

  • Mozambique

    Democratic Movement of Mozambique (Movimento Democratico de Mocambique) or MDM [Lutero SIMANGO]
    Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Filipe NYUSI]
    Mozambican National Resistance (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana) or RENAMO [Ossufo MOMADE]
    Optimistic Party for the Development of Mozambique or Podemos [Helder MENDONCA]

  • Namibia

    All People's Party or APP [Vacant]
    Christian Democratic Voice or CDV [Gothard KANDUME]
    Landless People's Movement or LPM [Bernadus SWARTBOOI]
    National Unity Democratic Organization or NUDO [Estes MUINJANGUE]
    Namibian Economic Freedom Fighters or NEFF [Epafras MUKWIILONGO]
    Popular Democratic Movement or PDM [McHenry VENAANI] (formerly Democratic Turnhalle Alliance or DTA) 
    Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Mike KAVEKOTORA]
    Republican Party or RP [Henk MUDGE]
    South West Africa National Union or SWANU [Charles KATJIVIRUE]
    South West Africa People's Organization or SWAPO [Hage GEINGOB]
    United Democratic Front or UDF [Apius AUCHAB]
    United People's Movement or UPM [Jan J. VAN WYK]

  • Nauru

    Nauru First (Naoero Amo) Party [David ADEANG]

  • Nepal

    the Election Commission of Nepal granted ballot access under the proportional system to 88 political parties for the November-December 2017 House of Representatives election to the Federal Parliament; of these, the following 8 parties won seats:
    Federal Socialist Forum, Nepal or FSFN [Upendra YADAV]
    Naya Shakti Party, Nepal [Baburam BHATTARAI]
    Nepal Communist Party or NCP [Khadga Prasad OLI, Pushpa Kamal DAHAL]
    Nepali Congress or NC [Sher Bahadur DEUBA]
    Nepal Mazdoor Kisan Party (Nepal Workers' and Peasants' Party) or NWPP [Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE]
    Rastriya Janamorcha (National People's Front) [Chitra Bahadur K.C.]
    Rastriya Janata Party (National People's Party, Nepal) or RJPN [Mahanta THAKUR]
    Rastriya Prajatantra Party (National Democratic Party) or RPP [Rajendra Prasad LINGDEN]

  • Netherlands

    Christian Democratic Appeal or CDA [Wopke HOEKSTRA]
    Christian Union or CU [Gert-Jan SEGERS]
    Democrats 66 or D66 [Sigrid KAAG]
    Denk [Farid AZARKAN]
    50Plus [Martin van ROOIJEN]
    Forum for Democracy or FvD [Thierry BAUDET]
    Green Left (GroenLinks) or GL [Jesse KLAVER]
    Labor Party or PvdA (vacant)
    Party for Freedom or PVV [Geert WILDERS]
    Party for the Animals or PvdD [Esther OUWENHAND]
    People's Party for Freedom and Democracy or VVD [Mark RUTTE]
    Reformed Political Party or SGP [Kees VAN DER STAAIJ]
    Socialist Party or SP [Lilian MARIJNISSEN]

  • New Caledonia

    Build Our Rainbow Nation
    Caledonia Together or CE [Philippe GERMAIN]
    Caledonian Union or UC [Daniel GOA]
    Future Together (l'Avenir Ensemble) [Harold MARTIN] (dissolved 2017)
    Kanak Socialist Front for National Liberation or FLNKS (alliance includes PALIKA, UNI, UC, and UPM) [Victor TUTUGORO]
    Labor Party (Parti Travailliste) or PT [Louis Kotra UREGEI]
    National Union for Independence (Union Nationale pour l'Independance) or UNI [Louis MAPOU]
    Party of Kanak Liberation (Parti de Liberation Kanak) or PALIKA [Paul NEAOUTYINE]
    Socialist Kanak Liberation or LKS [Nidoish NAISSELINE]
    The Republicans (formerly The Rally or UMP) [Christian JACOB]
    Union for Caledonia in France

  • New Zealand

    ACT New Zealand [David SEYMOUR]
    Green Party [Marama DAVIDSON]
    Mana Movement [Hone HARAWIRA] (formerly Mana Party)
    Maori Party [Debbie NGAREWA-PACKER and Rawiri WAITITI]
    New Zealand First Party or NZ First [Winston PETERS]
    New Zealand Labor Party [Jacinda ARDERN]
    New Zealand National Party [Christopher LUXON]

  • Nicaragua

    Alliance for the Republic or APRE [Carlos CANALES]
    Alternative for Change or AC (operates in a political alliance with the FSLN) [Orlando Jose TARDENCILLA]
    Autonomous Liberal Party or PAL [Rene Margarito BELLO ROMERO]
    Caribbean Unity Movement or PAMUC [Armando Francisco ARISTA FLORES]
    Christian Unity Party or PUC (operates in a political alliance with the FSLN) [Guillermo Daniel ORTEGA REYES]
    Citizens for Liberty or CxL [Carmella ROGERS AUMBURN]; note - barred from participating in the presidential election by the Supreme Electoral Council on 6 August 2021
    Conservative Party or PC [Alfredo CESAR Aguirre]
    Democratic Restoration Party or PRD [Saturnino CERRATO]; note - canceled by the Supreme Electoral Council on 18 May 2021
    Independent Liberal Party or PLI [Mario ASENSIO]
    Liberal Constitutionalist Party or PLC [Maria Haydee OSUNA]
    Moskitia Indigenous Progressive Movement or MOSKITIA PAWANKA (operates in a political alliance with the FSLN) [Wycliff Diego BLANDON]
    Multiethnic Indigenous Party or PIM (operates in a political alliance with the FSLN) [Carla Elvis WHITE HODGSON]
    Nationalist Liberal Party or PLN (operates in a political alliance with the FSLN) [Constantino Raul VELASQUEZ]
    Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance or ALN [Alejandro MEJIA Ferreti]
    Nicaraguan Party of the Christian Path or CCN [Guillermo OSORNO]
    Nicaraguan Resistance Party or PRN (operates in a political alliance with the FSLN) [Julio Cesar BLANDON SANCHEZ]
    Sandinista National Liberation Front or FSLN [Jose Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra]
    Sandinista Renovation Movement or MRS [Suyen BARAHONA Cuan]; note - canceled by the Supreme Electoral Council on 21 June 2008; in January 2021, they rebranded and now call themselves Democratic Renovation Union or UNAMOS
    Sons of Mother Earth or YATAMA [Brooklyn RIVERA]
    The New Sons of Mother Earth Movement or MYATAMARAN (operates in a political alliance with the FSLN) [Osorno Salomon COLEMAN]

  • Niger

    Alliance for Democracy and the Republic
    Alliance for Democratic Renewal or ARD-Adaltchi-Mutuntchi [Laouan MAGAGI] 
    Alliance of Movements for the Emergence of Niger or AMEN AMIN [Omar Hamidou TCHIANA]
    Congress for the Republic or CPR-Inganci [Maradi Kassoum MOCTAR]
    Democratic Alternation for Equity in Niger
    Democratic and Republican Renewal-RDR-Tchanji [Mahamane OUSMANE]
    Democratic Movement for the Emergence of Niger
    National Movement for the Development of Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Seini OUMAROU]
    Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDP-Zaman Lahiya [Moussa Hassane BARAZE]
    Nigerien Democratic Movement for an African Federation or MODEN/FA Lumana [Hama AMADOU]
    Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism or PNDS-Tarrayya [Mahamadou ISSOUFOU]
    Nigerien Patriotic Movement or MPN-Kishin Kassa [Ibrahim YACOUBA]
    Nigerien Rally for Democracy and Peace
    Patriotic Movement for the Republic or MPR-Jamhuriya [Albade ABOUBA]
    Peace, Justice, Progress–Generation Doubara
    Rally for Democracy and Progress-Jama'a or RDP-Jama'a [Hamid ALGABID]
    Rally for Peace and Progress
    Social Democratic Rally or RSD-Gaskiyya [Amadou CHEIFFOU]
    Social Democratic Party or PSD-Bassira [Sanoussi MAREINI]

    note: only parties with seats in the National Assembly included



    note: the SPLM and SPLM-DC are banned political parties

  • Nigeria

    Accord Party or ACC [Mohammad Lawal MALADO]
    Africa Democratic Congress or ADC [Ralph Okey NWOSU] 
    All Progressives Congress or APC [Abdullahi ADAMU]
    All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Victor Ike OYE]
    Labor Party or LP [Julius ABURE]
    Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Iyourchia AYU]
    Young Progressive Party or YPP [Bishop AMAKIRI]

  • Niue

    none

  • Norfolk Island

    Norfolk Island Labor Party [Mike KELLY]
    Norfolk Liberals [John BROWN]

  • North Macedonia

    Alliance for Albanians or AfA [Ziadin SELA]
    Alternative (Alternativa) [Afrim GASHI]
    Besa Movement [Bilal KASAMI]
    Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSh [Menduh THACI]
    Democratic Union for Integration or BDI [Ali AHMETI]
    Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Hristijan MICKOSKI]
    Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - People's Party or VMRO-NP [Ljubco GEORGIEVSKI]
    Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Goran MILEVSKI]
    Renewal (VMRO-DPMNE coalition) [Maja MORACHANIN]
    Social Democratic Union of Macedonia or SDSM [Dimitar KOVACHEVSKI]
    The Left (Levica) [Dimitar APASIEV]
    Turkish Democratic Party of DPT [Beycan ILYAS]
    We Can (coalition includes SDSM/Besa/VMRO-NP, DPT, LDP)

  • Northern Mariana Islands

    Democratic Party [Daniel QUITUGUA]
    Republican Party [James ADA]

  • Norway

    Center Party or Sp [Trygve Slagsvold VEDUM]
    Christian Democratic Party or KrF [Olaug Vervik BOLLESTAD]
    Conservative Party or H [Erna SOLBERG]
    Green Party or MDG [Une Aina BASTHOLM] 
    Labor Party or Ap [Jonas Gahr STORE]
    Liberal Party or V [Guri MELBY]
    Patient Focus or PF [Irene OJALA]
    Progress Party or FrP [Sylvi LISTHAUG]
    Red Party or R [Bjonar MOXNES]
    Socialist Left Party or SV [Audun LYSBAKKEN]

  • Oman

    none; note - organized political parties are legally banned in Oman, and loyalties tend to form around tribal affiliations

  • Pakistan

    Awami National Party or ANP [Asfandyar Wali KHAN]
    Awami Muslim League or AML [Sheikh Rashid AHMED]
    Balochistan Awami Party or BAP [Jam Kamal KHAN]
    Balochistan National Party-Awami or BNP-A [Mir Israr Ullah ZEHRI]
    Balochistan National Party-Mengal or BNP-M [Sardar Akhtar Jan MENGAL]
    Grand Democratic Alliance or GDA  [Pir PAGARO] (includes F, NPP, PML-Q, PTI, QAT)
    Jamaat-i Islami or JI [Sirajul HAQ]
    Jamhoori Wattan Party or JWP [Shahzain BUGTI]
    Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam or JUI-F [Maulana Fazal-ur-REHMAN]
    Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal or MMA [Maulana Fazal-ur-REHMAN] (alliance of several parties)
    Muttahida Qaumi Movement-London or MQM-L [Altaf HUSSAIN] (MQM split into two factions in 2016)
    Muttahida Qaumi Movement-Pakistan or MQM-P [Dr. Khalid Maqbool SIDDIQUI] (MQM split into two factions in 2016)
    National Party or NP [Abdul Malik BALOCH]
    Pak Sarzameen Party or PSP [Mustafa KAMAL]
    Pakhtunkhwa Milli Awami Party or PMAP or PkMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]
    Pakhtunkhwa Milli Awami Party or PML-F [Pir PAGARO or Syed Shah Mardan SHAH-II]
    Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz or PML-N [Shehbaz SHARIF]
    Pakistan Muslim League – Quaid-e-Azam Group or PML-Q [Chaudhry Shujaat HUSSAIN]
    Pakistan Muslim League or PML-F [Pir PAGARO]
    Pakistan Peoples Party or PPP [Bilawal BHUTTO ZARDARI, Asif Ali ZARDARI]
    Pakistan Tehrik-e Insaaf or PTI (Pakistan Movement for Justice) [Imran KHAN]
    Qaumi Awami Tehreek or AT [Sajjad Ahmed CHANDIO]
    Qaumi Awami Tehreek or QAT [Ayaz Latif PALIJO]
    Qaumi Watan Party or QWP [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]

    note: political alliances in Pakistan shift frequently

  • Palau

    none

  • Panama

    Alliance Party or PA [Jose MUNOZ Molina]
    Alternative Independent Socialist Party or PAIS [Jose ALVAREZ]
    Democratic Change or CD [Romulo ROUX]
    Democratic Revolutionary Party or PRD [Benicio ROBINSON]
    Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement or MOLIRENA [Francisco "Pancho" ALEMAN]
    Panamenista Party [Jose Isabel BLANDON Figueroa] (formerly the Arnulfista Party)
    Popular Party or PP [Daniel Javier BREA Clavel] (formerly Christian Democratic Party or PDC)
    Realizing Goals Party or RM [Ricardo Alberto MARTINELLI Berrocal]

  • Papua New Guinea

    Advance PNG [Muglua DILU]
    Allegiance Party or AP [Bryan KRAMER]
    Destiny Party [Marsh NARAWEC]
    Liberal Party [John PUNDARI]
    Melanesian Alliance Party or MAP [Joseph YOPYYOPY]
    National Alliance Party or NAP [Allan BIRD]
    New Generation Party or NGP [Keith IDUHU]
    Our Development Party or ODP [Puka TEMU]
    Papua and Niugini Union Party or PANGU PATI [vacant]
    Papua New Guinea Greens Party [Richard MASERE]
    Papua New Guinea National Party [Kerenga KUA]
    Papua New Guinea Party or PNGP [Belden NAMAH]
    People's First Party or PFP [Richard MARU]
    People's Labor Party or PLP [Luther WENGE]
    People's Movement for Change or PMC [Gary JAFFA]
    People's National Congress Party or PNC [Peter Paire O'NEILL]
    People's Party or PP [Peter IPATAS]
    People's Progress Party or PPP [Sir Julius CHAN]
    People's Reform Party or PRP [James DONALD]
    Social Democratic Party or SDP [Powes PARKOP]
    Triumph Heritage Empowerment Party or THE [Don POLYE]
    United Labor Party or PLP [vacant]
    United Resources Party or URP [William DUMA]

  • Paraguay

    Asociacion Nacional Republicana - Colorado Party or ANR [Mario ABDO BENITEZ]
    Avanza Pais coalition or AP [Adolfo FERREIRO]
    Broad Front coalition (Frente Guasu) or FG [Fernando Armindo LUGO Mendez]
    GANAR Alliance (Great Renewed National Alliance) (alliance between PLRA and Guasu Front)
    Movimiento Cruzada Nacional or MCN
    Movimiento Hagamos or MH [Antonio "Tony" APURIL]
    Movimiento Union Nacional de Ciudadanos Eticos or UNACE [Jorge OVIEDO MATTO]
    Partido del Movimiento al Socialismo or P-MAS [Camilo Ernesto SOARES Machado]
    Partido Democratica Progresista or PDP [Rafael FILIZZOLA]
    Partido Encuentro Nacional or PEN [Fernando CAMACHO]
    Partido Liberal Radical Autentico or PLRA [Efrain ALEGRE]
    Partido Pais Solidario or PPS [Carlos Alberto FILIZZOLA Pallares]
    Partido Popular Tekojoja or PPT [Sixto PEREIRA Galeano]
    Patria Querida (Beloved Fatherland Party) or PPQ [Miguel CARRIZOSA]

  • Peru

    Advance the Nation (Avanza Pais) [Aldo BORRERO Zeta]
    Alliance for Progress (Alianza para el Progreso) or APP [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]
    Broad Front (Frente Amplio) or FA [Marco ARANA]
    Free Peru (Peru Libre) or PL [Vladimir CERRON Rojas]
    Front for Hope (Frente Esperanza) [Fernando OLIVERA Vega]
    National Victory (Victoria Nacional) or VN [George FORSYTH Sommer]
    Popular Action (Accion Popular) or AP [Mesias GUEVARA Amasifuen]
    Popular Force (Fuerza Popular) or FP [Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi]
    Popular Renewal (Renovacion Popular) or RP [Rafael LOPEZ ALIAGA]
    Purple Party (Partido Morado) [Luis DURAN Rojo]
    Social Integration Party (Avanza Pais - Partido de Integracion Social) [Aldo BORRERO]
    Together For Peru (Juntos por el Peru) or JP [Robert SANCHEZ Palomino]
    We Are Peru (Somos Peru) of SP [Patricia LI]
    We Can Peru (Podemos Peru) or PP [Jose Leon LUNA Galvez]

  • Philippines

    Aksyon Demokratiko [Francisco "Isko Moreno" DOMAGOSO]
    Lakas ng EDSA-Christian Muslim Democrats or Lakas-CMD [Ramon "Bong" REVILLA Jr ]
    Liberal Party or LP [Leni ROBREDO]
    Nacionalista Party or NP [Manuel "Manny" VILLAR]
    National Unity Party or NUP [Ronaldo V. PUNO]
    Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan or PDP-Laban [Aquilino PIMENTEL III]
    Partido Federal ng Pilipinas or PFP [Ferdinand MARCOS, Jr.]

  • Pitcairn Islands

    none

  • Poland

    Civic Coalition or KO [collective leadership]
    Confederation Liberty and Independence or KORWiN [Janusz KORWIN-MIKKE, Robert WINNICKI, Grzegorz BRAUN]
    Law and Justice or PiS [Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI]
    Polish Coalition or PSL [Wladyslaw KOSINIAK-KAMYSZ]
    The Left [Wlodzimierz CZARZASTY]

  • Portugal

    Democratic Alliance (2022 electoral alliance in the Azores, includes PSD, CDS-PP, PPM)
    Democratic and Social Center/People's Party (Partido do Centro Democratico Social-Partido Popular) or CDS-PP [Nuno MELO]
    Ecologist Party "The Greens" or "Os Verdes" (Partido Ecologista-Os Verdes) or PEV [Heloisa APOLONIA]
    Enough (Chega) [Andre VENTURA]
    Liberal Initiative (Iniciativa Liberal) or IL [Joao COTRIM DE FIGUEIREDO]
    Madeira First (2022 electoral alliance in Madeira, includes PSD, CDS-PP)
    People-Animals-Nature Party (Pessoas-Animais-Natureza) or PAN [Ines SOUSA REAL]
    People's Monarchist Party or PPM [Gonçalo DA CAMARA PEREIRA]
    Portuguese Communist Party (Partido Comunista Portugues) or PCP [Jeronimo DE SOUSA]
    Social Democratic Party (Partido Social Democrata) or PSD [Luis MONTENEGRO] (formerly the Partido Popular Democratico or PPD)
    Socialist Party (Partido Socialista) or PS [Antonio COSTA]
    The Left Bloc (Bloco de Esquerda) or BE or O Bloco [Catarina MARTINS]
    Unitary Democratic Coalition (Coligacao Democratica Unitaria) or CDU [Jeronimo DE SOUSA] (includes PCP and PEV)

  • Puerto Rico

    Citizens' Victory Movement (Movimiento Victoria Ciudadana) or MVC [Manuel NATAL Albelo]
    Democratic Party of Puerto Rico [Charlie RODRIGUEZ]
    New Progressive Party or PNP [Pedro PIERLUISI Urrutia] (pro-US statehood)
    Popular Democratic Party or PPD [Jose Luis DALMAU] (pro-commonwealth)
    Project Dignity (Projecto Dignidad) or PD [Cesar VASQUEZ Muniz]
    Puerto Rican Independence Party or PIP [Ruben BERRIOS Martinez] (pro-independence)
    Republican Party of Puerto Rico [Jenniffer GONZALEZ]

  • Qatar

    political parties are banned

  • Romania

    2020 USR-PLUS Alliance [Dan BARNA and Dacian CIOLOS] (dissolved 16 April 2021)
    Alliance for the Fatherland or APP [Codrin STEFANESCU]
    Alliance for the Unity of Romanians or AUR [George SIMION]
    Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU]
    Civic Hungarian Party [Zsolt BIRO]
    Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]
    Ecologist Party of Romania or PER [Danut POP]
    Force of the Right or FD [Ludovic ORBAN]
    Greater Romania Party or PRM [Victor IOVICI]
    Green Party [Marius LAZAR and Lavinia COSMA]
    National Liberal Party or PNL [Nicolae CIUCA]
    Party of Liberty, Unity, and Solidarity or PLUS [Dacian CIOLOS] (dissolved 16 April 2021)
    Popular Movement Party or PMP [Eugen TOMAC]
    PRO Romania or PRO [Victor PONTA]
    Romanian Nationhood Party or PNR [Ninel PEIA]
    Save Romania Union Party or USR [Catalin DRULA]
    Social Democratic Party or PSD [Marcel CIOLACU]
    Social Liberal Humanist Party or PUSL [Daniel IONASCU] (formerly Humanist Power Party (Social-Liberal) or PPU-SL)
    United Romania Party or PRU [Robert BUGA]

  • Russia

    A Just Russia or SRZP [Sergey MIRONOV]
    Civic Platform or CP [Rifat SHAYKHUTDINOV]
    Communist Party of the Russian Federation or CPRF [Gennadiy ZYUGANOV]
    Liberal Democratic Party of Russia or LDPR [Leonid SLUTSKY]
    New People [Alexey NECHAYEV]
    Party of Growth [Boris TITOV]
    Rodina [Aleksei ZHURAVLYOV]
    United Russia [Dmitriy MEDVEDEV]

    note: 31 political parties are registered with Russia's Ministry of Justice (as of September 2021); 14 participated in the 2021 election, but only 8 parties maintain representation in Russia's national legislature

  • Rwanda

    Democratic Green Party of Rwanda or DGPR [Frank HABINEZA]
    Liberal Party or PL [Donatille MUKABALISA]
    Party for Progress and Concord or PPC [Dr. Alivera MUKABARAMBA]
    Rwandan Patriotic Front or RPF [Paul KAGAME]
    Rwandan Patriotic Front Coalition (includes RPF, PPC) [Paul KAGAME]
    Social Democratic Party or PSD [Vincent BIRUTA]
    Social Party Imberakuri or PS-Imberakuri [Christine MUKABUNANI]

  • Saint Barthelemy

    All for Saint Barth (Tous pour Saint-Barth) [Bettina COINTRE]
    Saint Barth Action Equilibre [Marie-Hélène BERNIER]
    Saint Barth First! (Saint-Barth d'Abord!) or SBA [Romaric MAGRAS] (affiliated with France's Republican party, Les Republicans)
    Saint Barth United (Unis pour Saint-Barthelemy) [Xavier LEDEE]

  • Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha

    none

  • Saint Kitts and Nevis

    Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM [Mark BRANTLEY]
    Nevis Reformation Party or NRP [Dr. Janice DANIEL-HODGE]
    People's Action Movement or PAM [Shawn K. RICHARDS]
    People's Labour Party or PLP [Dr. Timothy HARRIS]
    Saint Kitts and Nevis Labor Party or SKNLP [Dr. Terrance DREW]

  • Saint Lucia

    Saint Lucia Labor Party or SLP [Philip J. PIERRE]
    United Workers Party or UWP [Allen M. CHASTANET]

  • Saint Martin

    Alternative [Valerie DAMASEAU]
    Future Saint Martin (Avenir Saint Martin) [Yawo NYUIADZI]
    Generation Hope or HOPE [Jules CHARVILLE]
    Rassemblement Saint-Martinois or RSM [Louis MUSSINGTON] (formerly Movement for Justice and Prosperity or MJP)
    Saint Martin with You [James HAMLET]
    Union for Democracy or UD [Daniel GIBBS]

  • Saint Pierre and Miquelon

    Archipelago Tomorrow (Archipel Domain) or AD (affiliated with The Republicans)
    Focus on the Future (Cap sur l'Avenir) [Annick GIRARDIN] (affiliated with Left Radical Party)
    Together to Build (Ensemble pour Construire) [Karine CLAIREAUX]

  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

    New Democratic Party or NDP [Dr. Godwin L. FRIDAY]
    SVG Green Party or SVGP [Ivan O'NEAL]
    Unity Labor Party or ULP [Dr. Ralph GONSALVES] (formed in 1994 by the coalition of Saint Vincent Labor Party or SVLP and the Movement for National Unity or MNU)

  • Samoa

    Fa'atuatua i le Atua Samoa ua Tasi or FAST [FIAME Naomi Mata'afa]
    Human Rights Protection Party or HRPP [TUILA'EPA Sailele Malielegaoi]
    Tautua Samoa Party or TSP [Afualo Wood Uti SALELE]

  • San Marino

    Domani - Modus Liberi or DML [Lorenzo Forcellini REFFI]
    Free San Marino (Libera San Marino) or Libera [Luca BOSCHI]
    Future Republic or RF [Mario VENTURINI]
    I Elect for a New Republic
    Party of Socialists and Democrats or PSD [Paride ANDREOLI]
    RETE Movement [Gloria ARCANGELONI]
    Sammarinese Christian Democratic Party or PDCS [Marco GATTI]
    Socialist Party or PS [Alessandro BEVITORI]
    Tomorrow in Movement coalition (includes RETE Movement, DML)
    We for the Republic [Denise BRONZETTI]

  • Sao Tome and Principe

    Union of Democrats for Citizenship and Development and Force for Democratic Change Movement or MDFM–UDD [Carlos Filomeno Agostinho DAS NEVES] 
    Independent Democratic Action or ADI [Patrice TROVADA]
    Movement for the Liberation of Sao Tome and Principe-Social Democratic Party or MLSTP-PSD [Jorge Lopes Bom JESUS]
    Party for Democratic Convergence-Reflection Group or PCD-GR [Leonel Mario D'ALVA]
    Movement of Independent Citizens of São Tomé and Príncipe [António Monteiro]
    other small parties

  • Saudi Arabia

    none

  • Senegal

    Alliance for Citizenship and Labor or ACT [Abdoul MBAYE]
    Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar or APR [Macky SALL]
    Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]
    And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS [Mamadou DIOP Decriox]
    Benno Bokk Yakaar or BBY (United in Hope) [Macky SALL] (coalition includes AFP, APR, BGC, LD-MPT, PIT, PS, and UNP)
    Bokk Gis Gis coalition [Pape DIOP]
    Citizen Movement for National Reform or MCRN-Bes Du Nakk [Mansour Sy DJAMIL]
    Dare the Future movement [Aissata Tall SALL]
    Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Abdoulaye BATHILY]
    Democratic Renaissance Congress
    Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]
    Gainde Centrist Bloc or BCG [Jean-Paul DIAS Mendes]
    General Alliance for the Interests of the Republic or AGIR [Thierno BOCOUM]
    Grand Party or GP [Malick GAKOU]
    Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Maguette THIAM]
    Jotna Coalition
    Liberate the People (Yewwi Askan Wi) or YAW [Barthelemy DIAS, Ousmane SONKO, Khalifa SALL]
    Madicke 2019 coalition [Madicke NIANG]
    National Union for the People or UNP [Souleymane Ndene NDIAYE]
    Only Senegal Movement [Pierre Goudiaby ATEPA]
    Party for Truth and Development or PVD [Cheikh Ahmadou Kara MBAKE]
    Party of Unity and Rally or PUR [Cheikh Mouhamadou Moustapha SY]
    Patriotic Convergence Kaddu Askan Wi or CP-Kaddu Askan Wi [Abdoulaye BALDE]
    Patriots of Senegal for Ethics, Work and Fraternity or PASTEF [Ousmane SONKO]
    Rewmi Party [Idrissa SECK]
    Save Senegal (Wallu Senegal Grand Coalition) or WS [Abdoulaye WADE] (coalition includes PDS, Jotna Coalition, Democratic Renaissance Congress)
    Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]
    Socialist Party or PS [vacant]
    Tekki Movement [Mamadou Lamine DIALLO]

  • Serbia

    Albanian Democratic Alternative (coalition of ethnic Albanian parties) [Shaip KAMBERI]
    Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM or VMSZ [Istvan PASZTOR]
    Better Serbia or BS [Dragan JOVANOVIC]
    Democratic Party or DS [Zoran LUTOVAC]
    Dveri [Bosko OBRADOVIC]
    Greens of Serbia or ZS [Ivan KARIC]
    Ivica Dacic - Prime Minister of Serbia [Ivica DACIC] (coalition includes SPS, JS, ZS)
    Justice and Reconciliation Party or SPP [Usame ZUKORLIC] (formerly Bosniak Democratic Union of Sandzak or BDZS)
    Movement for the Restoration of the Kingdom of Serbia or POKS [Vojislav MIHAILOVIC]
    Movement of Free Citizens or PSG [Pavle GRBOVIC]
    Movement of Socialists or PS [Aleksandar VULIN]
    National Democratic Alternative or NADA [Milos JOVANOVIC and Vojislav MIHAILOVIC] (coalition includes DSS and POKS)
    New Democratic Party of Serbia or NDSS or New DSS [Milos JOVANOVIC] (formerly Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS)
    Party of Democratic Action of the Sandzak or SDA [Sulejman UGLJANIN]
    Party of Freedom and Justice or SSP [Dragan DILAS]
    Party of United Pensioners of Serbia or PUPS [Milan KRKOBABIC]
    People's Party or NS or Narodna [Vuk JEREMIC]
    People's Peasant Party or NSS [Marijan RISTICEVIC]
    Serbian Party Oathkeepers or SSZ [Stefan STAMENKOVSKI]
    Serbian People's Party or SNP [Nenad POPOVIC]
    Serbian Progressive Party or SNS [Aleksandar VUCIC]
    Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC]
    Social Democratic Party of Serbia or SDPS [Rasim LJAJIC]
    Socialist Party of Serbia or SPS [Ivica DACIC]
    Strength of Serbia or PSS [Bogoljub KARIC]
    Together for Serbia or ZZS [Nebojsa ZELENOVIC]
    Together We Can Do Everything [Aleksandar VUCIC] (includes SNS, SDPS, PUPS, PSS, SNP, SPO, PS, NSS, USS, BS)
    United for the Victory of Serbia or US (includes NS, SSP, DS, PSG)
    United Peasant Party or USS [Milija MILETIC]
    United Serbia or JS [Dragan MARKOVIC]
    We Must or Moramo [Nebojsa ZELENOVIC, Dobrica VESELINOVIC, Aleksandar JOVANOVIC CUTA, Biljana STOJKOVIC]

    note: Serbia has more than 110 registered political parties and citizens' associations

  • Seychelles

    Linyon Sanzman or LS [Martin AGLAE]
    One Seychelles [Peter SINON]
    Seychelles Party for Social Justice and Democracy or SPSJD [Vesna RAKIC]
    Seychellois Democratic Alliance (Linyon Demokratik Seselwa) or LDS [Roger MANCIENNE] (includes SPSJD)
    United Seychelles or US [Patrick HERMINIE] (formerly People's Party (Parti Lepep) or PL) 

  • Sierra Leone

    All People's Congress or APC [Ernest Bai KOROMA]
    Coalition for Change or C4C [Tamba R. SANDY]
    National Grand Coalition or NGC [Dr. Dennis BRIGHT]
    Sierra Leone People's Party or SLPP [Dr. Prince HARDING]
    numerous other parties

  • Singapore

    Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [Mohamad Hamim BIN ALIYA]
    National Solidarity Party or NSP [Spencer NG]
    People's Action Party or PAP [LEE Hsien Loong]
    People's Power Party or (PPP) [Goh Meng SENG]
    People's Voice or PV [Lim TEAN]
    Progress Singapore Party or PSP [Francis YUENT]
    Red Dot United or RDU [Ravi PHILEMON]
    Reform Party or RP [Kenneth JEYARETNAM]
    Singapore Democratic Alliance or SDA [Desmond LIM]
    Singapore Democratic Party or SDP [Dr. CHEE Soon Juan]
    Singapore Malay National Organisation or PKMS [Muhammad Hairullah AHMAD]
    Singapore People's Party or SPP [Steve Chia]
    Singapore United Party or SUP [Andy ZHU]
    Workers' Party or WP [Pritam SINGH] (2022)

    note - the PAP has won every general election since the end of the British colonial era in 1959

  • Sint Maarten

    National Alliance or NA [Silveria JACOBS]
    Party for Progress or PFP [Melissa GUMBS]
    Sint Maarten Christian Party or SMCP [Garica ARRINDELL]
    United Democrats Party or UD [Sarah WESCOT-WILLIAMS]
    United Peoples Party or UP [Theodore HEYLIGER]
    United Sint Maarten Party or US Party [Frans RICHARDSON]

  • Slovakia

    Alliance-Szovetseg [Krisztian FORRO]
    Direction-Social Democracy or Smer-SD [Robert FICO]
    For the People or Za Ludi [Veronika REMISOVA]
    Freedom and Solidarity or SaS [Richard SULIK]
    Kotleba-People's Party Our Slovakia or LSNS [Marian KOTLEBA]
    Ordinary People and Independent Personalities - New Majority or OLaNO-NOVA [Igor MATOVIC]
    Slovak National Party or SNS [Andrej DANKO]
    Voice or Hlas-SD [Petr PELLIGRINI]
    We Are Family or Sme-Rodina [Boris KOLLAR]

  • Slovenia

    Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia or DeSUS [Ljubo JASNIC]
    Freedom Movement or GS [Robert GOLOB] (formerly Greens Actions Party)
    List of Marjan Sarec or LMS [Marjan SAREC]
    New Slovenia - Christian Democrats or NSi [Matej TONIN]
    Party of Alenka Bratusek or Stranka SAB [Alenka BRATUSEK] (formerly Alliance of Social Liberal Democrats or ZSD and before that Alliance of Alenka Bratusek or ZaAB)
    Slovenian Democratic Party or SDS [Janez JANSA]
    Slovenian National Party or SNS [Zmago JELINCIC Plemeniti]
    Social Democrats or SD [Tanja FAJON]
    The Left or Levica [Luka MESEC] (successor to United Left or ZL)

  • Solomon Islands

    Democratic Alliance Party or DAP [Steve ABANA]
    Kadere Party of Solomon Islands or KPSI [Peter BOYERS]
    People's Alliance Party or PAP [Nathaniel WAENA]
    Solomon Islands Party for Rural Advancement or SIPRA [Manasseh MAELANGA]
    Solomon Islands People First Party or SIPFP [Dr. Jimmie RODGERS]
    United Democratic Party or UDP [Sir Thomas Ko CHAN]

    note: in general, Solomon Islands politics is characterized by fluid coalitions

  • Somalia

    Cosmopolitan Democratic Party [Yarow Sharef ADEN]
    Daljir Party or DP [Hassan MOALIM]
    Democratic Green Party of Somalia or DGPS [Abdullahi Y. MAHAMOUD]
    Democratic Party of Somalia or DPS [Maslah Mohamed SIAD]
    Green Leaf for Democracy or GLED
    Hiil Qaran
    Justice and Communist Party [Mohamed NUR]
    Justice and Development of Democracy and Self-Respectfulness Party or CAHDI [Abdirahman Abdigani IBRAHIM Bile]
    Justice Party [SAKARIYE Haji]
    Liberal Party of Somalia
    National Democratic Party [Abdirashid ALI]
    National Unity Party (Xisbiga MIdnimo-Quaran) [Abdurahman BAADIYOW]
    Somali Green Party (local chapter of Federation of Green Parties of Africa)
    Somali National Party or SNP [Mohammed Ameen Saeed AHMED]
    Somali People's Party [Salad JEELE]
    Somali Society Unity Party [Yasin MAALIM]
    Tayo or TPP [Mohamed Abdullahi MOHAMED]
    Tiir Party [Fadhil Sheik MOHAMUD]
    Union for Peace and Development Party or PDP [HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud]
    United and Democratic Party [FAUZIA Haji]
    United Somali Parliamentarians
    United Somali Republican Party [Ali TIMA-JLIC]

  • South Africa

    African Christian Democratic Party or ACDP [Kenneth MESHOE]
    African Independent Congress or AIC [Mandla GALO]
    African National Congress or ANC [Cyril RAMAPHOSA]
    African People's Convention or APC [Themba GODI]
    Agang SA [Mike TSHISHONGA]
    Congress of the People or COPE [Mosiuoa LEKOTA]
    Democratic Alliance or DA [John STEENHUISEN]
    Economic Freedom Fighters or EFF [Julius Sello MALEMA]
    Freedom Front Plus or FF+ [Pieter GROENEWALD]
    GOOD [Patricia de LILLE]
    Inkatha Freedom Party or IFP [Mangosuthu BUTHELEZI]
    National Freedom Party or NFP [Zanele kaMAGWAZA-MSIBI]
    Pan-Africanist Congress of Azania or PAC [Luthanado MBINDA]
    United Christian Democratic Party or UCDP [Isaac Sipho MFUNDISI]
    United Democratic Movement or UDM [Bantu HOLOMISA]

  • South Sudan

    Sudan People's Liberation Movement or SPLM [Salva KIIR Mayardit]
    Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-Former Detainees [Rebecca Nyandeng Chol GARANG de Mabior]
    Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-In Opposition or SPLM-IO [Riek MACHAR Teny Dhurgon]
    South Sudan Opposition Alliance or SSOA [Hussein ABDELBAGI Ayii]

  • Spain

    Asturias Forum or FAC [Carmen MORIYON]
    Basque Country Unite (Euskal Herria Bildu) or EH Bildu (coalition of 4 Basque pro-independence parties)
    Basque Nationalist Party or PNV or EAJ [Andoni ORTUZAR]
    Canarian Coalition or CC [Ana ORAMAS] (coalition of 5 parties)
    Ciudadanos Party or C's [Ines ARRIMADAS]
    Compromis - Communist Coalition [Joan BALDOVI]
    Junts per Catalunia or JxCat  [Carles PUIDGEMONT]
    JxCat-Junts Together for Catalonia [Jordi SANCHEZ]
    Navarra Suma (electoral Coaltion formed by Navarrese People's Union (UPN), Ciudadanos (C's), and the Popular Party (PP) ahead of the 2019 election)
    New Canary or NCa [Pedro QUEVEDOS]
    People's Party or PP [Pablo CASADO]
    Republican Left of Catalonia or ERC [Oriol JUNQUERAS i Vies]
    Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [Pedro SANCHEZ]
    Unidas Podemos [Ione BELARRA] (formerly Podemos IU; electoral coalition formed for May 2016 election)
    Union of People of Navarra or UPN [Javier ESPARZA]
    Vox or Vox [Santiago ABASCAL]

  • Sri Lanka

    Crusaders for Democracy [Ganeshalingam CHANDRALINGAM]
    Eelam People's Democratic Party or EPDP [Douglas DEVANANDA]
    Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front [Suresh PREMACHANDRAN]
    Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna or JVP [Anura Kumara DISSANAYAKE]
    Jathika Hela Urumaya or JHU [Karunarathna PARANAWITHANA, Ven. Hadigalle Wimalasara THERO]
    National Peoples Power or JVP [Anura Kumara DISSANAYAKE]
    Samagi Jana Balawegaya or SJB [Sajith PREMADASA]
    Sri Lanka Freedom Party or SLFP [Maithripala SIRISENA]
    Sri Lanka Muslim Congress or SLMC [Rauff HAKEEM]
    Sri Lanka People's Freedom Alliance [Mahinda RAJAPAKSA]
    Sri Lanka Podujana Peramuna or SLPP [G. L. PEIRIS]
    Tamil National Alliance or TNA [Rajavarothiam SAMPANTHAN] (alliance includes Illankai Tamil Arasu Kachchi [Mavai SENATHIRAJAH], People's Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam [D. SIDDARTHAN], Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization [Selvam ADAIKALANATHAN])
    Tamil National People's Front [Gajendrakumar PONNAMBALAM]
    United National Front for Good Governance or UNFGG [Ranil WICKREMESINGHE] (coalition includes JHU, UNP)
    United National Party or UNP [Ranil WICKREMESINGHE]
    United People's Freedom Alliance or UPFA [Maithripala SIRISENA] (coalition includes SLFP)

  • Sudan

    Major Parties with seats in the last National Assembly election (13-15 April 2015):

    Collective Leadership Umma Party           
    Democratic Unionist Party or DUP [Jalal al-DIGAIR]
    Democratic Unionist Party–Original [Muhammad Uthman al-MIRGHANI]
    Federal Umma Party [Fadl al-Sayed SHUAIB]                   
    Freedom and Justice Party
    National Freedom and Justice Party        
    National Congress Party or NCP [Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR]          
    National Umma Party or UP [Sadiq al-MAHDI]                   
    Umma Reform and Development Party
    United Umma Party

    Major Parties as of April 2019:
    Democratic Unionist Party [Muhammad Uthman al-MIRGHANI]
    Democratic Unionist Party or DUP [Babika BABIKER]
    Federal Umma Party [Dr. Ahmed Babikir NAHAR]
    Muslim Brotherhood or MB [Sadig Abdalla ABDELMAJID and Dr. Yousif Al-Hibir Nor-ELDAYIM]
    National Congress Party or NCP [Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR]
    National Umma Party or NUP [Fadlallah Baramah NASSER]
    Popular Congress Party or PCP [Nawal Al-KHIDIR]
    Reform Movement Now [Dr. Ghazi Salahuddin al-ATABANI]
    Sudan National Front [Ali Mahmud HASANAYN]
    Sudanese Communist Party or SCP [Mohammed Moktar Al-KHATEEB]
    Sudanese Congress Party or SCoP [Omar El DIGAIR]
    Umma Party for Reform and Development [Mubarak Al-Fadul Al-MAHDI]
    Unionist Movement Party or UMP [led by DUP Chair Mohammed Osama Al-MERGHANI]

    note: the National Assembly was dissolved in April 2019 to be replaced some time in 2023 with a Transitional Legislative Council with as yet undetermined party affiliations; in November 2019, the transitional government banned the National Congress Party

  • Suriname

    Alternative Combination or A-Com (coalition includes ABOP, KTPI, Party for Democracy and Development)
    Brotherhood and Unity in Politics or BEP [Ronnie ASABINA]
    Democratic Alternative '91 or DA91 [Angelique DEL CASTILLO]
    General Liberation and Development Party or ABOP [Ronnie BRUNSWIJK}
    National Democratic Party or NDP [Desire Delano BOUTERSE]
    National Party of Suriname or NPS [Gregory RUSLAND]
    Party for Democracy and Development in Unity or DOE [Carl BREEVELD]
    Party for National Unity and Solidarity or KTPI [Willy SOEMITA]
    People's Alliance (Pertjaja Luhur) or PL [Paul SOMOHARDJO]
    Progressive Workers' and Farmers' Union or PALU [Jim HOK]
    Progressive Reform Party or VHP [Chandrikapersad SANTOKHI]
    Reform and Renewal Movement or HVB [Raymond SAPOEN]
    Surinamese Labor Party or SPA [Guno CASTELEN]

  • Svalbard

    Svalbard Conservative Party [Kjetil FIGENSCHOU]
    Svalbard Green Party [Pal BERG]
    Svalbard Labor Party [Arild OLSEN]
    Svalbard Liberal Party [Terie AUVENIK]
    Svalbard Progress Party [Jorn DYBDAHL]

  • Sweden

    Center Party (Centerpartiet) or C [Annie LOOF resigned on 15 September 2022]
    Christian Democrats (Kristdemokraterna) or KD [Ebba BUSCH]
    Green Party (Miljopartiet de Grona) or MP [Marta STEVENI and Per BOLUND]
    Left Party (Vansterpartiet) or V [Nooshi DADGOSTAR]
    Liberal Party (Liberalerna) or L [Johan PEHRSON]
    Moderate Party (Moderaterna) or M [Ulf KRISTERSSON]
    Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna) or SD [Jimmie AKESSON]
    Swedish Social Democratic Party (Socialdemokraterna) or SAP [Magdalena ANDERSSON]

  • Switzerland

    Free Democratic Party or FDP.The Liberals (FDP.Die Liberalen, PLR.Les Liberaux-Radicaux, PLR.I Liberali, Ils Liberals) [Petra GOESSI]
    Green Liberal Party (Gruenliberale Partei or GLP, Parti vert liberale or PVL, Partito Verde-Liberale or PVL, Partida Verde Liberale or PVL) [Juerg GROSSEN]
    Green Party (Gruene Partei der Schweiz or Gruene, Parti Ecologiste Suisse or Les Verts, Partito Ecologista Svizzero or I Verdi, Partida Ecologica Svizra or La Verda) [Regula RYTZ]
    Social Democratic Party (Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz or SP, Parti Socialiste Suisse or PSS, Partito Socialista Svizzero or PSS, Partida Socialdemocratica de la Svizra or PSS) [Cedric WERMUTH and Mattea MEYER]
    Swiss People's Party (Schweizerische Volkspartei or SVP, Union Democratique du Centre or UDC, Unione Democratica di Centro or UDC, Uniun Democratica dal Center or UDC) [Marco CHIESA]
    The Center (Die Mitte, Alleanza del Centro, Le Centre, Allianza dal Center) [Gerhard PFISTER] (merger of the Christian Democratic People's Party and the Conservative Democratic Party)
    other minor parties

  • Syria

    legal parties/alliances:
    Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party [Bashar al-ASAD, regional secretary]
    Arab Socialist Renaissance (Ba'th) Party [President Bashar al-ASAD]
    Arab Socialist Union of Syria or ASU [Safwan al-QUDSI]
    Democratic Arab Socialist Union [Hassan Abdul AZIM, general secretary] 
    National Progressive Front or NPF [Bashar al-ASAD, Suleiman QADDAH] (alliance includes Arab Socialist Renaissance (Ba'th) Party, Socialist Unionist Democratic Party)
    Socialist Unionist Party [Fayiz ISMAIL]
    Socialist Unionist Democratic Party [Fadlallah Nasr al-DIN]
    Syrian Communist Party (two branches) [Wissal Farha BAKDASH, Yusuf Rashid FAYSAL]
    Syrian Social Nationalist Party or SSNP [Ali HAIDAR]
    Unionist Socialist Party [Fayez ISMAIL]

    Major Kurdish parties
     
    Kurdish Democratic Union Party or PYD [Shahoz HASAN and Aysha HISSO]
    Kurdish National Council [Sa'ud MALA]
     
    other: Syrian Democratic Party [Mustafa QALAAJI]

  • Taiwan

    Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [TSAI Ing-wen]
    Kuomintang or KMT (Nationalist Party) [CHU Chi-luan, aka Eric CHU]
    Taiwan People's Party or TPP [KO Wen-je]
    New Power Party or NPP [KAO Yu-ting]
    Taiwan Statebuilding Party or TSP [CHEN Yi-chi]
    People First Party or PFP [James SOONG] (2021)

    note - the DPP and the KMT are the two major political parties; there are hundreds of registered minor parties

  • Tajikistan

    Agrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Rustam LATIFZODA]
    Communist Party of Tajikistan or CPT [Miroj ABDULLOEV]
    Democratic Party of Tajikistan or DPT [Saidjafar USMONZODA]
    Party of Economic Reform of Tajikistan or PERT [Rustam RAHMATZODA]
    People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON]
    Social Democratic Party of Tajikistan or SDPT [Qiyomiddin AZIZOV]
    Socialist Party of Tajikistan or SPT [Abduhalim GHAFFORZODA]

  • Tanzania

    Alliance for Change and Transparency (Wazalendo) or ACT [Zitto KABWE]
    Alliance for Democratic Change or ADC [Hamad Rashid MOHAMED]
    Civic United Front (Chama Cha Wananchi) or CUF [Ibrahim LIPUMBA]
    National Convention for Construction and Reform-Mageuzi or NCCR-M [James Francis MBATIA]
    National League for Democracy
    Party of Democracy and Development (Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo) or Chadema [President Samia Suluhu HASSAN]
    Revolutionary Party (Chama Cha Mapinduzi) or CCM
    Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine MREMA]
    United Democratic Party or UDP [John Momose CHEYO]

  • Thailand

    Action Coalition of Thailand Party or ACT [ANEK Laothamatas]
    Bhumjaithai Party or BJT [ANUTIN Charnvirakul]
    Chat Phatthana Party (National Development Party) [THEWAN Liptaphanlop]
    Chat Thai Phatthana Party (Thai Nation Development Party) or CTP [KANCHANA Sinlapa-acha]
    New Economics Party or NEP [MINGKHWAN Sangsuwan]
    Move Forward Party or MFP (formed in 2020 from the disbanded Future Forward Party, FPP) [PHITHA Limcharoenrat]
    Palang Pracharat Party or PPRP (a pro-military party formed in 2018 by members of the military junta’s cabinet) [PRAWIT Wongsuwan]
    Phumchai Thai Party (Thai Pride Party) or PJT [ANUTHIN Chanwirakun]
    Prachachat Party of PCC [WAN Muhamad NOOR Matha]
    Prachathipat Party (Democrat Party) or DP [JURIN Laksanawisit]
    Puea Chat Party (For Nation Party) or PCP [SARUNWUT Sarunket]
    Puea Thai Party (For Thais Party) or PTP [CHONLANON Sikaew]
    Puea Tham Party (For Dharma Party) [NALINI Thawisin]
    Seri Ruam Thai Party (Thai Liberal Party) or TLP [SERIPHISUT Temiyawet]
    Thai Civilized Party or TCL [MONGKOLKIT Suksintharanon]
    Thai Forest Conservation Party or TFCP [DAMRONG Phidet]
    Thai Liberal Party or TLP [SERIPISUT TEMIYAVET]
    Thai Local Power Party or TLP [CHATCHAWAI Kong-udom]
    Thai People Power Party or TLPT [NIKHOM Bunwiset]
    Thai Raksa Chat Party (Thai National Preservation Party) [PRICHAPHON Phongpanit]

    note - as of 5 April 2018, 98 new parties applied to be registered with the Election Commission in accordance with the provisions of the new organic law on political parties

  • Timor-Leste

    Alliance for Change and Progress or AMP [Xanana GUSMAO] (collapsed in 2020; alliance included CNRT, KHUNTO, PLP)
    Democratic Development Forum or DDF
    Democratic Party or PD [Mariano Assanami SABINO]
    Frenti-Mudanca (Front for National Reconstruction of Timor-Leste - Change) or FM [Jose Luis GUTERRES]
    Kmanek Haburas Unidade Nasional Timor Oan or KHUNTO [Armanda BERTA DOS SANTOS]
    National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction or CNRT [Kay Rala Xanana GUSMAO]
    People's Liberation Party or PLP [Taur Matan RUAK]
    Revolutionary Front of Independent Timor-Leste or FRETILIN [Mari ALKATIRI]
    Timorese Democratic Union or UDT [Gilman SANTOS]

  • Togo

    Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Yaovi AGBOYIBO]
    Alliance of Democrats for Integral Development or ADDI [Tchaboure GOGUE]
    Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA [Brigitte ADJAMAGBO-JOHNSON]
    Democratic Forces for the Republic or FDR [Dodji APEVON]
    National Alliance for Change or ANC [Jean-Pierre FABRE]
    New Togolese Commitment [Gerry TAAMA]
    Pan-African National Party or PNP [Tikpi ATCHADAM]
    Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP [Edem KODJO]
    Patriotic Movement for Democracy and Development or MPDD [Agbeyome KODJO]
    Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR [Abi TCHESSA]
    The Togolese Party [Nathaniel OLYMPIO]
    Union of Forces for Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO]
    Union for the Republic or UNIR [Faure GNASSINGBE]

  • Tokelau

    none

  • Tonga

    Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands or DPFI or PTOA [Semisi SIKA]
    People's Democratic Party or PDP [Tesina FUKO]
    Sustainable Nation-Building Party [Sione FONUA]
    Tonga Democratic Labor Party [vacant]
    Tonga Human Rights and Democracy Movement or HRDM ['Uliti UATA]
    Tonga People's Party or PAK (Paati ʻa e Kakai ʻo Tonga) [Pohiva TU'I'ONETOA] (split from Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands)

  • Trinidad and Tobago

    Congress of the People or COP [Kirt SINNETTE]
    People's National Movement or PNM [Keith ROWLEY]
    Progressive Democratic Patriots (Tobago) [Watson DUKE]
    United National Congress or UNC [Kamla PERSAD-BISSESSAR]

  • Tunisia

    Afek Tounes [Yassine BRAHIM]
    Al Badil Al-Tounisi (The Tunisian Alternative) [Mehdi JOMAA]
    Amal Party [Ridha BELHAJ]
    Call for Tunisia Party (Nidaa Tounes) [Ali HAFSI]
    Current of Love [Hachemi HAMDI] (formerly the Popular Petition party)
    Democratic Current [Ghazi CHAOUACHI]
    Democratic Patriots' Unified Party [Zied LAKHDHAR]
    Dignity Coalition or Al Karama Coalition [Seifeddine MAKHIOUF]
    Ennahda Movement (The Renaissance) [Rached GHANNOUCHI]
    Free Destourian Party or PDL [Abir MOUSSI]
    Green Tunisia Party [Abdelkader ZITOUNI]
    Heart of Tunisia (Qalb Tounes) [Nabil KAROUI]
    Long Live Tunisia (Tahya Tounes) [Youssef CHAHED]
    Machrou Tounes (Tunisia Project) [Mohsen MARZOUK]
    Movement of Socialist Democrats or MDS [Ahmed KHASKHOUSSI]
    Party of the Democratic Arab Vanguard [Kheireddine SOUABNI]
    People's Movement [Zouheir MAGHZAOUI]
    Republican Party (Al Joumhouri) [Issam CHEBBI]
    The Movement Party (Hizb Harak) [Moncef MARZOUKI]
    Third Republic Party [Olfa Hamdi]
    Tunisian Ba'ath Movement [Othmen Bel Haj AMOR]
    Workers' Party [Hamma HAMMAMI]

  • Turkey (Turkiye)

    Democracy and Progress Party [Ali BABACAN]
    Democrat Party or DP [Gultekin UYSAL]
    Democratic Regions Party or DBP [Saliha AYDENIZ, Keskin BAYINDIR]
    Felicity Party (Saadet Party) or SP [Temel KARAMOLLAOGLU]
    Free Cause Party or HUDA PAR [Zekeriya YAPICIOGLU]
    Future Party (Gelecek Partisi) [Ahmet DAVUTOGLU]
    Good Party (IYI Party) [Meral AKSENER]
    Grand Unity Party or BBP [Mustafa DESTICI]
    Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN]
    Nation Alliance (electoral alliance includes CHP, IYI, SP, DP)
    Nationalist Movement Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]
    Patriotic Party (Vatan Partisi) or VP [Dogu PERINCEK]
    People's Alliance (electoral alliance AKP, MHP, BBP)
    Peoples' Democratic Party or HDP [Pervin BULDAN, Mithat SANCAR]
    Republican People's Party or CHP [Kemal KILICDAROGLU]

    note:  as of September 2021, 116 political parties were legally registered

  • Turkmenistan

    Agrarian Party of Turkmenistan or APT [Basim ANNAGURBANOW]
    Democratic Party of Turkmenistan or DPT [Ata SERDAROW]
    Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs or PIE [Saparmyrat OWGANOW]

    note: all of these parties support President BERDIMUHAMEDOW; a law authorizing the registration of political parties went into effect in January 2012; unofficial, small opposition movements exist abroad

  • Turks and Caicos Islands

    People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Sean ASTWOOD]
    Progressive National Party or PNP [Washington MISICK]

  • Tuvalu

    there are no political parties, but members of parliament usually align themselves in informal groupings

  • Uganda

    Activist Party [Stephen BAMPIGGA]
    Alliance for National Transformation or ANT [Alice ALASO, acting national coordinator]
    Conservative Party [Walyemera Daniel MASUMBA]
    Democratic Party or DP [Norbert MAO]
    Forum for Democratic Change or FDC [Patrick Oboi AMURIAT]
    Justice Forum or JEEMA [Asuman BASALIRWA]
    National Resistance Movement or NRM [Yoweri MUSEVENI]
    National Unity Platform [Nkonge KIBALAMA]
    Uganda People's Congress or UPC [James AKENA]

  • Ukraine

    Batkivshchyna (Fatherland) [Yuliya TYMOSHENKO]
    European Solidarity (BPP-Solidarity) [Petro POROSHENKO]
    Holos (Voice) [Kira RUDYK]
    Opposition Bloc or OB [Evgeny MURAYEV]
    Opposition Platform-For Life [Yuriy BOYKO, Vadim RABINOVICH]
    Radical Party [Oleh LYASHKO]
    Samopomich (Self Reliance) [Andriy SADOVYY]
    Servant of the People [Oleksandr KORNIENKO]
    Svoboda (Freedom) [Oleh TYAHNYBOK]

  • United Arab Emirates

    none; political parties are banned

  • United Kingdom

    Alliance Party (Northern Ireland) [Naomi LONG] 
    Conservative and Unionist Party [Boris JOHNSON]
    Democratic Unionist Party or DUP (Northern Ireland) [Jeffrey DONALDSON]
    Green Party of England and Wales or Greens [Carla DENYER and Adrian RAMSAY]
    Labor (Labour) Party [Sir Keir STARMER]
    Liberal Democrats (Lib Dems) [Ed Davey]
    Party of Wales (Plaid Cymru) [Adam PRICE]
    Scottish National Party or SNP [Nicola STURGEON]
    Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland) [Mary Lou MCDONALD]
    Social Democratic and Labor Party or SDLP (Northern Ireland) [Colum EASTWOOD]
    UK Independence Party or UKIP [Pat MOUNTAIN, interim leader]
    Ulster Unionist Party or UUP (Northern Ireland) [Robin SWANN]

  • United States

    Democratic Party [Jaime HARRISON]
    Green Party [collective leadership]
    Libertarian Party [Nicholas SARWARK]
    Republican Party [Ronna Romney MCDANIEL]

  • Uruguay

    Broad Front or FA (Frente Amplio) [Fernando PEREIRA] - (a broad governing coalition that comprises 34 factions including Uruguay Assembly [Danilo ASTORI], Progressive Alliance [Rodolfo NIN NOVOA], New Space [Rafael MICHELINI], Socialist Party [Gonzalo CIVILA], Vertiente Artiguista [Enrique RUBIO], Christian Democratic Party [Jorge RODRIGUEZ], For the People’s Victory [Luis PUIG], Popular Participation Movement or MPP [Jose MUJICA], Big House [Constanza MOREIRA], Communist Party [Juan CASTILLO], The Federal League [Sergio LIER], Fuerza Renovadora [Mario BERGARA])
    Colorado Party (including Batllistas [Julio Maria SANGUINETTI], and Ciudadanos [Adrian PENA])
    Independent Party [Pablo MIERES]
    National Party or Blanco (including Todos (Everyone) [Luis LACALLE POU] and National Alliance [Carlos CAMY])
    Popular Unity [Gonzalo ABELLA]
    Open Cabildo [Guido MANINI RIOS]

  • Uzbekistan

    Ecological Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Ekologik Partivasi) [Narzullo OBLOMURODOV]
    Justice (Adolat) Social Democratic Party of Uzbekistan [Bahrom ABDUHALIMOV]
    Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Liberal-Demokratik Partiyasi) or LDPU [Aktam HAITOV]
    National Revival Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Milliy Tiklanish Demokratik Partiyasi) [Alisher QODIROV]
    People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (Xalq Demokratik Partiyas) or PDP [Ulugbek Ilyosovich INOYATOV] (formerly Communist Party)

  • Vanuatu

    Greens Confederation or GC [Moana CARCASSES Kalosil]
    Iauko Group or IG [Tony NARI]
    Land and Justice Party (Graon mo Jastis Pati) or GJP [Ralph REGENVANU]
    Melanesian Progressive Party or MPP [Barak SOPE]
    Nagriamel Movement or NAG [Frankie STEVENS]
    Natatok Indigenous People's Democratic Party or (NATATOK) or NIPDP [Alfred Roland CARLOT]
    National United Party or NUP [Ham LINI]
    People's Progressive Party or PPP [Sato KILMAN]
    People's Service Party or PSP [Don KEN]
    Reunification of Movement for Change or RMC [Charlot SALWAI]
    Rural Development Party or RDP [Jay NGWELE, spokesman]
    Union of Moderate Parties or UMP [Serge VOHOR]
    Vanua'aku Pati (Our Land Party) or VP [Edward NATAPEI]
    Vanuatu Democratic Party [Maxime Carlot KORMAN]
    Vanuatu First or Vanuatu [Russel NARI]
    Vanuatu Liberal Democratic Party or VLDP [Tapangararua WILLIE]
    Vanuatu Liberal Movement or VLM [Gaetan PIKIOUNE]
    Vanuatu National Development Party or VNDP [Robert Bohn SIKOL]
    Vanuatu National Party or VNP [Issac HAMARILIU]
    Vanuatu Republican Party or VRP [Marcellino PIPITE]

  • Venezuela

    A New Era or UNT [Manuel ROSALES]
    Brave People's Alliance or ABP [Antonio LEDEZMA]
    Cambiemos Movimiento Ciudadano or CMC [Timoteo ZAMBRANO]
    Christian Democrats or COPEI [Miguel SALAZAR]
    Citizens Encounter or EC [Delsa SOLORZANO]
    Clear Accounts or CC [Enzo SCARENO]
    Coalition of parties loyal to Nicolas MADURO - Great Patriotic Pole or GPP [Nicolas MADURO]
    Coalition of opposition parties - Democratic Alliance (Alianza Democratica) (comprised of AD, EL CAMBIO, COPEI, CMC, and AP)
    Come Venezuela (Vente Venezuela) or VV [Maria Corina MACHADO]
    Communist Party of Venezuela or PCV [Oscar FIGUERA]
    Consenso en la Zona or Conenzo [Enzo SCARANO and Leon JURADO]
    Convergencia [Juan Jose CALDERA]
    Democratic Action or AD [Jose Bernabe GUTIERREZ Parra]
    EL CAMBIO (The Change) [Javier Alejandro BERTUCCI Carrero]
    Fatherland for All (Patria para Todos) or PPT [Ilenia MEDINA]
    Fuerza Vecinal or FV [leaders include mayors Gustavo DUQUE, Darwin GONZALEZ, Elias SAYEGH, Manuel FERREIRA, Josy FERNANDEZ, and Morel David RODRIGUEZ]; note - national spokesman David UZCATEGUI
    Justice First (Primero Justicia) or PJ [Julio BORGES]
    LAPIZ [Antonio Ecarri]
    Movement to Socialism (Movimiento al Socialismo) or MAS [Segundo MELENDEZ]
    Popular Will (Voluntad Popular) or VP [Leopoldo LOPEZ, Freddy SUPERLANO, and Emilio GRATERON]
    Progressive Advance (Avanzada Progresista) or AP [two groups, one led by Henri FALCON and Fanny GARCIA, the other led by Luis Augusto ROMERO and Bruno GALLO]
    The Radical Cause or La Causa R [Andres VELAZQUEZ]
    United Socialist Party of Venezuela or PSUV [Nicolas MADURO]
    Venezuela First (Primero Venezuela) or PV [Luis PARRA]
    Venezuelan Progressive Movement or MPV [Simon CALZADILLA]
    Venezuela Project or PV [Carlos BERRIZBEITIA]
    We Are Venezuela (Somos Venezuela) or MSV [Delcy RODRIGUEZ and Vanessa MONTERO]

  • Vietnam

    Communist Party of Vietnam or CPV [CPV General Secretary Nguyen Phu TRONG]

    note: other parties proscribed

  • Virgin Islands

    Democratic Party [Stacey PLASKELL]
    Independent Citizens' Movement or ICM [Dale BLYDEN]
    Republican Party [John CANEGATA]

  • Wallis and Futuna

    Left Radical Party or PRG [Guillaume LACROIX] (formerly Radical Socialist Party or PRS and the Left Radical Movement or MRG)
    Lua Kae Tahi (Giscardians) (leader NA)
    Rally for Wallis and Futuna-The Republicans (Rassemblement pour Wallis and Futuna) or RPWF-LR [Clovis LOGOLOGOFOLAU]
    Socialist Party or PS
    Taumu'a Lelei [Soane Muni UHILA]
    Union Pour la Democratie Francaise or UDF

  • Yemen

    General People’s Congress or GPC (3 factions: pro-Hadi [Abdrabbi Mansur HADI], pro-Houthi [Sadeq Ameen Abu RAS], pro-Saleh [Ahmed SALEH]
    Nasserist Unionist People's Organization [Abdulmalik al-MEKHLAFI]
    National Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party [Qassem Salam SAID]
    Southern Transitional Council or STC [Aidarus al-ZOUBAIDA]
    Yemeni Reform Grouping or Islah [Muhammed Abdallah al-YADUMI]
    Yemeni Socialist Party or YSP [Dr. Abd al-Rahman Umar al-SAQQAF]

  • Zambia

    Alliance for Democracy and Development or ADD [Charles MILUPI]
    Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI]
    Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Felix MUTATI]
    National Democratic Congress or NDC [Chishimba KAMBWILI]
    Party of National Unity and Progress or PNUP [Highvie HAMUDUDU]
    Patriotic Front or PF [Edgar LUNGU]
    United Party for National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA]

  • Zimbabwe

    MDC Alliance [Nelson CHAMISA] 
    Movement for Democratic Change - MDC-T [Douglas MWONZORA]
    National People's Party or NPP [Joyce MUJURU] (formerly Zimbabwe People First or ZimPF)
    Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front or ZANU-PF [Emmerson Dambudzo MNANGAGWA]
    Zimbabwe African Peoples Union or ZAPU [Sibangalizwe NKOMO]