Photos of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Introduction

Background

Resistance by native Caribs prevented colonization on Saint Vincent until 1719. Disputed by France and the UK for most of the 18th century, the island was ceded to Britain in 1783. The British prized Saint Vincent due to its fertile soil, which allowed for thriving slave-run plantations of sugar, coffee, indigo, tobacco, cotton, and cocoa. In 1834, the British abolished slavery. Immigration of indentured servants eased the ensuing labor shortage, as did subsequent Portuguese immigrants from Madeira and East Indian laborers. Conditions remained harsh for both former slaves and immigrant agricultural workers, however, as depressed world sugar prices kept the economy stagnant until the early 1900s. The economy then went into a period of decline with many landowners abandoning their estates and leaving the land to be cultivated by liberated slaves. Between 1960 and 1962, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines was a separate administrative unit of the Federation of the West Indies. Autonomy was granted in 1969 and independence in 1979. In April 2021, the explosive eruption of the La Soufrière volcano in the north of Saint Vincent destroyed much of Saint Vincent’s most productive agricultural lands. Unlike most of its tourism-dependent neighbors, the Vincentian economy is primarily agricultural. The US provided $4.7 million in humanitarian support after the eruption.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago

Geographic coordinates

13 15 N, 61 12 W

Map references

Central America and the Caribbean

Area

total: 389 sq km (Saint Vincent 344 sq km)

land: 389 sq km

water: 0 sq km

comparison ranking: total 204

Area - comparative

twice the size of Washington, DC

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 0 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm

Climate

tropical; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)

Terrain

volcanic, mountainous

Elevation

highest point: La Soufriere 1,234 m

lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

Natural resources

hydropower, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 25.6% (2018 est.)

arable land: 12.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 7.7% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 5.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 68.7% (2018 est.)

other: 5.7% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

10 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

most of the population is concentrated in and around the capital of Kingstown

Natural hazards

hurricanes; La Soufriere volcano on the island of Saint Vincent is a constant threat

volcanism: La Soufriere (1,234 m) on the island of Saint Vincent last erupted in 1979; the island of Saint Vincent is part of the volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles that extends from Saba in the north to Grenada in the south

Geography - note

the administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is divided between Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is comprised of 32 islands and cays

People and Society

Population

100,804 (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 195

Nationality

noun: Saint Vincentian(s) or Vincentian(s)

adjective: Saint Vincentian or Vincentian

Ethnic groups

African descent 71.2%, mixed 23%, Indigenous 3%, East Indian/Indian 1.1%, European 1.5%, other 0.2% (2012 est.)

Languages

English, Vincentian Creole English, French patois

Religions

Protestant 75% (Pentecostal 27.6%, Anglican 13.9%, Seventh Day Adventist 11.6%,  Baptist 8.9%, Methodist 8.7%, Evangelical 3.8%, Salvation Army 0.3%, Presbyterian/Congregational 0.3%), Roman Catholic 6.3%,  Rastafarian 1.1%, Jehovah's Witness 0.8%, other 4.7%, none 7.5%, unspecified 4.7% (2012 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 19.05% (male 9,687/female 9,515)

15-64 years: 68.55% (male 35,621/female 33,478)

65 years and over: 12.4% (2023 est.) (male 6,021/female 6,482)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 49

youth dependency ratio: 32.9

elderly dependency ratio: 16.1

potential support ratio: 6.2 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 37 years (2023 est.)

male: 37.2 years

female: 36.9 years

comparison ranking: total 80

Population growth rate

-0.16% (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 207

Birth rate

12.1 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 151

Death rate

7.6 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 102

Net migration rate

-6.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 209

Population distribution

most of the population is concentrated in and around the capital of Kingstown

Urbanization

urban population: 54.3% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.94% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

27,000 KINGSTOWN (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female

total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

62 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 91

Infant mortality rate

total: 12.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 14.2 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 10.9 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 108

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.9 years (2023 est.)

male: 74.9 years

female: 79 years

comparison ranking: total population 95

Total fertility rate

1.74 children born/woman (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 154

Gross reproduction rate

0.86 (2023 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: total: 95.1% of population

unimproved: total: 4.9% of population (2017 est.)

Current health expenditure

4.8% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

0.66 physicians/1,000 population (2012)

Hospital bed density

4.3 beds/1,000 population (2016)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 90.2% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 9.8% of population (2017 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

23.7% (2016)

comparison ranking: 64

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 7.48 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 2.52 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.24 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 4.48 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.23 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 52

Education expenditures

5.7% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 52

Literacy

total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 15 years (2015)

Environment

Environment - current issues

pollution of coastal waters and shorelines from discharges by pleasure yachts and other effluents; in some areas, pollution is severe enough to make swimming prohibitive; poor land use planning; deforestation; watershed management and squatter settlement control

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate

tropical; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)

Land use

agricultural land: 25.6% (2018 est.)

arable land: 12.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 7.7% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 5.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 68.7% (2018 est.)

other: 5.7% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 54.3% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.94% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.02% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 145

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 105

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 9.41 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 0.22 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 0.09 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 31,561 tons (2015 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 10 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 2,000 cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 0 cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

100 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

etymology: Saint Vincent was named by explorer Christopher COLUMBUS after Saint VINCENT of Saragossa because the 22 January 1498 day of discovery was the saint's feast day

Government type

parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm

Capital

name: Kingstown

geographic coordinates: 13 08 N, 61 13 W

time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: an earlier French settlement was renamed Kingstown by the British in 1763 when they assumed control of the island; the king referred to in the name is GEORGE III (r. 1760-1820)

Administrative divisions

6 parishes; Charlotte, Grenadines, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint Patrick

Independence

27 October 1979 (from the UK)

National holiday

Independence Day, 27 October (1979)

Constitution

history: previous 1969, 1975; latest drafted 26 July 1979, effective 27 October 1979 (The Saint Vincent Constitution Order 1979)

amendments: proposed by the House of Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly membership and assent of the governor general; passage of amendments to constitutional sections on fundamental rights and freedoms, citizen protections, various government functions and authorities, and constitutional amendment procedures requires approval by the Assembly membership, approval in a referendum of at least two thirds of the votes cast, and assent of the governor general

Legal system

English common law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General Susan DOUGAN (since 1 August 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister Ralph E. GONSALVES (since 29 March 2001)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

Legislative branch

description: unicameral House of Assembly (23 seats; 15 representatives directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 6 senators appointed by the governor general, and 2 ex officio members - the speaker of the house and the attorney general; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 5 November 2020 (next to be held in 2025)

election results: percent of vote by party - ULP 49.58%, NDP 50.34%, other 0.8%; seats by party - ULP 9, NDP 6

Judicial branch

highest court(s): the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the superior court of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States; the ECSC - headquartered on St. Lucia - consists of the Court of Appeal - headed by the chief justice and 4 judges - and the High Court with 18 judges; the Court of Appeal is itinerant, traveling to member states on a schedule to hear appeals from the High Court and subordinate courts; High Court judges reside in the member states, with 2 assigned to Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; note - Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is also a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice

judge selection and term of office: chief justice of Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court appointed by Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission, an independent body of judicial officials; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62

subordinate courts: magistrates' courts

Political parties and leaders

New Democratic Party or NDP [Dr. Godwin L. FRIDAY]
SVG Green Party or SVGP [Ivan O'NEAL]
Unity Labor Party or ULP [Dr. Ralph GONSALVES] (formed in 1994 by the coalition of Saint Vincent Labor Party or SVLP and the Movement for National Unity or MNU)

International organization participation

ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Lou-Anne Gaylene GILCHRIST (since 18 January 2017)

chancery: 1627 K Street, NW, Suite 704, Washington, DC 20006

telephone: [1] (202) 364-6730

FAX: [1] (202) 364-6736

email address and website:
mail@embsvg.com

http://wa.embassy.gov.vc/washington/

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

embassy: the US does not have an embassy in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Flag description

three vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold (double width), and green; the gold band bears three green diamonds arranged in a V pattern, which stands for Vincent; the diamonds recall the islands as "the Gems of the Antilles" and are set slightly lowered in the gold band to reflect the nation's position in the Antilles; blue conveys the colors of a tropical sky and crystal waters, yellow signifies the golden Grenadine sands, and green represents lush vegetation

National symbol(s)

Saint Vincent parrot; national colors: blue, gold, green

National anthem

name: "St. Vincent! Land So Beautiful!"

lyrics/music: Phyllis Joyce MCCLEAN PUNNETT/Joel Bertram MIGUEL

note: adopted 1967

Economy

Economic overview

upper middle-income Caribbean island economy; key agriculture and tourism sectors; environmentally fragile; diversifying economy across services, science and knowledge, and creative industries; CARICOM member and US Caribbean Basin Initiative beneficiary

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.515 billion (2022 est.)
$1.444 billion (2021 est.)
$1.433 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 203

Real GDP growth rate

4.91% (2022 est.)
0.8% (2021 est.)
-3.74% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 78

Real GDP per capita

$14,600 (2022 est.)
$13,800 (2021 est.)
$13,700 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 116

GDP (official exchange rate)

$948.559 million (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

5.66% (2022 est.)
1.57% (2021 est.)
-0.63% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 88

Credit ratings

Moody's rating: B3 (2014)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 7.1% (2017 est.)

industry: 17.4% (2017 est.)

services: 75.5% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 45; industry 168; agriculture 108

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 87.3% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 16.6% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 10.8% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: -0.2% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 37.1% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -51.7% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

bananas, sugar cane, roots/tubers, plantains, vegetables, fruit, coconuts, sweet potatoes, yams, mangoes/guavas

Industries

tourism; food processing, cement, furniture, clothing, starch

Industrial production growth rate

11.87% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 15

Labor force

53,000 (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 191

Unemployment rate

19.55% (2022 est.)
20.46% (2021 est.)
20.68% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 206

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 41.1% (2021 est.)

male: 39.7%

female: 43.9%

comparison ranking: total 10

Remittances

7.33% of GDP (2022 est.)
8.03% of GDP (2021 est.)
7.25% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Budget

revenues: $243 million (2020 est.)

expenditures: $288 million (2020 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-0.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 64

Public debt

73.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
82.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 48

Taxes and other revenues

23.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 58

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$184.796 million (2022 est.)
-$197.723 million (2021 est.)
-$136.29 million (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 95

Exports

$262.355 million (2022 est.)
$140.343 million (2021 est.)
$184.627 million (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 199

Exports - partners

Netherlands 45%, India 9%, United States 6%, Barbados 5%, Greece 5% (2021)

Exports - commodities

recreational boats, drilling platforms, cargo ships, wheat flours, animal food, collector's items (2021)

Imports

$508.404 million (2022 est.)
$425.4 million (2021 est.)
$375.036 million (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 203

Imports - partners

United States 29%, Netherlands 15%, Trinidad and Tobago 10%, China 8%, France 5% (2021)

Imports - commodities

dredger ships, refined petroleum, floating docks, aircraft, poultry, packaged medicines (2021)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$320.193 million (2022 est.)
$311.903 million (2021 est.)
$205.195 million (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 180

Debt - external

$362.2 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$330.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 182

Exchange rates

East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
2.7 (2022 est.)
2.7 (2021 est.)
2.7 (2020 est.)
2.7 (2019 est.)
2.7 (2018 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 49,000 kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 133.917 million kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 11.083 million kWh (2019 est.)

comparison rankings: imports 179; exports 171; installed generating capacity 192; transmission/distribution losses 20; consumption 191

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 73.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 25.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 1,500 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 148

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 162

Refined petroleum products - imports

1,621 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 193

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

202,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 202,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 202

Energy consumption per capita

27.821 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 123

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 11,016 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 11 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 186

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 114,892 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 110 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 191

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: adequate island-wide, fully automatic telephone system; broadband access; expanded FttP (Fiber to the Home) markets; LTE launches; regulatory development; telecom sector contributes greatly to the overall GDP; telecom sector is a growth area (2020)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity is 11 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular teledensity is 110 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 1-784; landing points for the ECFS, CARCIP and Southern Caribbean Fiber submarine cables providing connectivity to US and Caribbean Islands; connectivity also provided by VHF/UHF radiotelephone from Saint Vincent to Barbados; SHF radiotelephone to Grenada and Saint Lucia; access to Intelsat earth station in Martinique through Saint Lucia (2019)

Broadcast media

St. Vincent and the Grenadines Broadcasting Corporation operates 1 TV station and 5 repeater stations that provide near total coverage to the multi-island state; multi-channel cable TV service available; a partially government-funded national radio service broadcasts on 1 station and has 2 repeater stations; about a dozen privately owned radio stations and repeater stations

Internet users

total: 85,000 (2021 est.)

percent of population: 85% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 192

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 24,733 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 22 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 161

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 11

Airports

5 (2024)

comparison ranking: 176

Merchant marine

total: 830 (2023)

by type: bulk carrier 30, container ship 18, general cargo 137, oil tanker 16, other 629

comparison ranking: total 30

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Kingstown

Military and Security

Military and security forces

no regular military forces; Royal Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Police Force (RSVPF; includes the Coast Guard, Special Services Unit, Rapid Response Unit, Drug Squad, and Anti-Trafficking Unit) (2024)

note: the RSVPF is the only security force in the country and is responsible for maintaining internal security; it reports to the Minister of National Security, a portfolio held by the prime minister

Military - note

the country has been a member of the Caribbean Regional Security System (RSS) since its creation in 1982; RSS signatories (Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Saint Kitts and Nevis, and Saint Lucia) agreed to prepare contingency plans and assist one another, on request, in national emergencies, prevention of smuggling, search and rescue, immigration control, fishery protection, customs and excise control, maritime policing duties, protection of off-shore installations, pollution control, national and other disasters, and threats to national security (2024)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines-Venezuela: joins other Caribbean states to counter Venezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, which permits Venezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea

Illicit drugs

a transit point for cocaine and marijuana destined for North America, Europe, and elsewhere in the Caribbean; some local demand for cocaine and some use of synthetic drugs