Photos of Hong Kong

The Peak Tramway is a funicular railway that carries tourists and residents to the upper levels of Hong Kong Island.



The UK seized Hong Kong in 1841, and China formally ceded it the following year at the end of the First Opium War. The Kowloon Peninsula was added in 1860 at the end of the Second Opium War, and the UK obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. Pursuant to a UK-China agreement in 1984, Hong Kong became the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) of the People's Republic of China as of 1 July 1997. In this agreement, China promised that, under its "one country, two systems" formula, China's socialist economic and strict political system would not be imposed on Hong Kong and that Hong Kong would enjoy a "high degree of autonomy" in all matters except foreign and defense affairs for the next 50 years.

Since the handover, Hong Kong has continued to enjoy success as an international financial center. However, dissatisfaction with the Hong Kong Government and growing Chinese political influence have been central issues and have led to considerable civil unrest, including large-scale pro-democracy demonstrations in 2019 after the HKSAR attempted to revise a local ordinance to allow extraditions to mainland China. In response to the protests, the governments of the HKSAR and China reduced the city's autonomy and placed new restrictions on the rights of Hong Kong residents, moves that were widely criticized as contravening obligations under the Hong Kong Basic Law and the Sino-British Joint Declaration. Democratic lawmakers and political figures were arrested in a widespread crackdown, while others fled abroad. At the same time, dozens of civil society groups and several independent media outlets were closed or disbanded. In 2021, Beijing imposed a more restrictive electoral system, restructuring the Legislative Council (LegCo) and allowing only government-approved candidates to run for office. The changes ensured that virtually all seats in the 2021 LegCo election went to pro-establishment candidates and effectively ended political opposition to Beijing. In 2024, the LegCo passed a new national security law (Article 23 of the Basic Law) further expanding the Hong Kong Government's power to curb dissent.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China

Geographic coordinates

22 15 N, 114 10 E

Map references

Southeast Asia


total: 1,108 sq km

land: 1,073 sq km

water: 35 sq km

comparison ranking: total 183

Area - comparative

six times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries

total: 33 km

regional borders (1): China 33 km


733 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm


subtropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall


hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north


highest point: Tai Mo Shan 958 m

lowest point: South China Sea 0 m

Natural resources

outstanding deepwater harbor, feldspar

Land use

agricultural land: 5% (2018 est.)

arable land: 3.2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.9% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0.9% (2018 est.)

forest: 0% (2018 est.)

other: 95% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

10 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

population fairly evenly distributed

Natural hazards

occasional typhoons

Geography - note

consists of a mainland area (the New Territories) and more than 200 islands

People and Society


total: 7,297,821

male: 3,367,812

female: 3,930,009 (2024 est.)

comparison rankings: female 103; male 106; total 106


noun: Chinese/Hong Konger

adjective: Chinese/Hong Kong

Ethnic groups

Chinese 91.6%, Filipino 2.7%, Indonesian 1.9%, other 3.7% (2021 est.)


Cantonese (official) 85.4%, English (official) 4.5%, Putonghua (official) 2.2%, other Chinese dialects 2.8%, other 2%, persons under 5 or mute 3.2%; note - data represent population by usual spoken language (2021 est.)

major-language sample(s):

世界概况, 必須擁有的基本資料参考书 (Cantonese)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Cantonese audio sample:


Buddhist or Taoist 27.9%, Protestant 6.7%, Roman Catholic 5.3%, Muslim 4.2%, Hindu 1.4%, Sikh 0.2%, other or none 54.3% (2016 est.)

note: many people practice Confucianism, regardless of their religion or not having a religious affiliation

Age structure

0-14 years: 13.2% (male 505,718/female 459,956)

15-64 years: 64.8% (male 2,123,216/female 2,609,102)

65 years and over: 21.9% (2024 est.) (male 738,878/female 860,951)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 46.6

youth dependency ratio: 17.8

elderly dependency ratio: 28.7

potential support ratio: 3.5 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 47.2 years (2024 est.)

male: 45.3 years

female: 48.6 years

comparison ranking: total 7

Population growth rate

0.12% (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 183

Birth rate

7.6 births/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 218

Death rate

8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 89

Net migration rate

1.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 54

Population distribution

population fairly evenly distributed


urban population: 100% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.58% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

7.685 million Hong Kong (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.1 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.81 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female

total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2024 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.8 years (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2024 est.)

male: 2.8 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.2 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 215

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 84 years (2024 est.)

male: 81.3 years

female: 86.8 years

comparison ranking: total population 7

Total fertility rate

1.24 children born/woman (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 223

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: NA

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: NA

total: 0% of population (2020)

Physician density

2.04 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

4.9 beds/1,000 population (2020)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 96.4% of population

rural: NA

total: 96.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 3.6% of population

rural: NA

total: 3.6% of population (2017)

Education expenditures

4% of GDP (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: 115


total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 17 years

male: 17 years

female: 17 years (2021)


Environment - current issues

air and water pollution from rapid urbanization; urban waste pollution; industrial pollution


subtropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall

Land use

agricultural land: 5% (2018 est.)

arable land: 3.2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.9% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0.9% (2018 est.)

forest: 0% (2018 est.)

other: 95% (2018 est.)


urban population: 100% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.58% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 179

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 177

Air pollutants

carbon dioxide emissions: 43.64 megatons (2016 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 5,679,816 tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 1,931,138 tons (2016 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 34% (2016 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

conventional short form: Hong Kong

local long form: Heung Kong Takpit Hangching Ku (Eitel/Dyer-Ball)

local short form: Heung Kong (Eitel/Dyer-Ball)

abbreviation: HK

etymology: probably an imprecise phonetic rendering of the Cantonese name meaning "fragrant harbor"

Government type

presidential limited democracy; a special administrative region of the People's Republic of China

Dependency status

special administrative region of the People's Republic of China

Administrative divisions

none (special administrative region of the People's Republic of China)


none (special administrative region of China)

National holiday

National Day (Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949); note - 1 July (1997) is celebrated as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Establishment Day


history: several previous (governance documents while under British authority); latest drafted April 1988 to February 1989, approved March 1990, effective 1 July 1997 (Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China serves as the constitution); note - since 1990, China's National People's Congress has interpreted specific articles of the Basic Law

amendments: proposed by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (NPC), the People’s Republic of China State Council, or the Special Administrative Region of Hong Kong; submittal of proposals to the NPC requires two-thirds majority vote by the Legislative Council of Hong Kong, approval by two thirds of Hong Kong’s deputies to the NPC, and approval by the Hong Kong chief executive; final passage requires approval by the NPC

Legal system

mixed legal system of common law based on the English model and Chinese customary law (in matters of family and land tenure); PRC imposition of National Security Law incorporates elements of Chinese civil law


see China


18 years of age in direct elections for 20 of the 90 Legislative Council seats and all of the seats in 18 district councils; universal for permanent residents living in the territory of Hong Kong for the past 7 years; note - in indirect elections, suffrage is limited to about 220,000 members of functional constituencies for the other 70 legislature seats and a 1,500-member election committee for the chief executive drawn from broad sectoral groupings, central government bodies, municipal organizations, and elected Hong Kong officials

Executive branch

chief of state: President of China XI Jinping (since 14 March 2013)

head of government: Chief Executive John LEE Ka-chiu (since 1 July 2022)

cabinet: Executive Council or ExCo appointed by the chief executive

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by National People's Congress for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 March 2023 (next to be held in March 2028); chief executive indirectly elected by the Election Committee and appointed by the PRC Government for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 8 May 2022 (next to be held in 2027)

election results:
John LEE was the only candidate and won with over 99% of the vote by the Election Committee

Carrie LAM elected; Election Committee vote - Carrie LAM (non-partisan) 777, John TSANG (non-partisan) 365, WOO Kwok-hing (non-partisan) 21, 23 ballots rejected (1,186 votes cast)

note: electoral changes that Beijing imposed in March 2021 expanded the Election Committee to 1,500 members

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Legislative Council or LegCo (90 seats); 20 members directly elected in 2-seat constituencies, 30 indirectly elected by the approximately 220,000 members of various functional constituencies based on a variety of methods, and 50 indirectly elected by the 1,500-member Election Committee; members serve 4-year terms; note - in March 2021, China's National People's Congress amended the electoral rules and system for the LegCo; the total number of seats increased from 70 to 90, directly elected geographical constituencies were reduced from 35 to 20 seats, while trade-based indirectly elected functional constituencies remained at 30; an additional 40 seats were elected by the 1,500-member Election Commission; all political candidates are evaluated by the Candidate Eligibility Review Committee (CERC), established in April 2022; the CERC consists of the chairperson, 2-4 official members, and 1-3 non-official members, all appointed by the chief executive

elections: last held on 19 Dec 2021 (next to be held in 2025)

election results: percent of vote by bloc: pro-Beijing 93.8%, non-establishment 6.2%; seats by association/bloc/party - pro-Beijing 89 (DAB 19, FTU 8, BPA 7, NPP 5, Liberal Party 4, NTAS 4, HKFEW 2, HKFLU 2, CF 2, RT 1, PP 1, KWND 1, NPHK 1, NCF-1; other/independent 41), non-aligned 1 (Third Side); composition - men 73, women 17, percentage women 18.9%; note - Hong Kong's leading pro-democracy political parties boycotted the 2021 election

note: in July 2023, Hong Kong lawmakers reduced the proportion of directly elected seats on local district councils from some 90% to about 20%; under the new law, the majority of the 470 seats are now filled by members appointed by the chief executive, rural committee chairpersons, and others elected by local committees that are packed with pro-establishment figures

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Court of Final Appeal (consists of the chief justice, 3 permanent judges, and 20 non-permanent judges); note - a sitting bench consists of the chief justice, 3 permanent judges, and 1 non-permanent judge

judge selection and term of office: all judges appointed by the Hong Kong Chief Executive upon the recommendation of the Judicial Officers Recommendation Commission, an independent body consisting of the Secretary for Justice, other judges, and judicial and legal professionals; permanent judges serve until normal retirement at age 65, but term can be extended; non-permanent judges appointed for renewable 3-year terms without age limit

subordinate courts: High Court (consists of the Court of Appeal and Court of First Instance); District Courts (includes Family and Land Courts); magistrates' courts; specialized tribunals

Political parties and leaders

Business and Professionals Alliance for Hong Kong or BPA [LO Wai-kwok]
Civil Force or CF [PUN Kwok-shan]
Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong or DAB [Starry LEE Wai-king]
Federation of Hong Kong and Kowloon Labour Unions or HKFLU [LAM Chun-sing]
Hong Kong Federation of Education Workers or HKFEW [LAU Chi-pang]
Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions or HKFTU [NG Chau-pei]
Kowloon West New Dynamic or KWND [Priscilla LEUNG]
Liberal Party or LP [Tommy CHEUNG]
New Century Forum or NCF [MA Fung-kwak]
New People's Party or NPP [Regina IP]
New Prospect for Hong Kong or NPHK [Gary ZHANG Xinyu]
New Territories Association of Societies or NTAS [CHAN Yung]
Professional Power or PP [Christine FONG Kwok Shan]
Roundtable or RT [Michael TIEN Puk-sun]
Third Side or TS [TIK Chi-yeun]

note 1: there is no political party ordinance, so there are no registered political parties; politically active groups register as societies or companies

note 2: by the end of 2021, the leading pro-democracy figures in Hong Kong had been effectively removed from the political arena under the provisions of Beijing's 2021 electoral changes or via charges under the 2020 national security law; in addition, dozens of pro-democracy organizations, including political parties, unions, churches, civil rights groups, and media organizations have disbanded or closed; as of 2023, nearly all politically active groups were pro-Beijing

International organization participation

ADB, APEC, BIS, FATF, ICC (national committees), IHO, IMF, IMO (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITUC (NGOs), UNWTO (associate), UPU, WCO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: none (Special Administrative Region of China); Hong Kong Economic and Trade Office (HKETO) carries out normal liaison activities and communication with the US Government and other US entities; the position of the Hong Kong Commissioner to the US Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region is vacant; address: 1520 18th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036; telephone: [1] (202) 331-8947; FAX: [1] (202) 331-8958; email:; website:

HKETO offices: New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Consul General Gregory MAY (since September 2022); note - also accredited to Macau

embassy: 26 Garden Road, Central, Hong Kong

mailing address: 8000 Hong Kong Place, Washington DC  20521-8000

telephone: [852] 2523-9011

FAX: [852] 2845-1598

email address and website:

Flag description

red with a stylized, white, five-petal Bauhinia flower in the center; each petal contains a small, red, five-pointed star in its middle; the red color is the same as that on the Chinese flag and represents the motherland; the fragrant Bauhinia - developed in Hong Kong the late 19th century - has come to symbolize the region; the five stars echo those on the flag of China

National symbol(s)

orchid tree flower; national colors: red, white

National anthem

note: as a Special Administrative Region of China, "Yiyongjun Jinxingqu" is the official anthem (see China)


Economic overview

high-income tourism- and services-based economy; global financial hub; COVID-19 and political protests fueled recent recession; ongoing recovery but lower-skilled unemployment remains high; investing in job-reskilling programs

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$429.592 billion (2022 est.)
$445.064 billion (2021 est.)
$418.129 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 47

Real GDP growth rate

-3.48% (2022 est.)
6.44% (2021 est.)
-6.54% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 206

Real GDP per capita

$58,500 (2022 est.)
$60,000 (2021 est.)
$55,900 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 20

GDP (official exchange rate)

$359.839 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.88% (2022 est.)
1.57% (2021 est.)
0.25% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 28

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: AA- (2020)

Moody's rating: Aa3 (2020)

Standard & Poors rating: AA+ (2017)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0.1% (2017 est.)

industry: 7.6% (2017 est.)

services: 92.3% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 6; industry 213; agriculture 219

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 67% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 9.9% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 21.8% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.4% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 188% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -187.1% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

pork, chicken, spinach, vegetables, game meat, pork offal, fruits, onions, lettuce, pork fat (2022)

note: top ten agricultural products based on tonnage


trading and logistics, financial services, professional services, tourism, cultural and creative, clothing and textiles, shipping, electronics, toys, clocks and watches

Industrial production growth rate

3.19% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 111

Labor force

3.761 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 97

Unemployment rate

4.32% (2022 est.)
5.17% (2021 est.)
5.81% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 87

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 15% (2021 est.)

male: 16.3%

female: 13.6%

comparison ranking: total 117

Average household expenditures

on food: 12.1% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 0.7% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.8%

highest 10%: 38.1% (2016)


0.12% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.12% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.12% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities


revenues: $70.124 billion (2020 est.)

expenditures: $105.849 billion (2020 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

5.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 6

Public debt

0.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
0.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 208

Taxes and other revenues

23.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 62

Current account balance

$37.909 billion (2022 est.)
$43.659 billion (2021 est.)
$24.126 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 16


$697.586 billion (2022 est.)
$752.621 billion (2021 est.)
$608.192 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 14

Exports - partners

China 21%, India 13%, Netherlands 6%, Switzerland 4%, US 3% (2022)

note: top five export partners based on percentage share of exports

Exports - commodities

gold, integrated circuits, gas turbines, broadcasting equipment, machine parts (2022)

note: top five export commodities based on value in dollars


$683.415 billion (2022 est.)
$732.087 billion (2021 est.)
$601.528 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 13

Imports - partners

China 44%, Taiwan 11%, Singapore 8%, South Korea 5%, Japan 4% (2022)

note: top five import partners based on percentage share of imports

Imports - commodities

integrated circuits, broadcasting equipment, machine parts, gold, jewelry (2022)

note: top five import commodities based on value in dollars

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$424.025 billion (2022 est.)
$496.856 billion (2021 est.)
$491.755 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 9

Debt - external

$1,648,409,000,000 (2019 est.)
$1,670,919,000,000 (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 15

Exchange rates

Hong Kong dollars (HKD) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
7.831 (2022 est.)
7.773 (2021 est.)
7.757 (2020 est.)
7.836 (2019 est.)
7.839 (2018 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2022 est.)


installed generating capacity: 13.388 million kW (2022 est.)

consumption: 44.677 billion kWh (2022 est.)

imports: 12.573 billion kWh (2022 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 3.834 billion kWh (2022 est.)

comparison rankings: transmission/distribution losses 152; imports 21; consumption 56; installed generating capacity 56

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 99.4% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

solar: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

biomass and waste: 0.4% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)


consumption: 6.217 million metric tons (2022 est.)

exports: 800 metric tons (2022 est.)

imports: 5.681 million metric tons (2022 est.)


total petroleum production: 96 bbl/day (2023 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 414,000 bbl/day (2022 est.)

Natural gas

consumption: 4.835 billion cubic meters (2022 est.)

imports: 4.835 billion cubic meters (2022 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

87.498 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 14.039 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 63.975 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 9.484 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 45

Energy consumption per capita

167.815 million Btu/person (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: 23


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 3.673 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 49 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 34

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 21.861 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 292 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 58

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Hong Kong’s telecommunications sector continues to stay near the top of world rankings for the industry; it has kept its #1 spot in the Asian region in terms of the maturity of its telecom market – a reflection of the high penetration rates across mobile, mobile broadband, and fixed broadband; even fixed-line teledensity in Hong Kong is impressive at over 50%, although it too has started a gradual decline in keeping with most other telecom markets around the world, as consumers slowly transition over to the mobile platform for all of their communication needs (2022)

domestic: fixed-line is over 51 per 100 and mobile-cellular is 319 subscriptions per 100 (2021)

international: country code - 852; landing points for the AAE-1, AAG, APCN-2, APG, ASE, FEA, FNAL, RNAL, H2HE, SeaMeWe-3, SJC and TGN-IA submarine cables that provide connections to Asia, US, Australia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Pacific Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); coaxial cable to Guangzhou, China (2022)

Broadcast media

34 commercial terrestrial TV networks each with multiple stations; multi-channel satellite and cable TV systems available; 3 licensed broadcasters of terrestrial radio, one of which is government funded, operate about 12 radio stations; note - 4 digital radio broadcasters operated in Hong Kong from 2010 to 2017, but all digital radio services were terminated in September 2017 due to weak market demand (2019)

Internet users

total: 6.975 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 93% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 81

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 2,885,586 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 39 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 47


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 12 (2020) (registered in China)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 275 (registered in China)

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 47,101,822 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 12,676,720,000 (2018) mt-km


3 (2024)

comparison ranking: 196


94 (2024)


total: 2,193 km

paved: 2,193 km (2021)

comparison ranking: total 173

Merchant marine

total: 2,537 (2023)

by type: bulk carrier 1,047, container ship 560, general cargo 144, oil tanker 394, other 392

comparison ranking: total 10


total ports: 1 (2024)

large: 1

medium: 0

small: 0

very small: 0

ports with oil terminals: 1

key ports: Hong Kong

Military and Security

Military and security forces

no regular indigenous military forces; Hong Kong Police Force (specialized units include the Police Counterterrorism Response Unit, the Explosive Ordnance Disposal Bureau, the Special Duties Unit, the Airport Security Unit, and the VIP Protection Unit) (2024)

note: the Hong Kong garrison of China's People's Liberation Army (PLA) includes elements of the PLA Army, PLA Navy, and PLA Air Force; these forces are under the direct leadership of the Central Military Commission in Beijing and under administrative control of the adjacent Southern Theater Command

Military - note

defense is the responsibility of China

Transnational Issues

Illicit drugs

modern banking system provides conduit for money laundering; groups involved in money laundering range from local street organizations to sophisticated international syndicates involved in assorted criminal activities, including drug trafficking; major source of precursor chemicals used in the production of illicit narcotics