Photos of Grenada

The harbor of St. George's.



The indigenous Carib people inhabited Grenada when Christopher COLUMBUS landed on the island in 1498, but it remained uncolonized for more than a century. The French settled Grenada in the 17th century, established sugar estates, and imported large numbers of African slaves. Britain took the island in 1762 and vigorously expanded sugar production. In the 19th century, cacao eventually surpassed sugar as the main export crop; in the 20th century, nutmeg became the leading export. In 1967, Britain gave Grenada autonomy over its internal affairs. Full independence was attained in 1974, making Grenada one of the smallest independent countries in the Western Hemisphere. In 1979, a leftist New Jewel Movement seized power under Maurice BISHOP, ushering in the Grenada Revolution. On 19 October 1983, factions within the revolutionary government overthrew and killed BISHOP and members of his party. Six days later, US forces and those of six other Caribbean nations intervened, quickly capturing the ringleaders and their hundreds of Cuban advisers. Rule of law was restored, and democratic elections were reinstituted the following year and have continued since.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago

Geographic coordinates

12 07 N, 61 40 W

Map references

Central America and the Caribbean


total: 344 sq km

land: 344 sq km

water: 0 sq km

comparison ranking: total 207

Area - comparative

twice the size of Washington, DC

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 0 km


121 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds


volcanic in origin with central mountains


highest point: Mount Saint Catherine 840 m

lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

Natural resources

timber, tropical fruit

Land use

agricultural land: 32.3% (2018 est.)

arable land: 8.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 20.6% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 2.9% (2018 est.)

forest: 50% (2018 est.)

other: 17.7% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

20 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

approximately one-third of the population is found in the capital of St. George's; the island's population is concentrated along the coast

Natural hazards

lies on edge of hurricane belt; hurricane season lasts from June to November

volcanism: Mount Saint Catherine (840 m) lies on the island of Grenada; Kick 'em Jenny, an active submarine volcano (seamount) on the Caribbean Sea floor, lies about 8 km north of the island of Grenada; these two volcanoes are at the southern end of the volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles that extends up to the Netherlands dependency of Saba in the north

Geography - note

the administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is divided between Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada

People and Society


total: 114,621

male: 58,168

female: 56,453 (2024 est.)

comparison rankings: female 190; male 189; total 190


noun: Grenadian(s)

adjective: Grenadian

Ethnic groups

African descent 82.4%, mixed 13.3%, East Indian 2.2%, other 1.3%, unspecified 0.9% (2011 est.)


English (official), French patois


Protestant 49.2% (includes Pentecostal 17.2%, Seventh Day Adventist 13.2%, Anglican 8.5%, Baptist 3.2%, Church of God 2.4%, Evangelical 1.9%, Methodist 1.6%, other 1.2%), Roman Catholic 36%, Jehovah's Witness 1.2%, Rastafarian 1.2%, other 5.5%, none 5.7%, unspecified 1.3% (2011 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 21.9% (male 13,095/female 12,003)

15-64 years: 65.3% (male 38,129/female 36,726)

65 years and over: 12.8% (2024 est.) (male 6,944/female 7,724)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 51.3

youth dependency ratio: 36.4

elderly dependency ratio: 14.9

potential support ratio: 6.7 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 35.4 years (2024 est.)

male: 35.2 years

female: 35.7 years

comparison ranking: total 97

Population growth rate

0.27% (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 169

Birth rate

13.3 births/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 128

Death rate

8.4 deaths/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 76

Net migration rate

-2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 171

Population distribution

approximately one-third of the population is found in the capital of St. George's; the island's population is concentrated along the coast


urban population: 37.1% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.86% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

39,000 SAINT GEORGE'S (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.09 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female

total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2024 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

21 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 121

Infant mortality rate

total: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (2024 est.)

male: 8.6 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 9.5 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 139

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.3 years (2024 est.)

male: 73.7 years

female: 79.1 years

comparison ranking: total population 112

Total fertility rate

1.9 children born/woman (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 118

Gross reproduction rate

0.91 (2024 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: total: 96.8% of population

unimproved: total: 3.2% of population (2017 est.)

Current health expenditure

5.8% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

1.44 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

3.6 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 93.7% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 6.3% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

21.3% (2016)

comparison ranking: 91

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 8.62 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 3.54 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.56 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 4.21 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.31 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 37

Education expenditures

3.6% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 140


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98.6%

male: 98.6%

female: 98.6% (2014 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 19 years

male: 18 years

female: 19 years (2018)


Environment - current issues

deforestation causing habitat destruction and species loss; coastal erosion and contamination; pollution and sedimentation; inadequate solid waste management

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements


tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds

Land use

agricultural land: 32.3% (2018 est.)

arable land: 8.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 20.6% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 2.9% (2018 est.)

forest: 50% (2018 est.)

other: 17.7% (2018 est.)


urban population: 37.1% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.86% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 161

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 74

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 10.08 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 0.27 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 2.04 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 29,536 tons (2012 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 10 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 0 cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 2.1 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

200 million cubic meters (2020 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Grenada

etymology: derivation of the name remains obscure; some sources attribute the designation to Spanish influence (most likely named for the Spanish city of Granada), with subsequent French and English interpretations resulting in the present-day Grenada; in Spanish "granada" means "pomegranate"

Government type

parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm


name: Saint George's

geographic coordinates: 12 03 N, 61 45 W

time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: the 1763 Treaty of Paris transferred possession of Grenada from France to Great Britain; the new administration renamed Ville de Fort Royal (Fort Royal Town) to Saint George's Town, after the patron saint of England; eventually the name became simply Saint George's

Administrative divisions

6 parishes and 1 dependency*; Carriacou and Petite Martinique*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick


7 February 1974 (from the UK)

National holiday

Independence Day, 7 February (1974)


history: previous 1967; latest presented 19 December 1973, effective 7 February 1974, suspended 1979 following a revolution but restored in 1983

amendments: proposed by either house of Parliament; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the membership in both houses and assent of the governor general; passage of amendments to constitutional sections, such as personal rights and freedoms, the structure, authorities, and procedures of the branches of government, the delimitation of electoral constituencies, or the procedure for amending the constitution, also requires two-thirds majority approval in a referendum; amended 1991, 1992

Legal system

common law based on English model

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: yes

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years for persons from a non-Caribbean state and 4 years for a person from a Caribbean state


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General Cecile LA GRENADE (since 7 May 2013)

head of government: Prime Minister Dickon MITCHELL (since 24 June 2022)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
Senate (13 seats; members appointed by the governor general - 10 on the advice of the prime minister and 3 on the advice of the leader of the opposition party; members serve 5-year terms)
House of Representatives (15 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: Senate - last appointments on 3 August 2022 (next to be held no later than 2027)
House of Representatives - last held on 23 June 2022 (next to be held no later than 2027)

election results: Senate - percent by party - NA; seats by party - NDC 7, NNP 3, independent 3; composition - men 11, women 5, percentage women 31.3%

House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NDC 51.8%; NNP 47.8%; other 0.4%; seats by party - NDC 9; NNP 6; composition - men 9, women 4, percentage women 30.8%; note - total Parliament percentage women 31%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): regionally, the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the superior court of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States; the ECSC - headquartered on St. Lucia - consists of the Court of Appeal - headed by the chief justice and 4 judges - and the High Court with 18 judges; the Court of Appeal is itinerant, traveling to member states on a schedule to hear appeals from the High Court and subordinate courts; High Court judges reside in the member states, with 2 in Grenada; appeals beyond the ECSC in civil and criminal matters are heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)

judge selection and term of office: chief justice of Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court appointed by Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission, and independent body of judicial officials; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62

subordinate courts: magistrates' courts; Court of Magisterial Appeals

Political parties and leaders

National Democratic Congress or NDC [Dickon MITCHELL]
New National Party or NNP [Keith MITCHELL]

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Tarlie FRANCIS (since 15 September 2023)

chancery: 1701 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 265-2561

FAX: [1] (202) 265-2468

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Miami, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: the US does not have an official embassy in Grenada; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Grenada

embassy: Lance-aux-Epines, Saint George's

mailing address: 3180 Grenada Place, Washington DC  20521-3180

telephone: [1] (473) 444-1173

FAX: [1] (473) 444-4820

email address and website:

Flag description

a rectangle divided diagonally into yellow triangles (top and bottom) and green triangles (hoist side and outer side), with a red border around the flag; there are seven yellow, five-pointed stars with three centered in the top red border, three centered in the bottom red border, and one on a red disk superimposed at the center of the flag; there is also a symbolic nutmeg pod on the hoist-side triangle (Grenada is a leading nutmeg producer); the seven stars stand for the seven administrative divisions, with the central star denoting the capital, St. George's; yellow represents the sun and the warmth of the people, green stands for vegetation and agriculture, and red symbolizes harmony, unity, and courage

National symbol(s)

Grenada dove, bougainvillea flower; national colors: red, yellow, green

National anthem

name: "Hail Grenada"

lyrics/music: Irva Merle BAPTISTE/Louis Arnold MASANTO

note: adopted 1974


Economic overview

small OECS service-based economy; large tourism, construction, transportation, and education sectors; major spice exporter; shrinking but still high public debt; vulnerable to hurricanes; emerging blue economy incentives

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.814 billion (2022 est.)
$1.706 billion (2021 est.)
$1.629 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 200

Real GDP growth rate

6.36% (2022 est.)
4.69% (2021 est.)
-13.76% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 51

Real GDP per capita

$14,500 (2022 est.)
$13,700 (2021 est.)
$13,200 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 117

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1.215 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

2.56% (2022 est.)
1.22% (2021 est.)
-0.74% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 40

Credit ratings

Standard & Poors rating: SD (2013)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 6.8% (2017 est.)

industry: 15.5% (2017 est.)

services: 77.7% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 38; industry 178; agriculture 113

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 63% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 12% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 20% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: -0.1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 60% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -55% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

coconuts, sugarcane, eggs, bananas, vegetables, fruits, plantains, root vegetables, grapefruits, avocados (2022)

note: top ten agricultural products based on tonnage


food and beverages, textiles, light assembly operations, tourism, construction, education, call-center operations

Industrial production growth rate

17.38% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 8

Labor force

55,270 (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 190

Unemployment rate

24% (2017 est.)
28.2% (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 213


5.71% of GDP (2022 est.)
6.59% of GDP (2021 est.)
6.75% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities


revenues: $323 million (2019 est.)

expenditures: $263 million (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

3.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 12

Public debt

70.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
82% of GDP (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 55

Taxes and other revenues

25.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 45

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$55.225 million (2022 est.)
-$146.201 million (2021 est.)
-$171.392 million (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 80


$816.533 million (2022 est.)
$534.892 million (2021 est.)
$428.623 million (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 187

Exports - partners

US 33%, Antigua and Barbuda 10%, India 4%, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4%, France 3% (2022)

note: top five export partners based on percentage share of exports

Exports - commodities

nutmeg/cardamom, frozen fruits and nuts, fish, other fruits, toilet paper (2022)

note: top five export commodities based on value in dollars


$802.567 million (2022 est.)
$622.303 million (2021 est.)
$544.695 million (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 194

Imports - partners

US 37%, Trinidad and Tobago 11%, Cayman Islands 11%, China 5%, UK 3% (2022)

note: top five import partners based on percentage share of imports

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, poultry, plastic products, wheat, cars (2022)

note: top five import commodities based on value in dollars

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$371.767 million (2022 est.)
$348.259 million (2021 est.)
$293.32 million (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 176

Debt - external

$793.5 million (2017 est.)
$682.3 million (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 169

Exchange rates

East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
2.7 (2022 est.)
2.7 (2021 est.)
2.7 (2020 est.)
2.7 (2019 est.)
2.7 (2018 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 93.7% (2021)

electrification - urban areas: 93% (2020)

electrification - rural areas: 96% (2020)


installed generating capacity: 55,000 kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 194.495 million kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 19 million kWh (2019 est.)

comparison rankings: imports 145; exports 130; installed generating capacity 190; transmission/distribution losses 28; consumption 186

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 98.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 1.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)


production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 2,200 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 121

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 207

Refined petroleum products - imports

1,886 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 191

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

316,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 316,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 196

Energy consumption per capita

39.799 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 107


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 26,011 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 21 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 169

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 100,000 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 81 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 192

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: the telecom sector has seen a decline in subscriber numbers (particularly for prepaid mobile services the mainstay of short term visitors) and revenue; fixed and mobile broadband services are two areas that have benefited from the crisis as employees and students have resorted to working from home; one area of the telecom market that is not prepared for growth is 5G mobile; governments, regulators, and even the mobile network operators have shown that they have not been investing in 5G opportunities at the present time; network expansion and enhancements remain concentrated around improving LTE coverage (2021)

domestic: 21 per 100 for fixed-line and 81 per 100 for mobile-cellular (2021)

international: country code - 1-473; landing points for the ECFS, Southern Caribbean Fiber and CARCIP submarine cables with links to 13 Caribbean islands extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad & Tobago including Puerto Rico and Barbados; SHF radiotelephone links to Trinidad and Tobago and Saint Vincent; VHF and UHF radio links to Trinidad (2019)

Broadcast media

multiple publicly and privately owned television and radio stations; Grenada Information Service (GIS) is government-owned and provides television and radio services; the Grenada Broadcasting Network, jointly owned by the government and the Caribbean Communications Network of Trinidad and Tobago, operates a TV station and 2 radio stations; Meaningful Television (MTV) broadcasts island-wide and is part of a locally-owned media house, Moving Target Company, that also includes an FM radio station and a weekly newspaper; multi-channel cable TV subscription service is provided by Columbus Communications Grenada (FLOW GRENADA) and is available island wide; approximately 25 private radio stations also broadcast throughout the country (2019)

Internet users

total: 93,600 (2021 est.)

percent of population: 78% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 189

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 32,000 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 28 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 150



2 (2024)

comparison ranking: 204


total: 1,127 km

paved: 902 km

unpaved: 225 km (2017)

comparison ranking: total 184

Merchant marine

total: 6 (2023)

by type: general cargo 3, other 3

comparison ranking: total 166


total ports: 1 (2024)

large: 0

medium: 0

small: 1

very small: 0

ports with oil terminals: 1

key ports: St. George's

Military and Security

Military and security forces

no regular military forces; the Royal Grenada Police Force (under the Ministry of National Security) includes a Coast Guard and a paramilitary Special Services Unit (2024)

Military - note

Grenada joined the Caribbean Regional Security System (RSS) in 1985; RSS signatories (Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Guyana, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines) agreed to prepare contingency plans and assist one another, on request, in national emergencies, prevention of smuggling, search and rescue, immigration control, fishery protection, customs and excise control, maritime policing duties, protection of off-shore installations, pollution control, national and other disasters, and threats to national security (2024)

Transnational Issues

Illicit drugs

a transit point for cocaine and marijuana destined for North America, Europe, and elsewhere in the Caribbean; some local demand for cocaine and some use of synthetic drugs