Photos of Georgia

A UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1994, the Georgian Orthodox Jvari Monastery (Monastery of the Cross) at Mtskheta, Georgia, was built in the 6th century A.D.  The monastery is built in an early tetraconch (Greek for “four shells”) style, meaning the building is shaped like a cross with a dome and a connection to the natural environment around it. The monastery was the first church in Georgia or Armenia to be built in this style, which became common to the area. Sitting atop of Jvari Mount 656 m (2,152 ft) at the joining of the Mtkvari and Aragvi rivers, the monastery overlooks Mtskheta, the ancient capital of Caucasian Iberia in eastern Georgia.

Introduction

Background

The region of present-day Georgia once contained the ancient kingdoms of Colchis (known as Egrisi locally) and Kartli-Iberia. The area came under Roman influence in the first centuries A.D., and Christianity became the state religion in the 330s. Persian, Arab, and Turk domination was followed by a Georgian golden age (11th-13th centuries) that was cut short when the Mongols invaded in 1236. Subsequently, the Ottoman and Persian empires competed for influence in the region. Georgia was absorbed into the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Independent for three years (1918-1921) following the Russian revolution, it was forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1921 and regained its independence when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991.

In 2003, mounting public discontent over rampant corruption, ineffective government services, and a government attempt to manipulate parliamentary elections touched off widespread protests that led to the resignation of Eduard SHEVARDNADZE, who had been president since 1995. In the aftermath of this "Rose Revolution," new elections in 2004 swept Mikheil SAAKASHVILI and his United National Movement (UNM) party into power. SAAKASHVILI made progress on market reforms and governance, but he faced accusations of abuse of office. Progress was further complicated when Russian support for the separatist regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia led to a five-day conflict between Russia and Georgia in August 2008, which included Russia invading large portions of Georgian territory. Russia initially pledged to pull back from most Georgian territory but then unilaterally recognized the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and Russian military forces have remained in those regions.

Billionaire Bidzina IVANISHVILI's unexpected entry into politics in 2011 brought the divided opposition together under his Georgian Dream coalition, which won a majority of seats in the 2012 parliamentary elections and removed UNM from power. Conceding defeat, SAAKASHVILI named IVANISHVILI as prime minister and left the country after his presidential term ended in 2013. IVANISHVILI voluntarily resigned from office after the presidential succession, and in the years since, the prime minister position has seen frequent turnover. In 2021, SAAKASHVILI returned to Georgia, where he was immediately arrested to serve six years in prison on outstanding abuse-of-office convictions.

Popular support for integration with the West is high in Georgia. Joining the EU and NATO are among the country's top foreign policy goals, and Georgia applied for EU membership in 2022, becoming a candidate country in December 2023. Georgia and the EU have a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement, and since 2017, Georgian citizens have been able to travel to the Schengen area without a visa.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia, with a sliver of land north of the Caucasus extending into Europe; note - Georgia views itself as part of Europe; geopolitically, it can be classified as falling within Europe, the Middle East, or both

Geographic coordinates

42 00 N, 43 30 E

Area

total: 69,700 sq km

land: 69,700 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: approximately 12,560 sq km, or about 18% of Georgia's area, is Russian occupied; the seized area includes all of Abkhazia and the breakaway region of South Ossetia, which consists of the northern part of Shida Kartli, eastern slivers of the Imereti region and Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, and part of western Mtskheta-Mtianeti

comparison ranking: total 121

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than South Carolina; slightly larger than West Virginia

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 1,814 km

border countries (4): Armenia 219 km; Azerbaijan 428 km; Russia 894 km; Turkey 273 km

Coastline

310 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate

warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast

Terrain

largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi (Kolkhida Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; fertile soils in river valley flood plains and foothills of Kolkhida Lowland

Elevation

highest point: Mt'a Shkhara 5,193 m

lowest point: Black Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 1,432 m

Natural resources

timber, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth

Land use

agricultural land: 35.5% (2018 est.)

arable land: 5.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 27.9% (2018 est.)

forest: 39.4% (2018 est.)

other: 25.1% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

4,330 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

settlement concentrated in the central valley, particularly in the capital city of Tbilisi in the east; smaller urban agglomerations dot the Black Sea coast, with Bat'umi being the largest

Natural hazards

earthquakes

Geography - note

note 1: strategically located east of the Black Sea; Georgia controls much of the Caucasus Mountains and the routes through them

note 2: the world's four deepest caves are all in Georgia, including two that are the only known caves on earth deeper than 2,000 m: Krubera Cave at -2,197 m (-7,208 ft; reached in 2012) and Veryovkina Cave at -2,212 (-7,257 ft; reached in 2018)

People and Society

Population

total: 4,900,961

male: 2,343,068

female: 2,557,893 (2024 est.)

comparison rankings: female 126; male 126; total 126

Nationality

noun: Georgian(s)

adjective: Georgian

Ethnic groups

Georgian 86.8%, Azeri 6.3%, Armenian 4.5%, other 2.3% (includes Russian, Ossetian, Yazidi, Ukrainian, Kist, Greek) (2014 est.)

Languages

Georgian (official) 87.6%, Azeri 6.2%, Armenian 3.9%, Russian 1.2%, other 1%; note - Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia (2014 est.)

major-language sample(s):
მსოფლიო ფაქტების წიგნი, ძირითადი ინფორმაციის აუცილებელი წყარო. (Georgian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Georgian audio sample:

Religions

Eastern Orthodox Christian (official) 83.4%, Muslim 10.7%, Armenian Apostolic Christian 2.9%, other 1.2% (includes Roman Catholic Christian, Jehovah's Witness, Yazidi, Protestant Christian, Jewish), none 0.5%, unspecified/no answer 1.2% (2014 est.)

Demographic profile

Analyzing population trends in Georgia since independence in 1991 has proven difficult due to a lack of reliable demographic statistics.  Censuses were fairly accurately and regularly updated through a vital statistics system during Georgia’s period of Soviet rule, but from independence until about 2010, the system broke down as a result of institutional and economic change, social unrest, and large-scale outmigration.  The 2002 census is believed to have significantly overestimated the size of Georgia’s population, in part because respondents continued to include relatives living abroad as part of their household count.  The 2014 census indicates that Georgia’s population is decreasing and aging.  Census data shows that the median age increased from 34.5 years in 2002 to 37.7 years in 2014.  The working-age population (ages 15-65 years) was fairly high in 2002 and rose between 2005 and 2011. Nonetheless, Georgia did not reap economic benefits from this age structure, since the working-age population increase seems to have stimulated labor outmigration to Russia, Ukraine, and other neighboring countries.

Since the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022, Georgia has seen its economy grow to its highest level in years due to the influx of Russian businesses, information and communications technology specialists, and money transfers.  This growth may only be temporary and conditions could still easily change depending on future events.  Meanwhile, the Russian inflow is also a source of concern, as some Georgians fear it could prompt Putin to target their country next.  In addition, Ukrainian refugees use Georgia not just as a transit country but also as a destination.  Some 25,000 Ukrainians remain in the country as of November 2022; they pose an additional strain on resources in Georgia, which has a significant population of its own displaced citizens – from the 2008 Russian occupation of Abkhazia and South Ossetia – who continue to need government support.

Age structure

0-14 years: 20.6% (male 520,091/female 489,882)

15-64 years: 62.7% (male 1,500,036/female 1,572,637)

65 years and over: 16.7% (2024 est.) (male 322,941/female 495,374)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 55.4

youth dependency ratio: 32.8

elderly dependency ratio: 22.6

potential support ratio: 4.4 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 38.3 years (2024 est.)

male: 35.9 years

female: 40.6 years

comparison ranking: total 75

Population growth rate

-0.5% (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 222

Birth rate

12 births/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 148

Death rate

13.3 deaths/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 11

Net migration rate

-3.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 193

Population distribution

settlement concentrated in the central valley, particularly in the capital city of Tbilisi in the east; smaller urban agglomerations dot the Black Sea coast, with Bat'umi being the largest

Urbanization

urban population: 60.7% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.35% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

note: data include Abkhazia and South Ossetia

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

1.082 million TBILISI (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female

total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2024 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

25.9 years (2019 est.)

note: data does not cover Abkhazia and South Ossetia

Maternal mortality ratio

28 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 114

Infant mortality rate

total: 21.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2024 est.)

male: 23.6 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 19.7 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 72

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 72.8 years (2024 est.)

male: 68.7 years

female: 77.2 years

comparison ranking: total population 158

Total fertility rate

1.95 children born/woman (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 112

Gross reproduction rate

0.94 (2024 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.4% of population

rural: 94.3% of population

total: 97.3% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.6% of population

rural: 5.7% of population

total: 2.7% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

7.6% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

5.11 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

2.9 beds/1,000 population (2014)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 96.3% of population

rural: 72.7% of population

total: 86.7% of population

unimproved: urban: 3.7% of population

rural: 27.3% of population

total: 13.3% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

21.7% (2016)

comparison ranking: 85

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 7.45 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 1.71 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 3.19 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 2.52 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.02 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 53

Tobacco use

total: 31.7% (2020 est.)

male: 56.3% (2020 est.)

female: 7.1% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 24

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 0.3%

women married by age 18: 13.9%

men married by age 18: 0.5% (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

3.6% of GDP (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: 135

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.6%

male: 99.7%

female: 99.5% (2019)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years

male: 16 years

female: 16 years (2021)

Environment

Environment - current issues

air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy water pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals; land and forest degradation; biodiversity loss; waste management

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate

warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast

Land use

agricultural land: 35.5% (2018 est.)

arable land: 5.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 27.9% (2018 est.)

forest: 39.4% (2018 est.)

other: 25.1% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 60.7% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.35% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

note: data include Abkhazia and South Ossetia

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.07% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 122

Revenue from coal

0.01% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 52

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 19.06 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 10.13 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 6.05 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 800,000 tons (2015 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 610 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 340 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 710 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

63.33 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Georgia

local long form: Republic of Georgia

local short form: Sak'art'velo

former: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic

etymology: the Western name may derive from the Persian designation "gurgan" meaning "Land of the Wolves"; the native name "Sak'art'velo" means "Land of the Kartvelians" and refers to the core central Georgian region of Kartli

Government type

semi-presidential republic

Capital

name: Tbilisi

geographic coordinates: 41 41 N, 44 50 E

time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: the name in Georgian means "warm place," referring to the numerous sulfuric hot springs in the area

Administrative divisions

9 regions (mkharebi, singular - mkhare), 1 city (kalaki), and 2 autonomous republics (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom respublika)

regions: Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, Kvemo Kartli, Mtskheta Mtianeti, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, Samegrelo and Zemo Svaneti, Samtskhe-Javakheti, Shida Kartli; note - the breakaway region of South Ossetia consists of the northern part of Shida Kartli, eastern slivers of the Imereti region and Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, and part of western Mtskheta-Mtianeti

city: Tbilisi

autonomous republics: Abkhazia or Ap'khazet'is Avtonomiuri Respublika (Sokhumi), Ajaria or Acharis Avtonomiuri Respublika (Bat'umi)



note 1: the administrative centers of the two autonomous republics are shown in parentheses

note 2: the United States recognizes the breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia to be part of Georgia

Independence

9 April 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier date: A.D. 1008 (Georgia unified under King BAGRAT III)

National holiday

Independence Day, 26 May (1918); note - 26 May 1918 was the date of independence from Soviet Russia, 9 April 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union

Constitution

history: previous 1921, 1978 (based on 1977 Soviet Union constitution); latest approved 24 August 1995, effective 17 October 1995

amendments: proposed as a draft law supported by more than one half of the Parliament membership or by petition of at least 200,000 voters; passage requires support by at least three fourths of the Parliament membership in two successive sessions three months apart and the signature and promulgation by the president of Georgia; amended several times, last in 2020 (legislative electoral system revised)

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Georgia

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Salome ZOURABICHVILI (since 16 December 2018)

head of government: Prime Minister Irakli KOBAKHIDZE (since 8 February 2024); note - Irakli GARIBASHVILI resigned on 29 January 2024 to prepare for general elections in October 2024

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 November 2018 (next to be held in 2024); prime minister nominated by Parliament, appointed by the president; note - 2017 constitutional amendments made the 2018 election the last where the president was directly elected; future presidents will be elected by a 300-member College of Electors; in light of these changes, ZOURABICHVILI was allowed a six-year term

election results: 2024: Irakli KOBAKHIDZE approved as prime minister by Parliamentary vote 84-10

2018:
 Salome ZOURABICHVILI elected president in second round; percent of vote in second round - Salome ZOURABICHVILI (independent, backed by Georgian Dream) 59.5%, Grigol VASHADZE (UNM) 40.5%; Irakli GARIBASHVILI approved as prime minister by Parliamentary vote 89-2; note-resigned on January 29, 2024

2013: Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI elected president; Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI (Georgian Dream) 62.1%, David BAKRADZE (ENM) 21.7%, Nino BURJANADZE (DM-UG) 10.2%, other 6%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Sakartvelos Parlamenti (150 seats statutory, 140 as of May 2023); 120 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed, party-list proportional representation vote and 30 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by at least 50% majority vote, with a runoff if needed; no party earning less than 40% of total votes may claim a majority; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 31 October and 21 November 2020 (next to be held in October 2024)

election results: percent of vote by party - Georgian Dream 48.2%, UNM 27.2%, European Georgia 3.8%, Lelo 3.2%, Strategy 3.2%, Alliance of Patriots 3.1%, Girchi 2.9%, Citizens 1.3%, Labor 1%; seats by party - Georgian Dream 90, UNM 36, European Georgia 5, Lelo 4, Strategy 4, Alliance of Patriots 4, Girchi 4, Citizens 2, Labor 1; composition - men 113, women 27, percentage women 19.3%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 28 judges organized into several specialized judicial chambers; number of judges determined by the president of Georgia); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges); note - the Abkhazian and Ajarian Autonomous republics each have a supreme court and a hierarchy of lower courts

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the High Council of Justice (a 14-member body consisting of the Supreme Court chairperson, common court judges, and appointees of the president of Georgia) and appointed by Parliament; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court judges appointed 3 each by the president, by Parliament, and by the Supreme Court judges; judges appointed for 10-year terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional (town) and district courts

Political parties and leaders

Alliance of Patriots [Davit TARKHAN-MOURAVI]
Citizens Party [Aleko ELISASHVILI]
Democratic Movement-United Georgia or DM-UC [Nino BURJANADZE] 
European Georgia-Movement for Liberty [Giga BOKERIA]
European Socialists [Fridon INJIA]
For Georgia [Giorgi GAKHARIA]
Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia [Irakli KOBAKHIDZE]
Girchi-More Freedom [Zurab JAPARIDZE]
Labor Party [Shalva NATELASHVILI]
Lelo for Georgia [Mamuka KHAZARADZE]
New Political Centre-Girchi [Iago KHVICHIA]
Republican Party [Khatuna SAMNIDZE]
Strategy Aghmashenebeli [Giorgi VASHADZE]
United National Movement or UNM [Levan KHABEISHVILI]

International organization participation

ADB, BSEC, CD, CE, CPLP (associate), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, G-11, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador David ZALKALIANI (since 7 June 2022)

chancery: 1824 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 387-2390

FAX: [1] (202) 387-0864

email address and website:
embgeo.usa@mfa.gov.ge

https://georgiaembassyusa.org/contact/

consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Robin L. DUNNIGAN (since 12 October 2023)

embassy: 29 Georgian-American Friendship Avenue, Didi Dighomi, Tbilisi, 0131

mailing address: 7060 Tbilisi Place, Washington, DC  20521-7060

telephone: [995] (32) 227-70-00

FAX: [995] (32) 253-23-10

email address and website:
askconsultbilisi@state.gov

https://ge.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

white rectangle with a central red cross extending to all four sides of the flag; each of the four quadrants displays a small red bolnur-katskhuri cross; sometimes referred to as the Five-Cross Flag; although adopted as the official Georgian flag in 2004, the five-cross design is based on a 14th century banner of the Kingdom of Georgia

National symbol(s)

Saint George, lion; national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "Tavisupleba" (Liberty)

lyrics/music: Davit MAGRADSE/Zakaria PALIASHVILI (adapted by Joseb KETSCHAKMADSE)

note: adopted 2004; after the Rose Revolution, a new anthem with music based on the operas "Abesalom da Eteri" and "Daisi" was adopted

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 4 (3 cultural, 1 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Gelati Monastery (c); Historical Monuments of Mtskheta (c); Upper Svaneti (c); Colchic Rainforests and Wetlands (n)

Economy

Economic overview

main economic activities include cultivation of agricultural products, such as grapes, citrus fruits, and hazelnuts; mining of manganese, copper, and gold; producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$63.403 billion (2022 est.)
$57.434 billion (2021 est.)
$51.993 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 105

Real GDP growth rate

10.39% (2022 est.)
10.47% (2021 est.)
-6.76% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 15

Real GDP per capita

$17,100 (2022 est.)
$15,500 (2021 est.)
$14,000 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 100

GDP (official exchange rate)

$24.781 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

11.9% (2022 est.)
9.57% (2021 est.)
5.2% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 175

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BB (2019)

Moody's rating: Ba2 (2017)

Standard & Poors rating: BB (2019)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 8.2% (2017 est.)

industry: 23.7% (2017 est.)

services: 67.9% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 83; industry 119; agriculture 98

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 62.8% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 17.1% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 29.5% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 2.4% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 50.4% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -62.2% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, grapes, potatoes, wheat, maize, apples, watermelons, barley, tangerines/mandarins, tomatoes (2022)

note: top ten agricultural products based on tonnage

Industries

steel, machine tools, electrical appliances, mining (manganese, copper, gold), chemicals, wood products, wine

Industrial production growth rate

15.3% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 10

Labor force

1.84 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 128

Unemployment rate

11.68% (2022 est.)
11.85% (2021 est.)
11.73% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 175

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 28.3% (2021 est.)

male: 27.4%

female: 29.9%

comparison ranking: total 45

Population below poverty line

15.6% (2022 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

34.2 (2021 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

comparison ranking: 109

Average household expenditures

on food: 32.3% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 3.5% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.7%

highest 10%: 26.2% (2021 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population

Remittances

15.55% of GDP (2022 est.)
14.19% of GDP (2021 est.)
13.32% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Budget

revenues: $4.737 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $5.059 billion (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-3.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 151

Public debt

43.32% of GDP (2022 est.)
55.38% of GDP (2021 est.)
65.88% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: central government debt as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 125

Taxes and other revenues

23.09% (of GDP) (2022 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 64

Current account balance

-$1.12 billion (2022 est.)
-$1.943 billion (2021 est.)
-$1.984 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 129

Exports

$13.24 billion (2022 est.)
$8.086 billion (2021 est.)
$5.927 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 101

Exports - partners

China 11%, Azerbaijan 10%, Russia 9%, Armenia 8%, Bulgaria 7% (2022)

note: top five export partners based on percentage share of exports

Exports - commodities

copper ore, cars, fertilizers, iron alloys, wine (2022)

note: top five export commodities based on value in dollars

Imports

$15.665 billion (2022 est.)
$11.151 billion (2021 est.)
$8.967 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 104

Imports - partners

Turkey 17%, Russia 12%, China 8%, US 8%, Germany 5% (2022)

note: top five import partners based on percentage share of imports

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, natural gas, packaged medicine, copper ore (2022)

note: top five import commodities based on value in dollars

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$4.886 billion (2022 est.)
$4.271 billion (2021 est.)
$3.913 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 107

Debt - external

$18.149 billion (2019 est.)
$17.608 billion (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 96

Exchange rates

laris (GEL) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
2.916 (2022 est.)
3.222 (2021 est.)
3.109 (2020 est.)
2.818 (2019 est.)
2.534 (2018 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 4.579 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 12,062,080,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 256 million kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 1.712 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 918.2 million kWh (2019 est.)

comparison rankings: imports 62; exports 85; installed generating capacity 92; transmission/distribution losses 99; consumption 92

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 25.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 73.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 99,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 362,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 1,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 277,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 201 million metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 300 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 32,400 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 100 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 35 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

247 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 106

Refined petroleum products - exports

2,052 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 104

Refined petroleum products - imports

28,490 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 101

Natural gas

production: 6.088 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

consumption: 2.54 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 2.535 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 8.495 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

10.299 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 1.063 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 4.245 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 4.992 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 104

Energy consumption per capita

63.286 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 87

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 301,000 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 106

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 5.844 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 156 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 120

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: the telecom sector has been attempting for many years to overcome the decades of under-investment in its fixed-line infrastructure during the Soviet era; concerted efforts to privatize state-owned enterprises and open up the telecom market have been mostly successful, with a large number of networks now competing in both the fixed-line and the mobile segments; more needs to be done, however, to give investors the confidence to enter a market that has barely moved in terms of revenue growth over the last decade, and where regulatory overreach has sometimes come perilously close to arresting further development; Georgia’s government moved fast following the collapse of the Soviet Union to liberalize the country’s telecom market; this resulted in a relatively high number of networks competing in the under-developed fixed-line segment as well as in the emerging mobile market; both segments remain dominated by just a few companies (2022)

domestic: fixed-line subscriptions 9 per 100, mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 137 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 995; landing points for the Georgia-Russia, Diamond Link Global, and Caucasus Cable System fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Russia, Romania and Bulgaria; international service is available by microwave, landline, and satellite through the Moscow switch; international electronic mail and telex service are available (2019)

Broadcast media

The Tbilisi-based Georgian Public Broadcaster (GPB) includes Channel 1, Channel 2, and the Batumi-based Adjara TV, and the State Budget funds all three; there are also a number of independent commercial television broadcasters, such as Imedi, Rustavi 2, Pirveli TV, Maestro, Kavkasia, Georgian Dream Studios (GDS), Obiektivi, Mtavari Arkhi, and a small Russian language operator TOK TV; Tabula and Post TV are web-based television outlets; all of these broadcasters and web-based television outlets, except GDS, carry the news; the Georgian Orthodox Church also operates a satellite-based television station called Unanimity; there are 26 regional television broadcasters across Georgia that are members of the Georgian Association of Regional Broadcasters and/or the Alliance of Georgian Broadcasters; the broadcaster organizations seek to strengthen the regional media's capacities and distribution of regional products: a nationwide digital switchover occurred in 2015; there are several dozen private radio stations; GPB operates 2 radio stations (2019)

Internet users

total: 2.888 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 76% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 123

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 986,809 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 25 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 75

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 4 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 12

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 516,034 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 750,000 (2018) mt-km

Airports

19 (2024)

comparison ranking: 137

Heliports

4 (2024)

Pipelines

1,596 km gas, 1,175 km oil (2013)

Railways

total: 1,363 km (2014)

narrow gauge: 37 km (2014) 0.912-m gauge (37 km electrified)

broad gauge: 1,326 km (2014) 1.520-m gauge (1,251 km electrified)

comparison ranking: total 84

Roadways

total: 40,044 km (2021)

comparison ranking: total 91

Merchant marine

total: 26 (2023)

by type: general cargo 3, other 23

comparison ranking: total 139

Ports

total ports: 3 (2024)

large: 0

medium: 0

small: 1

very small: 2

ports with oil terminals: 2

key ports: Batumi, Sokhumi, Supsa Marine Terminal

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Georgian Defense Forces (GDF; aka Defense Forces of Georgia or DFG): Ground Forces, Air Force, National Guard, Special Operations Forces, National Guard; Ministry of Internal Affairs: Border Police, Coast Guard (includes Georgian naval forces, which were merged with the Coast Guard in 2009) (2024)

note: the Ministry of Internal Affairs also has forces for protecting strategic infrastructure and conducting special operations

Military expenditures

1.7% of GDP (2023 est.)
1.7% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.7% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.8% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.8% of GDP (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 76

Military and security service personnel strengths

estimates vary; approximately 30,000 troops, including active National Guard forces (2023)

note: in December 2020, the Parliament of Georgia adopted a resolution determining that the Georgian Defense Forces would have a maximum peacetime strength of 37,000 troops

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the majority of the military's inventory consists of Soviet-era weapons and equipment, although in recent years it has received armaments from a number of European countries, as well as the US (2023)

Military service age and obligation

18-27 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; conscription was abolished in 2016, but reinstated in 2017 for men 18-27 years of age; conscript service obligation is 12 months (2023)

note 1: approximately 6-7,000 individuals are called up annually for conscription for service; approximately 25% enter the Defense Forces, while the remainder serve in the Ministry of Internal Affairs or as prison guards in the Ministry of Corrections

note 2: as of 2022, women made up about 8% of the military's full-time personnel

Military - note

the Defense Forces of Georgia (DFG) are responsible for protecting the independence, sovereignty, and territorial integrity of the country; the DFG also provides units for multinational military operations abroad and supports the Border Police in border protection and civil authorities in counter-terrorist operations, if requested; it is focused primarily on Russia, which maintains military bases and troops in occupied Abkhazia and South Ossetia; a five-day conflict with Russian forces in 2008 resulted in the defeat and expulsion of Georgian forces from the breakaway regions 

Georgia is not a member of NATO but has had a relationship with the Alliance since 1992 and declared its aspiration to join in 2002; the military is working to make itself more compatible with NATO and has participated in multinational exercises and security operations abroad with NATO, such as Afghanistan, where it was one of the top non-NATO contributors, and Kosovo; the DFG has also contributed troops to EU and UN missions

the DFG is divided into two regional commands (eastern and western); the Ground Forces make up the majority of the DFG, with four infantry and two artillery brigades; the Coast Guard/naval forces operate a mix of coastal patrol craft and patrol boats, while the Air Force has a handful of refurbished Soviet-era ground attack aircraft (2023)

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 26,660 (Ukraine) (as of 30 December 2023)

IDPs: 308,000 (displaced in the 1990s as a result of armed conflict in the breakaway republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia; displaced in 2008 by fighting between Georgia and Russia over South Ossetia) (2022)

stateless persons: 530 (2022)

Illicit drugs

a transit country for opiates produced in Asia trafficked into Ukraine or Moldova via the Black Sea for other European destinations; not a major corridor for synthetic drug smuggling operations; domestic synthetic market for ecstasy/MDMA, amphetamines, and cannabis with ecstasy laced with fentanyl the drug of choice