Photos of Montenegro

Introduction

Background

The use of the name Crna Gora or Black Mountain (Montenegro) began in the 13th century in reference to a highland region in the Serbian province of Zeta. Under Ottoman control beginning in 1496, Montenegro was a semi-autonomous theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes until 1852, when it became a secular principality. Montenegro fought a series of wars with the Ottomans and eventually won recognition as an independent sovereign principality at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. In 1918, the country was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929. At the end of World War II, Montenegro joined the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). When the SFRY dissolved in 1992, Montenegro and Serbia created the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), which shifted in 2003 to a looser State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Montenegro voted to restore its independence on 3 June 2006. Montenegro became an official EU candidate in 2010 and joined NATO in 2017.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia

Geographic coordinates

42 30 N, 19 18 E

Area

total: 13,812 sq km

land: 13,452 sq km

water: 360 sq km

comparison ranking: total 161

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Connecticut; slightly larger than twice the size of Delaware

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 680 km

border countries (5): Albania 186 km; Bosnia and Herzegovina 242 km; Croatia 19 km; Kosovo 76 km; Serbia 157 km

Coastline

293.5 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

continental shelf: defined by treaty

Climate

Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland

Terrain

highly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus

Elevation

highest point: Zia Kolata 2,534 m

lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 1,086 m

Natural resources

bauxite, hydroelectricity

Land use

agricultural land: 38.2% (2018 est.)

arable land: 12.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 24.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 40.4% (2018 est.)

other: 21.4% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

24 sq km (2012)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Lake Scutari (shared with Albania) - 400 sq km
note - largest lake in the Balkans

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Population distribution

highest population density is concentrated in the south, southwest; the extreme eastern border is the least populated area

Natural hazards

destructive earthquakes

Geography - note

strategic location along the Adriatic coast

People and Society

Population

602,445 (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 172

Nationality

noun: Montenegrin(s)

adjective: Montenegrin

Ethnic groups

Montenegrin 45%, Serbian 28.7%, Bosniak 8.7%, Albanian 4.9%, Muslim 3.3%, Romani 1%, Croat 1%, other 2.6%, unspecified 4.9% (2011 est.)

Languages

Serbian 42.9%, Montenegrin (official) 37%, Bosnian 5.3%, Albanian 5.3%, Serbo-Croat 2%, other 3.5%, unspecified 4% (2011 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Knjiga svetskih činjenica, neophodan izvor osnovnih informacija. (Serbian) 

Knjiga svjetskih činjenica, neophodan izvor osnovnih informacija. (Montenegrin/Bosnian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Serbian audio sample:
Montenegrin/Bosnian audio sample:

Religions

Orthodox 72.1%, Muslim 19.1%, Catholic 3.4%, atheist 1.2%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.6% (2011 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 17.93% (male 55,690/female 52,340)

15-64 years: 64.65% (male 194,334/female 195,127)

65 years and over: 17.42% (2023 est.) (male 45,993/female 58,961)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 52.5

youth dependency ratio: 27.7

elderly dependency ratio: 24.8

potential support ratio: 4 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 40.7 years (2023 est.)

male: 39.2 years

female: 42.2 years

comparison ranking: total 54

Population growth rate

-0.43% (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 219

Birth rate

11 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 163

Death rate

10.3 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 31

Net migration rate

-5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 202

Population distribution

highest population density is concentrated in the south, southwest; the extreme eastern border is the least populated area

Urbanization

urban population: 68.5% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.45% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

177,000 PODGORICA (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

26.3 years (2010 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

6 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 161

Infant mortality rate

total: 3.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 2.7 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.7 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 202

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 78 years (2023 est.)

male: 75.6 years

female: 80.5 years

comparison ranking: total population 80

Total fertility rate

1.81 children born/woman (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 140

Gross reproduction rate

0.89 (2023 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 98.2% of population

total: 99.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 1.8% of population

total: 0.6% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

11.4% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

2.74 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

3.9 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 93.9% of population

total: 98% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 6.1% of population

total: 2% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: intermediate (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea

vectorborne diseases: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

23.3% (2016)

comparison ranking: 66

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 9.91 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 3.83 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 2.68 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 3.22 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.16 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 23

Tobacco use

total: 31.4% (2020 est.)

male: 31.6% (2020 est.)

female: 31.1% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 26

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

3.7% (2018/19)

comparison ranking: 82

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 1.9%

women married by age 18: 5.8%

men married by age 18: 3.2% (2018 est.)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99%

male: 99.4%

female: 98.5% (2021)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 15 years

female: 16 years (2021)

Environment

Environment - current issues

pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor; serious air pollution in Podgorica, Pljevlja and Niksie; air pollution in Pljevlja is caused by the nearby lignite power plant and the domestic use of coal and wood for household heating

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate

Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland

Land use

agricultural land: 38.2% (2018 est.)

arable land: 12.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 24.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 40.4% (2018 est.)

other: 21.4% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 68.5% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.45% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.43% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 70

Revenue from coal

0.12% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 25

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 19.3 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 2.02 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 0.75 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 332,000 tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 17,994 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 5.4% (2015 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Lake Scutari (shared with Albania) - 400 sq km
note - largest lake in the Balkans

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 100 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 60 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 1.7 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Montenegro

local long form: none

local short form: Crna Gora

former: People's Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Montenegro, Republic of Montenegro

etymology: the country's name locally as well as in most Western European languages means "black mountain" and refers to the dark coniferous forests on Mount Lovcen and the surrounding area

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Podgorica; note - Cetinje retains the status of "Old Royal Capital"

geographic coordinates: 42 26 N, 19 16 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the name translates as "beneath Gorica"; the meaning of Gorica is "hillock"; the reference is to the small hill named Gorica that the city is built around

Administrative divisions

25 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina); Andrijevica, Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Gusinje, Herceg Novi, Kolasin, Kotor, Mojkovac, Niksic, Petnjica, Plav, Pljevlja, Pluzine, Podgorica, Rozaje, Savnik, Tivat, Tuzi, Ulcinj, Zabljak, Zeta

Independence

3 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro); notable earlier dates: 13 March 1852 (Principality of Montenegro established); 13 July 1878 (Congress of Berlin recognizes Montenegrin independence); 28 August 1910 (Kingdom of Montenegro established)

National holiday

Statehood Day, 13 July (1878, the day the Berlin Congress recognized Montenegro as the 27th independent state in the world, and 1941, the day the Montenegrins staged an uprising against fascist occupiers and sided with the partisan communist movement)

Constitution

history: several previous; latest adopted 22 October 2007

amendments: proposed by the president of Montenegro, by the government, or by at least 25 members of the Assembly; passage of draft proposals requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly, followed by a public hearing; passage of draft amendments requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly; changes to certain constitutional articles, such as sovereignty, state symbols, citizenship, and constitutional change procedures, require three-fifths majority vote in a referendum; amended 2013

Legal system

civil law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Montenegro

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Jakov MILATOVIC (since 20 May 2023)

head of government: Prime Minister Milojko SPAJIC (since 31 October 2023)

cabinet: ministers act as cabinet

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 19 March 2023 with a runoff on 2 April 2023 (next to be held in 2028); prime minister nominated by the president, approved by the Assembly

election results:
2023:
Jakov MILATOVIC elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Milo DUKANOVIC (DPS) 35.4%, Jakov MILATOVIC (Europe Now!) 28.9%, Andrija MANDIC (DF) 19.3%, Aleksa BECIC (DCG) 11.1%, other 5.3%; percent of vote in second round - Jakov MILATOVIC 58.9%, Milo DUKANOVIC 41.1%

2018:
Milo DJUKANOVIC elected president in first round; percent of vote - Milo DJUKANOVIC (DPS) 53.9%, Mladen BOJANIC (independent) 33.4%, Draginja VUKSANOVIC (SDP) 8.2%, Marko MILACIC (PRAVA) 2.8%, other 1.7%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly or Skupstina (81 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections:
last held on 11 June 2023 (next to be held in June 2027)

election results:
percent of vote by party/coalition - Europe Now! 25.5%, Together! 23.2%, For the Future of Montenegro 14.7%, Aleksa and Dritan - Count Bravely 12.5%, BP 7.1%, SNP-DEMOS 3.1%, Albanian Forum 1.9%, HGI 0.7%; seats by party/coalition Europe Now! 24, Together! 21, For the Future of Montenegro 13, Aleksa and Dritan - Count Bravely 11, BP 6, SNP-DEMOS 2, Albanian Forum 2, Albanian Alliance 1, HGI 1; composition as of February 2024 - men 59, women 22, percent of women 27.2%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Vrhovni Sud (consists of the court president, deputy president, and 15 judges); Constitutional Court or Ustavni Sud (consists of the court president and 7 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president proposed by general session of the Supreme Court and elected by the Judicial Council, a 9-member body consisting of judges, lawyers designated by the Assembly, and the minister of judicial affairs; Supreme Court president elected for a single renewable, 5-year term; other judges elected by the Judicial Council for life; Constitutional Court judges - 2 proposed by the president of Montenegro and 5 by the Assembly, and elected by the Assembly; court president elected from among the court members; court president elected for a 3-year term, other judges serve 9-year terms

subordinate courts: Administrative Courts; Appellate Court; Commercial Courts; High Courts; basic courts

Political parties and leaders

Albanian Alliance (electoral coalition includes FORCA, PD, DSCG)
Albanian Alternative or AA [Nik DELJOSAJ]
Albanian Democratic League or LDSH [Nicola CAMAJ]
Albanian Forum (electoral coalition includes AA, LDSH, UDSH)
Aleksa and Dritan - Count Bravely! [Aleksa BECIC] (electoral coalition includes Democrats, URA)
Bosniak Party or BS [Ervin IBRAHIMOVIC]
Civic Movement United Reform Action or United Reform Action or URA [Dritan ABAZOVIC]
Croatian Civic Initiative or HGI [Adrian VUKSANOVIC]
Democratic Alliance or DEMOS [Miodrag LEKIC]
Democratic League in Montenegro or DSCG [Mehmet BARDHI]
Democratic Montenegro or Democrats [Aleksa BECIC]
Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Danijel ZIVKOVIC, acting]
Democratic People's Party or DNP [Milan KNEZEVIC]
Democratic Union of Albanians or UDSH [Mehmet ZENKA]
Europe Now! [Milojko SPAJIC]
For the Future of Montenegro or ZBCG [Milan KNEZEVIC] (coalition includes NSD, DNP, RP)
Liberal Party or LP [Andrija POPOVIC]
New Democratic Power or FORCA [Nazif CUNGU]
New Serb Democracy or NSD or NOVA [Andrija MANDIC]
Social Democrats or SD [Damir SEHOVIC]
Socialist People's Party or SNP [Vladimir JOKOVIC]
Together! (electoral coalition includes DPS, SD, LP, UDSH)
United Montenegro or UCG [Goran DANILOVIC] (split from DEMOS)
Workers' Party or RP [Maksim VUCINIC]

International organization participation

CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNHRC, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

note: Montenegro is an EU candidate country whose satisfactory completion of accession criteria is required before being granted full EU membership

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d'Affaires Linda CAMAJ (since 7 December 2023)

chancery: 1610 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC, 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 234-6108

FAX: [1] (202) 234-6109

email address and website:
usa@mfa.gov.me

United States of America - Embassies and consulates of Montenegro and visa regimes for foreign citizens (www.gov.me)

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Judy Rising REINKE (since 20 December 2018)

embassy: Dzona Dzeksona 2, 81000 Podgorica

mailing address: 5570 Podgorica Place, Washington DC  20521-5570

telephone: [382] (0) 20-410-500

FAX: [382]  (0) 20-241-358

email address and website:
PodgoricaACS@state.gov

https://me.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

a red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered; the arms consist of a double-headed golden eagle - symbolizing the unity of church and state - surmounted by a crown; the eagle holds a golden scepter in its right claw and a blue orb in its left; the breast shield over the eagle shows a golden lion passant on a green field in front of a blue sky; the lion is a symbol of episcopal authority and harkens back to the three and a half centuries when Montenegro was ruled as a theocracy

National symbol(s)

double-headed eagle; national colors: red, gold

National anthem

name: "Oj, svijetla majska zoro" (Oh, Bright Dawn of May)

lyrics/music: Sekula DRLJEVIC/unknown, arranged by Zarko MIKOVIC

note: adopted 2004; music based on a Montenegrin folk song

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 4 (3 cultural, 1 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor (c); Durmitor National Park (n); Stećci Medieval Tombstones Graveyards (c); Fortified City of Kotor Venetian Defense Works (c)

Economy

Economic overview

upper middle-income Balkan economy; unsanctioned euro user; controversial religious property ownership law; persistent corruption; major infrastructure investments and high expenditures; growing offshore banking destination

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$13.646 billion (2022 est.)
$12.824 billion (2021 est.)
$11.344 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 160

Real GDP growth rate

6.41% (2022 est.)
13.04% (2021 est.)
-15.31% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 49

Real GDP per capita

$22,100 (2022 est.)
$20,700 (2021 est.)
$18,300 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 88

GDP (official exchange rate)

$6.23 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

13.04% (2022 est.)
2.41% (2021 est.)
-0.26% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 179

Credit ratings

Moody's rating: B1 (2016)

Standard & Poors rating: B+ (2014)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 7.5% (2016 est.)

industry: 15.9% (2016 est.)

services: 76.6% (2016 est.)

comparison rankings: services 42; industry 175; agriculture 104

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 76.8% (2016 est.)

government consumption: 19.6% (2016 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 23.2% (2016 est.)

investment in inventories: 2.9% (2016 est.)

exports of goods and services: 40.5% (2016 est.)

imports of goods and services: -63% (2016 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, potatoes, grapes, vegetables, tomatoes, watermelons, wheat, apples, cabbages, barley

Industries

steelmaking, aluminum, agricultural processing, consumer goods, tourism

Industrial production growth rate

-5.2% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 203

Labor force

284,000 (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 169

Unemployment rate

15.25% (2022 est.)
16.54% (2021 est.)
17.88% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 195

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 31.6% (2021 est.)

male: 28.3%

female: 36.7%

comparison ranking: total 33

Population below poverty line

21.2% (2020 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

36.8 (2018 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

comparison ranking: 81

Average household expenditures

on food: 27.5% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 6.8% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.8%

highest 10%: 26% (2018 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population

Remittances

13.33% of GDP (2022 est.)
13.52% of GDP (2021 est.)
12.59% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Budget

revenues: $2.051 billion (2020 est.)

expenditures: $2.568 billion (2020 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-5.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 176

Public debt

67.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
66.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

comparison ranking: 59

Taxes and other revenues

37.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 17

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$817.858 million (2022 est.)
-$541.201 million (2021 est.)
-$1.237 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 116

Exports

$3.178 billion (2022 est.)
$2.502 billion (2021 est.)
$1.247 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 150

Exports - partners

Serbia 17%, Hungary 15%, China 11%, Russia 7%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 6%, Germany 6%, Italy 5%, Poland 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

copper ore, aluminum, electricity, dried legumes, packaged medicines, lead, scrap iron, lumber (2021)

Imports

$4.614 billion (2022 est.)
$3.637 billion (2021 est.)
$2.917 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 153

Imports - partners

Serbia 30%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 8%, Croatia 8%, Italy 6%, Greece 6%, Germany 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, cars, packaged medicines, recreational boats, cigarettes (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$2.041 billion (2022 est.)
$1.982 billion (2021 est.)
$2.135 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 127

Debt - external

$2.516 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.224 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 148

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
0.951 (2022 est.)
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.877 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)

note: Montenegro, which is neither an EU member state nor a party to a formal EU monetary agreement, uses the euro as its de facto currency

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 99.7% (2021)

electrification - urban areas: 100% (2021)

electrification - rural areas: 99.3% (2021)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 1.007 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 3,246,760,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 943 million kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 1.196 billion kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 493 million kWh (2019 est.)

comparison rankings: installed generating capacity 134; transmission/distribution losses 83; imports 69; exports 65; consumption 136

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 42.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 10.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 47.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 1.456 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 1.351 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 96,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 1,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 142 million metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 7,600 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 181

Refined petroleum products - exports

357 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 114

Refined petroleum products - imports

6,448 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 163

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

2.447 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 1.333 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 1.114 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 153

Energy consumption per capita

77.286 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 78

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 190,595 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 30 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 119

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 1,120,074 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 178 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 162

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: a small telecom market supported by a population of only 623,000; fixed broadband services are available via a variety of technology platforms, though fiber is the dominant platform, accounting for almost 40% of connections; the growth of fiber has largely been at the expense of DSL as customers are migrated to fiber networks as these are built out progressively; mobile penetration is particularly high, though this is partly due to the significant number of tourists visiting the country seasonally, as also to the popularity of subscribers having multiple prepaid cards; in the wake of the pandemic and associated restrictions on travel, the number of mobile subscribers fell in 2020, as also in the first quarter of 2021, year-on-year; networks support a vibrant mobile broadband services sector, largely based on LTE; two of the MNOs began trialing 5G in May 2021, though commercial services will not gain traction until after the multi-spectrum auction is completed at the end of 2021; spectrum is available in the 694-790MHz and 3400-3800MHz ranges, as well as in the 26.5-27.5GHz range (2021)

domestic: fixed-line over 30 per 100 and mobile-cellular 178 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 382; 2 international switches connect the national system

Broadcast media

state-funded national radio-TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial TV networks, 1 satellite TV channel, and 2 radio networks; 4 local public TV stations and 14 private TV stations; 14 local public radio stations, 35 private radio stations, and several on-line media (2019)

Internet users

total: 516,600 (2021 est.)

percent of population: 82% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 166

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 184,176 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 29 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 121

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 4

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 565,522 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 130,000 (2018) mt-km

Airports

5 (2024)

comparison ranking: 177

Heliports

1 (2024)

Railways

total: 250 km (2017)

standard gauge: 250 km (2017) 1.435-m gauge (224 km electrified)

comparison ranking: total 126

Roadways

total: 9,825 km (2022)

comparison ranking: total 137

Merchant marine

total: 18 (2023)

by type: bulk carrier 4, other 14

comparison ranking: total 148

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Bar

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Army of Montenegro (Vojska Crne Gore or VCG): Ground Forces (Kopnene snage), Air Force (Vazduhoplovstvo), Navy (Mornarica) (2024)

note: the National Police Force, which includes Border Police, is responsible for maintaining internal security; it is organized under the Police Administration within the Ministry of Interior and reports to the police director and, through the director, to the minister of interior and prime minister

Military expenditures

2% of GDP (2024 est.)
1.6% of GDP (2023 est.)
1.4% of GDP (2022)
1.6% of GDP (2021)
1.7% of GDP (2020)

comparison ranking: 60

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 2,000 active-duty troops (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory is small and consists mostly of Soviet-era equipment inherited from the former Yugoslavia military, along with a limited mix of other imported systems from such countries as Austria, Turkey, and the US (2023)

Military service age and obligation

18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2006 (2024)

note: as of 2023, women made up over 15% of the military's full-time personnel

Military - note

the Army of Montenegro is a small military focused on the defense of Montenegro’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, cooperating in international and multinational security, and assisting civil authorities during emergencies such as natural disasters; since Montenegro joined NATO in 2017, another focus has been integrating into the Alliance, including adapting NATO standards for planning and professionalization, structural reforms, and modernization by replacing its Soviet-era equipment; the Army trains and exercises with NATO partners and actively supports NATO missions and operations, committing small numbers of troops in Afghanistan, Kosovo, and NATO’s Enhanced Forward Presence mission in Eastern Europe; a few personnel have also been deployed on EU- and UN-led operations

the combat units of the Ground Forces include an infantry battalion, plus artillery and special forces; there are two additional infantry battalions in reserve; the Air Force has ground air defense units but no combat aircraft; the Navy is a coastal defense force with a small inventory of coastal patrol craft and patrol boats, plus a marine/special forces detachment (2023)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Montenegro-Bosnia and Herzegovina: the two countries signed a border agreement in August 2015; sovereignty of the disputed Sutorina territory was given to Montenegro

Montenegro-Croatia: the two countries in 2002 reached a temporary agreement designating the Prevlaka Peninsula as part of Croatia, in October 2020, a Montenegrin official resurrected the dormant dispute over the Prevlaka Peninsula by stating that Montenegro had a good chance of winning it through international arbitration

Montenegro-Kosovo: a 2015 border agreement was ratified by Montenegro in 2015 and by Kosovo in 2018, but the actual demarcation has not been completed

Montenegro-Serbia: the former republic boundary – when the two countries were one and called the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia – serves as the boundary until a line is formally delimited and demarcated; nearly one-third of Montenegro's people identify as Serbs, and divisions in the country remain deep over relations with Serbia

 

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 65,105 (Ukraine) (as of 29 January 2024)

stateless persons: 468 (2022)

note: 34,511 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-March 2024)

Trafficking in persons

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List — Montenegro does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so; the government prosecuted more defendants and identified more trafficking victims, adopted the National Action Plan for 2022, and coordinating bodies met consistently; however, the government did not demonstrate overall increasing efforts, compared with the previous reporting period, to expand its anti-trafficking capacity; officials did not convict any traffickers and reorganized the police office dedicated to investigating trafficking, reducing its ability to conduct proactive investigations; the government did not act quickly to protect victims after experts published credible allegations of abuse by an employee with management duties for the government-funded NGO-run anti-trafficking shelter, including physical violence, intimidation, and blackmail; although civil society and international organizations ceased victim referrals to the shelter, the government did not suspend its license and funding, continued to refer two child victims, and funded the shelter until the grant ended in December 2022; afterwards, Montenegro did not renew the shelter’s grant and decided to start renovating a government-run shelter for child trafficking victims; the government attempted to organize accommodations for child victims in foster families, but it did not develop a plan to provide protection for adult victims; therefore, Montenegro was downgraded to Tier 2 Watch List (2023)

trafficking profile: human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Montenegro, and Montenegrins abroad; traffickers are predominantly men between the ages of 25 and 49 and members of organized criminal groups that operate in the Western Balkans; victims in Montenegro are primarily women and girls from Montenegro, neighboring Balkan countries, and, to a lesser extent, other countries in Eastern Europe; traffickers exploit victims in the hospitality industry, including bars, restaurants, nightclubs, and cafes; children, particularly Romani, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian children, are forced to beg; Romani girls from Montenegro reportedly have been sold into marriages and forced into domestic servitude in Romani communities in Montenegro and, to a lesser extent, in Albania, Germany, and Kosovo; migrants from neighboring countries are vulnerable to forced labor, particularly during the summer tourism season; transnational organized criminal groups exploit some Montenegrin women and girls in sex trafficking in other Balkan countries (2023)

Illicit drugs

drug trafficking groups are major players in the procurement and transportation of of large quantities of cocaine destined for European markets