Photos of Montenegro



The use of the name Crna Gora or Black Mountain (Montenegro) began in the 13th century in reference to a highland region in the Serbian province of Zeta. The later medieval state of Zeta maintained its existence until 1496 when Montenegro finally fell under Ottoman rule. Over subsequent centuries, Montenegro managed to maintain a level of autonomy within the Ottoman Empire. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro was a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it transformed into a secular principality. Montenegro was recognized as an independent sovereign principality at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. After World War I, during which Montenegro fought on the side of the Allies, Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929. At the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro joined with Serbia, creating the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, shifting to a looser State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the two-state union. The vote for severing ties with Serbia barely exceeded 55% - the threshold set by the EU - allowing Montenegro to formally restore its independence on 3 June 2006. In 2017, Montenegro joined NATO and is currently completing its EU accession process, having officially applied to join the EU in December 2008.

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Southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia

Geographic coordinates

42 30 N, 19 18 E


total: 13,812 sq km

land: 13,452 sq km

water: 360 sq km

country comparison to the world: 161

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Connecticut; slightly larger than twice the size of Delaware

Land boundaries

total: 680 km

border countries (5): Albania 186 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 242 km, Croatia 19 km, Kosovo 76 km, Serbia 157 km


293.5 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

continental shelf: defined by treaty


Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland


highly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus


mean elevation: 1,086 m

lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

highest point: Bobotov Kuk 2,522 m

Natural resources

bauxite, hydroelectricity

Land use

agricultural land: 38.2% (2018 est.)

arable land: 12.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 24.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 40.4% (2018 est.)

other: 21.4% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

24 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

highest population density is concentrated in the south, southwest; the extreme eastern border is the least populated area

Natural hazards

destructive earthquakes

Geography - note

strategic location along the Adriatic coast

People and Society


noun: Montenegrin(s)

adjective: Montenegrin

Ethnic groups

Montenegrin 45%, Serbian 28.7%, Bosniak 8.7%, Albanian 4.9%, Muslim 3.3%, Romani 1%, Croat 1%, other 2.6%, unspecified 4.9% (2011 est.)


Serbian 42.9%, Montenegrin (official) 37%, Bosnian 5.3%, Albanian 5.3%, Serbo-Croat 2%, other 3.5%, unspecified 4% (2011 est.)


Orthodox 72.1%, Muslim 19.1%, Catholic 3.4%, atheist 1.2%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.6% (2011 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 18.14% (male 57,402/female 53,217)

15-24 years: 12.78% (male 40,220/female 37,720)

25-54 years: 39.65% (male 120,374/female 121,461)

55-64 years: 13.41% (male 40,099/female 41,670)

65 years and over: 16.02% (male 42,345/female 55,351) (2020 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 51.1

youth dependency ratio: 27.3

elderly dependency ratio: 23.8

potential support ratio: 4.2 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 39.6 years

male: 38.1 years

female: 41.1 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 54

Birth rate

11.35 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 168

Death rate

10.37 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 28

Net migration rate

-4.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 201

Population distribution

highest population density is concentrated in the south, southwest; the extreme eastern border is the least populated area


urban population: 67.5% of total population (2020)

rate of urbanization: 0.54% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas - population

177,000 PODGORICA (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.08 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

26.3 years (2010 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

6 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 162

Infant mortality rate

total: 3.29 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 2.75 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 206

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 77.51 years

male: 75.06 years

female: 80.04 years (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 85

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 99.8% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0.2% of population (2017 est.)

Physicians density

2.76 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

3.9 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 93.9% of population

total: 97.8% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 6.1% of population

total: 2.2% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

<100 (2019 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: intermediate (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea

vectorborne diseases: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98.8%

male: 99.5%

female: 98.3% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 15 years

female: 15 years (2019)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 29.4%

male: 33.3%

female: 23.6% (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 34


Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Montenegro

local long form: none

local short form: Crna Gora

former: People's Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Montenegro, Republic of Montenegro

etymology: the country's name locally as well as in most Western European languages means "black mountain" and refers to the dark coniferous forests on Mount Lovcen and the surrounding area

Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Podgorica; note - Cetinje retains the status of "Old Royal Capital"

geographic coordinates: 42 26 N, 19 16 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the name translates as "beneath Gorica"; the meaning of Gorica is "hillock"; the reference is to the small hill named Gorica that the city is built around

Administrative divisions

24 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina); Andrijevica, Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Gusinje, Herceg Novi, Kolasin, Kotor, Mojkovac, Niksic, Petnijica, Plav, Pljevlja, Pluzine, Podgorica, Rozaje, Savnik, Tivat, Tuzi, Ulcinj, Zabljak


3 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro); notable earlier dates: 13 March 1852 (Principality of Montenegro established); 13 July 1878 (Congress of Berlin recognizes Montenegrin independence); 28 August 1910 (Kingdom of Montenegro established)

National holiday

National Day, 13 July (1878, the day the Berlin Congress recognized Montenegro as the 27th independent state in the world, and 1941, the day the Montenegrins staged an uprising against fascist occupiers and sided with the partisan communist movement)


history: several previous; latest adopted 22 October 2007

amendments: proposed by the president of Montenegro, by the government, or by at least 25 members of the Assembly; passage of draft proposals requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly, followed by a public hearing; passage of draft amendments requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly; changes to certain constitutional articles, such as sovereignty, state symbols, citizenship, and constitutional change procedures, require three-fifths majority vote in a referendum; amended 2013

Legal system

civil law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Montenegro

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Milo DJUKANOVIC (since 20 May 2018)

head of government: Prime Minister Zdravko KRIVOKAPIC (since 4 December 2020)

cabinet: Ministers act as cabinet

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 15 April 2018 (next to be held in 2023); prime minister nominated by the president, approved by the Assembly

election results: Milo DJUKANOVIC elected president in the first round; percent of vote - Milo DJUKANOVIC (DPS) 53.9%, Mladen BOJANIC (independent) 33.4%, Draginja VUKSANOVIC (SDP) 8.2%, Marko MILACIC (PRAVA) 2.8%, other 1.7%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly or Skupstina (81 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 30 August 2020 (next to be held in 2024)

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - DPS 35.1%, ZBCG 32.6%, MNIM 12.5%, URA 5.5%, SD 4.1%, BS 3.9%, SDP 3.1%, AL 1.6%, AK 1.1%, other 0.4%; seats by party/coalition - DPS 30, ZBCG 27, MNIM 10, URA 4, BS 3, SD 3, SDP 2, AL 1, AK 1.; composition - men 57, women 24, percent of women 29.6%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court or Vrhovni Sud (consists of the court president, deputy president, and 15 judges); Constitutional Court or Ustavni Sud (consists of the court president and 7 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president proposed by general session of the Supreme Court and elected by the Judicial Council, a 9-member body consisting of judges, lawyers designated by the Assembly, and the minister of judicial affairs; Supreme Court president elected for a single renewable, 5-year term; other judges elected by the Judicial Council for life; Constitutional Court judges - 2 proposed by the president of Montenegro and 5 by the Assembly, and elected by the Assembly; court president elected from among the court members; court president elected for a 3-year term, other judges serve 9-year terms

subordinate courts: Administrative Courts; Appellate Court; Commercial Courts; High Courts; basic courts

Political parties and leaders

Albanian Alternative or AA [Nik DJELOSAJ]
Albanian Coalition (includes DP, DSCG, DUA)
Albanian Coalition Perspective or AKP
Albanian List (coalition includes AA, Forca, AKP, DSA)
Bosniak Party or BS [Rafet HUSOVIC]
Croatian Civic Initiative or HGI [Marija VUCINOVIC]
Croatian Reform Party [Marija VUCINOVIC]
Democratic Alliance or DEMOS [Miodrag LEKIC]
Democratic Front or DF [collective leadership] (coalition includes NOVA, PZP, DNP, RP)
Democratic League in Montenegro or DSCG [Mehmet BARDHI]
Democratic League of Albanians or DSA
Democratic Montenegro or DCG [Alexsa BECIC]
Democratic Party or DP [Fatmir GJEKA]
Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC]
Democratic Party of Unity or DSJ [Nebojsa JUSKOVIC]
Democratic People's Party or DNP [Milan KNEZEVIC]
Democratic Serb Party or DSS [Dragica PEROVIC]
Democratic Union of Albanians or DUA [Mehmet ZENKA]
For the Future of Montenegro or ZBCG [Zdravko KRIVOKAPIC] (electoral coalition includes SNP and 2 alliances - DF, NP)
Liberal Party or LP [Andrija POPOVIC]
Movement for Change or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC]
New Democratic Power or FORCA [Nazif CUNGU]
New Serb Democracy or NOVA [Andrija MANDIC]
Party of Pensioners, Disabled, and Restitution or PUPI [Momir JOKSIMOVIC]
Peace is Our Nation or MNIM [Alexa BECIC] (coalition includes Democrats, DEMOS, New Left, PUPI)
Popular Movement or NP [Miodrag DAVIDOVIC] (coalition includes DEMOS, RP, UCG, and several minor parties)
Social Democratic Party or SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC]
Social Democrats or SD [Ivan BRAJOVIC]
Socialist People's Party or SNP [Vladimir JOKOVIC]
True Montenegro or PRAVA [Marko MILACIC]
United Montenegro or UCG [Goran DANILOVIC] (split from DEMOS)
United Reform Action or URA [Dritan ABAZOVIC]
Workers' Party or RP [Janko VUCINIC]

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Marija STJEPCEVIC (since 4 February 2021)

chancery: 1610 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC, 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 234-6108

FAX: [1] (202) 234-6109

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Judy Rising REINKE (since 20 December 2018)

telephone: +382 (0)20 410 500

embassy: Dzona Dzeksona 2, 81000 Podgorica

mailing address: use embassy street address

FAX: [382]  20-241-358

Flag description

a red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered; the arms consist of a double-headed golden eagle - symbolizing the unity of church and state - surmounted by a crown; the eagle holds a golden scepter in its right claw and a blue orb in its left; the breast shield over the eagle shows a golden lion passant on a green field in front of a blue sky; the lion is a symbol of episcopal authority and harkens back to the three and a half centuries when Montenegro was ruled as a theocracy

National symbol(s)

double-headed eagle; national colors: red, gold

National anthem

name: "Oj, svijetla majska zoro" (Oh, Bright Dawn of May)

lyrics/music: Sekula DRLJEVIC/unknown, arranged by Zarko MIKOVIC

note: adopted 2004; music based on a Montenegrin folk song


Economic overview

Montenegro's economy is transitioning to a market system. Around 90% of Montenegrin state-owned companies have been privatized, including 100% of banking, telecommunications, and oil distribution. Tourism, which accounts for more than 20% of Montenegro’s GDP, brings in three times as many visitors as Montenegro’s total population every year. Several new luxury tourism complexes are in various stages of development along the coast, and a number are being offered in connection with nearby boating and yachting facilities. In addition to tourism, energy and agriculture are considered two distinct pillars of the economy. Only 20% of Montenegro’s hydropower potential is utilized. Montenegro plans to become a net energy exporter, and the construction of an underwater cable to Italy, which will be completed by the end of 2018, will help meet its goal.

Montenegro uses the euro as its domestic currency, though it is not an official member of the euro zone. In January 2007, Montenegro joined the World Bank and IMF, and in December 2011, the WTO. Montenegro began negotiations to join the EU in 2012, having met the conditions set down by the European Council, which called on Montenegro to take steps to fight corruption and organized crime.

The government recognizes the need to remove impediments in order to remain competitive and open the economy to foreign investors. Net foreign direct investment in 2017 reached $848 million and investment per capita is one of the highest in Europe, due to a low corporate tax rate. The biggest foreign investors in Montenegro in 2017 were Norway, Russia, Italy, Azerbaijan and Hungary.

Montenegro is currently planning major overhauls of its road and rail networks, and possible expansions of its air transportation system. In 2014, the Government of Montenegro selected two Chinese companies to construct a 41 km-long section of the country’s highway system, which will become part of China’s Belt and Road Initiative. Cheaper borrowing costs have stimulated Montenegro’s growing debt, which currently sits at 65.9% of GDP, with a forecast, absent fiscal consolidation, to increase to 80% once the repayment to China’s Ex/Im Bank of a €800 million highway loan begins in 2019. Montenegro first instituted a value-added tax (VAT) in April 2003, and introduced differentiated VAT rates of 17% and 7% (for tourism) in January 2006. The Montenegrin Government increased the non-tourism Value Added Tax (VAT) rate to 21% as of January 2018, with the goal of reducing its public debt.

Real GDP growth rate

4.3% (2017 est.)

2.9% (2016 est.)

3.4% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 67

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

0.3% (2019 est.)

2.6% (2018 est.)

2.3% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 35

Credit ratings

Moody's rating: B1 (2016)

Standard & Poors rating: B+ (2014)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$13.357 billion (2019 est.)

$12.835 billion (2018 est.)

$12.215 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 158

GDP (official exchange rate)

$5.486 billion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$21,470 (2019 est.)

$20,629 (2018 est.)

$19,627 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 89

Gross national saving

16.9% of GDP (2019 est.)

14.9% of GDP (2018 est.)

14.2% of GDP (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 131

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 7.5% (2016 est.)

industry: 15.9% (2016 est.)

services: 76.6% (2016 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 76.8% (2016 est.)

government consumption: 19.6% (2016 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 23.2% (2016 est.)

investment in inventories: 2.9% (2016 est.)

exports of goods and services: 40.5% (2016 est.)

imports of goods and services: -63% (2016 est.)

Ease of Doing Business Index scores

Overall score: 73.8 (2020)

Starting a Business score: 86.7 (2020)

Trading score: 91.9 (2020)

Enforcement score: 66.8 (2020)

Agricultural products

milk, potatoes, grapes, vegetables, tomatoes, watermelons, wheat, apples, cabbages, barley


steelmaking, aluminum, agricultural processing, consumer goods, tourism

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 7.9%

industry: 17.1%

services: 75% (2017 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.5%

highest 10%: 25.7% (2014 est.)


revenues: 1.78 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 2.05 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

67.2% of GDP (2017 est.)

66.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

country comparison to the world: 55

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$780 million (2017 est.)

-$710 million (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 137


$422.2 million (2017 est.)

$362 million (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 180


$2.618 billion (2017 est.)

$2.29 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 159

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$1.077 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$846.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 131

Debt - external

$2.516 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$2.224 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 148

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.885 (2017 est.)

0.903 (2016 est.)

0.9214 (2015 est.)

0.885 (2014 est.)

0.7634 (2013 est.)

Exports - partners

Serbia 17%, Hungary 15%, China 11%, Russia 7%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 6%, Germany 6%, Italy 5%, Poland 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

aluminum, packaged medicines, cars, zinc, wine (2019)

Imports - partners

Serbia 30%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 8%, Croatia 8%, Italy 6%, Greece 6%, Germany 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, cars, packaged medicines, recreational boats, cigarettes (2019)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 183,387

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 29.96 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 124

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 1,121,870

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 183.28 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 160

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: modern telecommunications system with access to European satellites; telecom sector in-line with EU norms which means competition, access and tariff structures; DSL, cable, leased line, fiber and wireless available; seasonal tourist have boosted mobile penetration; wide availability of LTE technologies has made mobile broadband a viable alternative to fixed-line broadband in rural areas; 5G services anticipated in the future (2020)

domestic: GSM mobile-cellular service, available through multiple providers with national coverage growing; fixed-line 30 per 100 and mobile-cellular 183 per 100 persons (2019)

international: country code - 382; 2 international switches connect the national system

note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated

Broadcast media

state-funded national radio-TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial TV networks, 1 satellite TV channel, and 2 radio networks; 4 local public TV stations and 14 private TV stations; 14 local public radio stations, 35 private radio stations, and several on-line media (2019)

Internet users

total: 439,311

percent of population: 71.52% (July 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 155

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 159,029

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 26 (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 115


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 4

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 565,522 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 130,000 mt-km (2018)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 5 (2019)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1


1 (2012)


total: 250 km (2017)

standard gauge: 250 km 1.435-m gauge (224 km electrified) (2017)

country comparison to the world: 125


total: 7,762 km (2010)

paved: 7,141 km (2010)

unpaved: 621 km (2010)

country comparison to the world: 139

Merchant marine

total: 16

by type: bulk carrier 4, other 12 (2020)

country comparison to the world: 149

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Bar

Military and Security

Military and security forces

the Armed Forces of the Republic of Montenegro are a joint force with land, air, and naval elements (2020)

Military expenditures

1.91% of GDP (2020 est.)

1.41% of GDP (2019)

1.38% of GDP (2018)

1.35% of GDP (2017)

1.42% of GDP (2016)

country comparison to the world: 62

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Armed Forces of the Republic of Montenegro have approximately 2,000 total active duty troops (2020)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the inventory of the Armed Forces of Montenegro is small and consists mostly of equipment inherited from the former Yugoslavia military, with a limited mix of other imported systems; since 2010, it has received small quantities of equipment from Austria, Turkey, and the US (2020)

Military service age and obligation

18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2006 (2019)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Kosovo ratified the border demarcation agreement with Montenegro in March 2018, but the actual demarcation has not been completed

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 142 (2019)

note: 17,765 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-March 2021)