Photos of Papua New Guinea

Introduction

Background

The eastern half of the island of New Guinea - second largest in the world - was divided between Germany (north) and the UK (south) in 1885. The latter area was transferred to Australia in 1902, which occupied the northern portion during World War I and continued to administer the combined areas until independence in 1975. A nine-year secessionist revolt on the island of Bougainville ended in 1997 after claiming some 20,000 lives. Since 2001, Bougainville has experienced autonomy; a referendum asking the population if they would like independence or greater self rule occurred in November 2019, with almost 98% of voters choosing independence.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Oceania, group of islands including the eastern half of the island of New Guinea between the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean, east of Indonesia

Geographic coordinates

6 00 S, 147 00 E

Area

total: 462,840 sq km

land: 452,860 sq km

water: 9,980 sq km

country comparison to the world: 57

Area - comparative

slightly larger than California

Land boundaries

total: 824 km

border countries (1): Indonesia 824 km

Coastline

5,152 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

Climate

tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation

Terrain

mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills

Elevation

highest point: Mount Wilhelm 4,509 m

lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 667 m

Natural resources

gold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber, oil, fisheries

Land use

agricultural land: 2.6% (2018 est.)

arable land: 0.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.5% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 63.1% (2018 est.)

other: 34.3% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

0 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

801 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Population distribution

population concentrated in the highlands and eastern coastal areas on the island of New Guinea; predominantly a rural distribution with only about one-fifth of the population residing in urban areas

Natural hazards

active volcanism; the country is subject to frequent and sometimes severe earthquakes; mud slides; tsunamis

volcanism: severe volcanic activity; Ulawun (2,334 m), one of Papua New Guinea's potentially most dangerous volcanoes, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Rabaul (688 m) destroyed the city of Rabaul in 1937 and 1994; Lamington erupted in 1951 killing 3,000 people; Manam's 2004 eruption forced the island's abandonment; other historically active volcanoes include Bam, Bagana, Garbuna, Karkar, Langila, Lolobau, Long Island, Pago, St. Andrew Strait, Victory, and Waiowa; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

Environment - international agreements

party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note

note 1: shares island of New Guinea with Indonesia; generally east-west trending highlands break up New Guinea into diverse ecoregions; one of world's largest swamps along southwest coast

note 2: two major food crops apparently developed on the island of New Guinea: bananas and sugarcane

note 3: Papua New Guinea is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Papua New Guinean(s)

adjective: Papua New Guinean

Ethnic groups

Melanesian, Papuan, Negrito, Micronesian, Polynesian

Languages

Tok Pisin (official), English (official), Hiri Motu (official), some 839 indigenous languages spoken (about 12% of the world's total); many languages have fewer than 1,000 speakers

note: Tok Pisin, a creole language, is widely used and understood; English is spoken by 1%-2%; Hiri Motu is spoken by less than 2%

Religions

Protestant 64.3% (Evangelical Lutheran 18.4%, Seventh Day Adventist 12.9%, Pentecostal 10.4%, United Church 10.3%, Evangelical Alliance 5.9%, Anglican 3.2%, Baptist 2.8%, Salvation Army .4%), Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 5.3%, non-Christian 1.4%, unspecified 3.1% (2011 est.)

note: data represent only the citizen population; roughly .3% of the population are non-citizens, consisting of Christian 52% (predominantly Roman Catholic), other 10.7% , none 37.3%

Age structure

0-14 years: 31.98% (male 1,182,539/female 1,139,358)

15-24 years: 19.87% (male 731,453/female 711,164)

25-54 years: 37.68% (male 1,397,903/female 1,337,143)

55-64 years: 5.83% (male 218,529/female 204,717)

65 years and over: 4.64% (male 164,734/female 171,916) (2020 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 63.2

youth dependency ratio: 57.4

elderly dependency ratio: 5.8

potential support ratio: 17.2 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 24 years

male: 24 years

female: 24 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 171

Birth rate

22.08 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 63

Death rate

5.97 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 160

Net migration rate

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 91

Population distribution

population concentrated in the highlands and eastern coastal areas on the island of New Guinea; predominantly a rural distribution with only about one-fifth of the population residing in urban areas

Urbanization

urban population: 13.5% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 2.91% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

391,000 PORT MORESBY (capital) (2021)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female

total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

145 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 58

Infant mortality rate

total: 40.33 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 45.32 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 35.09 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 38

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 69.86 years

male: 67.37 years

female: 72.48 years (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 172

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 89.4% of population

rural: 36.1% of population

total: 43% of population

unimproved: urban: 10.6% of population

rural: 63.9% of population

total: 57% of population (2017 est.)

Physicians density

0.07 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 55.5% of population

rural: 9.1% of population

total: 15.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 44.5% of population

rural: 90.9% of population

total: 84.8% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

<1000 (2019 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 64.2%

male: 65.6%

female: 62.8% (2015)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 3.6%

male: 4.3%

female: 3% (2010 est.)

People - note

the indigenous population of Papua New Guinea (PNG) is one of the most heterogeneous in the world; PNG has several thousand separate communities, most with only a few hundred people; divided by language, customs, and tradition, some of these communities have engaged in low-scale tribal conflict with their neighbors for millennia; the advent of modern weapons and modern migrants into urban areas has greatly magnified the impact of this lawlessness

Environment

Environment - current issues

rain forest loss as a result of growing commercial demand for tropical timber; unsustainable logging practices result in soil erosion, water quality degredation, and loss of habitat and biodiversity; large-scale mining projects cause adverse impacts on forests and water quality (discharge of heavy metals, cyanide, and acids into rivers); severe drought; inappropriate farming practices accelerate land degradion (soil erosion, siltation, loss of soil fertility); destructive fishing practices and coastal pollution due to run-off from land-based activities and oil spills

Environment - international agreements

party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 10.91 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 7.54 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 11.05 megatons (2020 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 223.5 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 167.6 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 1 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

801 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Climate

tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation

Land use

agricultural land: 2.6% (2018 est.)

arable land: 0.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.5% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 63.1% (2018 est.)

other: 34.3% (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 150

Urbanization

urban population: 13.5% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 2.91% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 1 million tons (2014 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 20,000 tons (2016 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 2% (2016 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Independent State of Papua New Guinea

conventional short form: Papua New Guinea

local short form: Papuaniugini

former: Territory of Papua and New Guinea

abbreviation: PNG

etymology: the word "papua" derives from the Malay "papuah" describing the frizzy hair of the Melanesians; Spanish explorer Ynigo ORTIZ de RETEZ applied the term "Nueva Guinea" to the island of New Guinea in 1545 after noting the resemblance of the locals to the peoples of the Guinea coast of Africa

Government type

parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm

Capital

name: Port Moresby

geographic coordinates: 9 27 S, 147 11 E

time difference: UTC+10 (15 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

note: Papua New Guinea has two time zones, including Bougainville (UTC+11)

etymology: named in 1873 by Captain John Moresby (1830-1922) in honor of his father, British Admiral Sir Fairfax Moresby (1786-1877)

Administrative divisions

20 provinces, 1 autonomous region*, and 1 district**; Bougainville*, Central, Chimbu, Eastern Highlands, East New Britain, East Sepik, Enga, Gulf, Hela, Jiwaka, Madang, Manus, Milne Bay, Morobe, National Capital**, New Ireland, Northern, Southern Highlands, Western, Western Highlands, West New Britain, West Sepik

Independence

16 September 1975 (from the Australia-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday

Independence Day, 16 September (1975)

Constitution

history: adopted 15 August 1975, effective at independence 16 September 1975

amendments: proposed by the National Parliament; passage has prescribed majority vote requirements depending on the constitutional sections being amended – absolute majority, two-thirds majority, or three-fourths majority; amended many times, last in 2016

Legal system

mixed legal system of English common law and customary law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Papua New Guinea

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Grand Chief Sir Bob DADAE (since 28 February 2017)

head of government: Prime Minister James MARAPE (since 30 May 2019); Deputy Prime Minister Charles ABEL (since 4 August 2017)

cabinet: National Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general nominated by the National Parliament and appointed by the chief of state; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general pending the outcome of a National Parliament vote

election results: Peter Paire O'NEILL (PNC) reelected prime minister; National Parliament vote - 60 to 46

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Parliament (111 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies - 89 local, 20 provinicial, the autonomous province of Bouganville, and the National Capital District - by majority preferential vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - the constitution allows up to 126 seats

elections: last held from 24 June 2017 to 8 July 2017 (next to be held in June 2022)

election results: percent of vote by party - PNC 37%; NA 13%; Pangu 14%; URP 11%; PPP 4%; SDP 4%; Independents 3%; and smaller parties 14%; seats by party - NA; composition - men 108, women 3, percent of women 3%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, deputy chief justice, 35 justices, and 5 acting justices); National Courts (consists of 13 courts located in the provincial capitals, with a total of 19 resident judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the governor general upon advice of the National Executive Council (cabinet) after consultation with the National Justice Administration minister; deputy chief justice and other justices appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission, a 5-member body that includes the Supreme Court chief and deputy chief justices, the chief ombudsman, and a member of the National Parliament; full-time citizen judges appointed for 10-year renewable terms; non-citizen judges initially appointed for 3-year renewable terms and after first renewal can serve until age 70; appointment and tenure of National Court resident judges NA

subordinate courts: district, village, and juvenile courts, military courts, taxation courts, coronial courts, mining warden courts, land courts, traffic courts, committal courts, grade five courts

Political parties and leaders

National Alliance Party or NAP [Patrick PRUAITCH]
Papua and Niugini Union Party or PANGU [Sam BASIL]
Papua New Guinea Party or PNGP [Belden NAMAH]
People's National Congress Party or PNC [Peter Paire O'NEILL]
People's Party or PP [Peter IPATAS]
People's Progress Party or PPP [Sir Julius CHAN]
Social Democratic Party or SDP [Powes PARKOP]
Triumph Heritage Empowerment Party or THE [Don POLYE]
United Resources Party or URP [William DUMA]

note: as of 8 July 2017, 45 political parties were registered

International organization participation

ACP, ADB, AOSIS, APEC, ARF, ASEAN (observer), C, CD, CP, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge D’Affaires Cephas KAYO (since 31 January 2018)

chancery: 1779 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Suite 805, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 745-3680

FAX: [1] (202) 745-3679

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Erin Elizabeth MCKEE (since 27 November 2019); note - also accredited to the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu

telephone: [675] 321-1455

embassy: P.O. Box 1492, Port Moresby

mailing address: 4240 Port Moresby Place, US Department of State, Washington DC 20521-4240

FAX: [675] 321-3423

Flag description

divided diagonally from upper hoist-side corner; the upper triangle is red with a soaring yellow bird of paradise centered; the lower triangle is black with five, white, five-pointed stars of the Southern Cross constellation centered; red, black, and yellow are traditional colors of Papua New Guinea; the bird of paradise - endemic to the island of New Guinea - is an emblem of regional tribal culture and represents the emergence of Papua New Guinea as a nation; the Southern Cross, visible in the night sky, symbolizes Papua New Guinea's connection with Australia and several other countries in the South Pacific

National symbol(s)

bird of paradise; national colors: red, black

National anthem

name: O Arise All You Sons

lyrics/music: Thomas SHACKLADY

note: adopted 1975

Economy

Economic overview

Papua New Guinea (PNG) is richly endowed with natural resources, but exploitation has been hampered by rugged terrain, land tenure issues, and the high cost of developing infrastructure. The economy has a small formal sector, focused mainly on the export of those natural resources, and an informal sector, employing the majority of the population. Agriculture provides a subsistence livelihood for 85% of the people. The global financial crisis had little impact because of continued foreign demand for PNG's commodities.

Mineral deposits, including copper, gold, and oil, account for nearly two-thirds of export earnings. Natural gas reserves amount to an estimated 155 billion cubic meters. Following construction of a $19 billion liquefied natural gas (LNG) project, PNG LNG, a consortium led by ExxonMobil, began exporting liquefied natural gas to Asian markets in May 2014. The project was delivered on time and only slightly above budget. The success of the project has encouraged other companies to look at similar LNG projects. French supermajor Total is hopes to begin construction on the Papua LNG project by 2020. Due to lower global commodity prices, resource revenues of all types have fallen dramatically. PNG’s government has recently been forced to adjust spending levels downward.

Numerous challenges still face the government of Peter O'NEILL, including providing physical security for foreign investors, regaining investor confidence, restoring integrity to state institutions, promoting economic efficiency by privatizing moribund state institutions, and maintaining good relations with Australia, its former colonial ruler. Other socio-cultural challenges could upend the economy including chronic law and order and land tenure issues. In August, 2017, PNG launched its first-ever national trade policy, PNG Trade Policy 2017-2032. The policy goal is to maximize trade and investment by increasing exports, to reduce imports, and to increase foreign direct investment (FDI).

Real GDP growth rate

2.5% (2017 est.)

1.6% (2016 est.)

5.3% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 113

Credit ratings

Moody's rating: B2 (2016)

Standard & Poors rating: B- (2020)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$38.218 billion (2019 est.)

$36.089 billion (2018 est.)

$36.19 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 128

GDP (official exchange rate)

$19.82 billion (2017 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$4,355 (2019 est.)

$4,193 (2018 est.)

$4,289 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 180

Gross national saving

36.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

38% of GDP (2016 est.)

33.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 17

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 22.1% (2017 est.)

industry: 42.9% (2017 est.)

services: 35% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 43.7% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 19.7% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 10% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.4% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 49.3% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -22.3% (2017 est.)

Ease of Doing Business Index scores

Overall score: 59.8 (2020)

Starting a Business score: 80.1 (2020)

Trading score: 65.8 (2020)

Enforcement score: 36.2 (2020)

Agricultural products

oil palm fruit, bananas, coconuts, fruit, sweet potatoes, game meat, yams, roots/tubers nes, vegetables, taro

Industries

copra crushing, palm oil processing, plywood production, wood chip production; mining (gold, silver, copper); crude oil and petroleum products; construction, tourism, livestock (pork, poultry, cattle), dairy products, spice products (turmeric, vanilla, ginger, cardamom, chili, pepper, citronella, and nutmeg), fisheries products

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 85%

industry: NA

services: NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.7%

highest 10%: 40.5% (1996)

Budget

revenues: 3.638 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 4.591 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

36.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

36.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 144

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

$4.859 billion (2017 est.)

$4.569 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 30

Exports

$8.522 billion (2017 est.)

$9.224 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 105

Exports - partners

Australia 26%, China 26%, Japan 22%, Taiwan 7% (2019)

Exports - commodities

natural gas, gold, copper, lumber, crude petroleum, nickel, palm oil, fish, coffee (2019)

Imports

$1.876 billion (2017 est.)

$2.077 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 173

Imports - partners

Australia 33%, China 19%, Singapore 14%, Malaysia 9% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, excavation machinery, crude petroleum, foodstuffs, delivery trucks (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$1.735 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$1.656 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 123

Debt - external

$17.94 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$18.28 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 97

Exchange rates

kina (PGK) per US dollar -

3.5131 (2020 est.)

3.4042 (2019 est.)

3.36915 (2018 est.)

2.7684 (2014 est.)

2.4614 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 58.9% (2018)

electrification - urban areas: 82% (2018)

electrification - rural areas: 55.4% (2018)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 133,593

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1.87 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 130

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 3,401,971

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 47.62 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 137

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: services are minimal; Internet slow and expensive; facilities provide radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio, aeronautical radio, and international radio communication services; a great deal of the population is under served in telecommunications; terrain, living conditions and economic stability is not high; 2G still exists in rural areas, 3G and 4G LTE in urban areas; the launch of the Kacific-1 satellite in 2019, will improve most services in the region (2020)

domestic: access to telephone services is not widely available; fixed-line 2 per 100 and mobile-cellular 48 per 100 person, teledensity has increased (2019)

international: country code - 675; landing points for the Kumul Domestic Submarine Cable System, PNG-LNG, APNG-2, CSCS and the PPC-1 submarine cables to Australia, Guam, PNG and Solomon Islands; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated

Broadcast media

4 TV stations: 1 commercial station operating since 1987, 1 state-run station launched in 2008, 1 digital free-to-view network launched in 2014, and 1 satellite network Click TV (PNGTV) launched in 2015; the state-run National Broadcasting Corporation operates 3 radio networks with multiple repeaters and about 20 provincial stations; several commercial radio stations with multiple transmission points as well as several community stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are accessible (2018)

Internet users

total: 787,764

percent of population: 11.21% (July 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 146

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 17,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 157

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 6 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 48

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 964,713 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 30.93 million mt-km (2018)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 21 (2017)

over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2017)

under 914 m: 1 (2017)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 540 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 53 (2013)

under 914 m: 476 (2013)

Heliports

2 (2013)

Pipelines

264 km oil (2013)

Roadways

total: 9,349 km (2011)

paved: 3,000 km (2011)

unpaved: 6,349 km (2011)

country comparison to the world: 137

Merchant marine

total: 175

by type: container ship 6, general cargo 80, oil tanker 3, other 86 (2020)

country comparison to the world: 70

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Kimbe, Lae, Madang, Rabaul, Wewak

LNG terminal(s) (export): Port Moresby

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Papua New Guinea Defense Force (PNGDF; includes land, maritime, and air elements) (2021)

Military expenditures

0.4% of GDP (2019)

0.4% of GDP (2018)

0.3% of GDP (2017)

0.4% of GDP (2016)

0.5% of GDP (2015)

country comparison to the world: 162

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Papau New Guinea Defense Force has approximately 3,000 active duty troops, including a land element of about 2,500 (2020)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the PNGDF has a limited inventory consisting of a diverse mix of foreign-supplied weapons and equipment; Papau New Guinea receives most of its military assistance from Australia; since 2010, it has also received equipment from China and New Zealand (2020)

Military service age and obligation

16 years of age for voluntary military service (with parental consent); no conscription; graduation from grade 12 required (2013)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

relies on assistance from Australia to keep out illegal cross-border activities from primarily Indonesia, including goods smuggling, illegal narcotics trafficking, and squatters and secessionists

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 9,368 (Indonesia) (2019)

IDPs: 14,000 (natural disasters, tribal conflict, inter-communal violence, development projects) (2019)

Trafficking in persons

current situation: Papua New Guinea is a source, destination, and transit country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; women and children are subjected to sex trafficking and domestic servitude; families may sell girls into forced marriages to settle debts, leaving them vulnerable to forced domestic service; local and Chinese men are forced to labor in logging and mining camps; migrant women from Malaysia, Thailand, China, and the Philippines are subjected to sex trafficking and domestic servitude at logging and mining camps, fisheries, and entertainment sites

tier rating: Tier 3 — Papua New Guinea does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; despite remaining at Tier 3, the government continued to identify some trafficking victims and a prominent trafficking case was advanced; however, the government did not provide protective services for victims and did not systematically implement its victim identification procedures; corruption among officials in the logging sector remains a problem, and they continue to facilitate sex trafficking and forced labor; no alleged traffickers were convicted; the government dedicates little financial and human resources to combat trafficking, and awareness of trafficking is low among government officials (2020)

Illicit drugs

major consumer of cannabis