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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Photos of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Introduction

Background

After four centuries of Ottoman rule over Bosnia and Herzegovina, Austria-Hungary took control in 1878 and held the region until 1918, when it was incorporated into the newly created Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. After World War II, Bosnia and Herzegovina joined the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY).

Bosnia and Herzegovina declared sovereignty in October 1991 and independence from the SFRY on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. Bosnian Serb militias, with the support of Serbia and Croatia, then tried to take control of territories they claimed as their own. From 1992 to 1995, ethnic cleansing campaigns killed thousands and displaced more than two million people. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement, and the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995.

The Dayton Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a multiethnic and democratic government composed of two entities roughly equal in size: the predominantly Bosniak-Bosnian Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the predominantly Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Dayton Accords also established the Office of the High Representative to oversee the agreement's implementation. In 1996, the NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) took over responsibility for enforcing the peace. In 2004, European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR. As of 2022, EUFOR deploys around 1,600 troops in Bosnia in a peacekeeping capacity. Bosnia and Herzegovina became an official candidate for EU membership in 2022.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

Geographic coordinates

44 00 N, 18 00 E

Area

total: 51,197 sq km

land: 51,187 sq km

water: 10 sq km

comparison ranking: total 128

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than West Virginia

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 1,543 km

border countries (3): Croatia 956 km; Montenegro 242 km; Serbia 345 km

Climate

hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast

Terrain

mountains and valleys

Elevation

highest point: Maglic 2,386 m

lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 500 m

Natural resources

coal, iron ore, antimony, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt, manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, timber, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 42.2% (2018 est.)

arable land: 19.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 20.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 42.8% (2018 est.)

other: 15% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

30 sq km (2012)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Population distribution

the northern and central areas of the country are the most densely populated

Natural hazards

destructive earthquakes

Geography - note

within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and Montenegro, and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an ethnic Serb majority in the east

People and Society

Population

3,807,764 (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 131

Nationality

noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)

adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian

Ethnic groups

Bosniak 50.1%, Serb 30.8%, Croat 15.4%, other 2.7%, not declared/no answer 1% (2013 est.)

note: Republika Srpska authorities dispute the methodology and refuse to recognize the results; Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam

Languages

Bosnian (official) 52.9%, Serbian (official) 30.8%, Croatian (official) 14.6%, other 1.6%, no answer 0.2% (2013 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Knjiga svjetskih činjenica, neophodan izvor osnovnih informacija. (Bosnian)

Knjiga svetskih činjenica, neophodan izvor osnovnih informacija. (Serbian)

Knjiga svjetskih činjenica, nužan izvor osnovnih informacija. (Croatian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Bosnian/Montenegrin audio sample:
Serbian audio sample:
Croatian audio sample:

Religions

Muslim 50.7%, Orthodox 30.7%, Roman Catholic 15.2%, atheist 0.8%, agnostic 0.3%, other 1.2%, undeclared/no answer 1.1% (2013 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 13.14% (male 258,937/female 241,581)

15-64 years: 69% (male 1,319,995/female 1,307,304)

65 years and over: 17.86% (2023 est.) (male 277,555/female 402,392)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 48

youth dependency ratio: 22.3

elderly dependency ratio: 27.1

potential support ratio: 3.7 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 44.4 years (2023 est.)

male: 42.7 years

female: 46.1 years

comparison ranking: total 28

Population growth rate

-0.23% (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 211

Birth rate

8.3 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 213

Death rate

10.3 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 32

Net migration rate

-0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 121

Population distribution

the northern and central areas of the country are the most densely populated

Urbanization

urban population: 50.3% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.61% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

346,000 SARAJEVO (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

27.7 years (2019 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

6 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 160

Infant mortality rate

total: 5.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 5.2 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 177

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 78.2 years (2023 est.)

male: 75.3 years

female: 81.4 years

comparison ranking: total population 78

Total fertility rate

1.37 children born/woman (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 214

Gross reproduction rate

0.66 (2023 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.9% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 99.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.1% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0.1% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

9.8% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

2.16 physicians/1,000 population (2015)

Hospital bed density

3.5 beds/1,000 population (2014)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.5% of population

rural: NA

total: NA

unimproved: urban: 0.5% of population

rural: NA

total: (2020 est.) NA

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

17.9% (2016)

comparison ranking: 118

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 5.46 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 4.19 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.47 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.62 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.17 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 81

Tobacco use

total: 35% (2020 est.)

male: 42% (2020 est.)

female: 28% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 15

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98.1%

male: 99.4%

female: 98.1% (2021)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 15 years (2014)

Environment

Environment - current issues

air pollution; deforestation and illegal logging; inadequate wastewater treatment and flood management facilities; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; land mines left over from the 1992-95 civil strife are a hazard in some areas

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate

hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast

Land use

agricultural land: 42.2% (2018 est.)

arable land: 19.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 20.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 42.8% (2018 est.)

other: 15% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 50.3% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.61% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.49% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 66

Revenue from coal

0.34% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 17

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 26.19 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 21.85 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 2.92 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 1,248,718 tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 12 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 0% (2015 est.)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 310 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 60 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

37.5 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina

local long form: none

local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina

former: People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina

abbreviation: BiH

etymology: the larger northern territory is named for the Bosna River; the smaller southern section takes its name from the German word "herzog," meaning "duke," and the ending "-ovina," meaning "land," forming the combination denoting "dukedom"

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Sarajevo

geographic coordinates: 43 52 N, 18 25 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the name derives from the Turkish noun saray, meaning "palace" or "mansion," and the term ova, signifying "plain(s)," to give a meaning of "palace plains" or "the plains about the palace"

Administrative divisions

3 first-order administrative divisions - Brcko District (Brcko Distrikt) (ethnically mixed), Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine) (predominantly Bosniak-Croat), Republika Srpska (predominantly Serb)

Independence

1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia); note - referendum for independence completed on 1 March 1992; independence declared on 3 March 1992

National holiday

Independence Day, 1 March (1992) and Statehood Day, 25 November (1943) - both observed in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity; Victory Day, 9 May (1945) and Dayton Agreement Day, 21 November (1995) - both observed in the Republika Srpska entity

note: there is no national-level holiday

Constitution

history: 14 December 1995 (constitution included as part of the Dayton Peace Accords); note - each of the political entities has its own constitution

amendments: decided by the Parliamentary Assembly, including a two-thirds majority vote of members present in the House of Representatives; the constitutional article on human rights and fundamental freedoms cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2009

Legal system

civil law system; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina

dual citizenship recognized: yes, provided there is a bilateral agreement with the other state

residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years

Suffrage

18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Chairperson of the Presidency Denis BECIROVIC (chairperson since 16 March 2024; presidency member since 16 November 2022 - Bosniak seat); Zeljka CVIJANOVIC (presidency member since 16 November 2022 - Serb seat); Zeljko KOMSIC (presidency member since 20 November 2018 - Croat seat)

head of government: Chairperson of the Council of Ministers Borjana KRISTO (since 25 January 2023)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairperson, approved by the state-level House of Representatives

elections/appointments: 3-member presidency (1 Bosniak and 1 Croat elected from the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 1 Serb elected from the Republika Srpska) directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term but then ineligible for 4 years); the presidency chairpersonship rotates every 8 months with the new member of the presidency elected with the highest number of votes starting the new mandate as chair; election last held on 2 October 2022 (next to be held in October 2026); the chairperson of the Council of Ministers appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the state-level House of Representatives

election results:
2022:
percent of vote - Denis BECIROVIC - (SDP BiH) 57.4% - Bosniak seat; Zeljko KOMSIC (DF) 55.8% - Croat seat; Zeljka CVIJANOVIC (SNSD) 51.7% - Serb seat

2018:
percent of vote - Milorad DODIK (SNSD) 53.9% - Serb seat; Zeljko KOMSIC (DF) 52.6% - Croat seat; Sefik DZAFEROVIC (SDA) 36.6% - Bosniak seat

note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Lidiia BRADARA (since 28 February 2023); Vice Presidents Refik LENDO (since 28 February 2023) and Igor STOJANOVIC (since 28 February 2023); President of the Republika Srpska Milorad DODIK (since 15 November 2022); Vice Presidents Camil DURAKOVIC (since 15 November 2022) and Davor PRANJIC (since 15 November 2022)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of:
House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members designated by the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina's House of Peoples and the Republika Srpska's National Assembly serve 4-year terms)
House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats to include 28 seats allocated to the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 14 to the Republika Srpska; members directly elected by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); note - the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature that consists of the House of Peoples (80 seats - 23 Bosniak, 23 Croat, 23 Serb, 11 other) and the House of Representatives (98 seats; members directly elected by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); Republika Srpska's unicameral legislature is the National Assembly or Narodna skupština Republike Srpske (83 directly elected delegates serve 4-year terms)

elections: House of Peoples - last held on 2 October 2022 (next to be held in 2026)
House of Representatives - last held on 2 October 2022 (next to be held in 2026)

election results: House of Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - NA; composition as of January 2024 - men 13, women 2, percent of women 13.3%
House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - SDA 17.2%, SNSD 16.3%, HDZ BiH 8.8%, SDP 8.2%, SDS 7.1%, DF-GS 6.4%, NiP 5%, PDP 4.6%, NS/HC 3.1%, NES 3%, For Justice and Order 2.1%, DEMOS 1.9%, US 1.6%, BHI KF 1.3%, other 13.4%; seats by party/coalition - SDA 9, SNSD 6, SDP 5, HDZ BiH 4, DF-GS 3, NiP 3, SDS 2, PDP 2, NS/HC 2, NES 2, For Justice and Order 1, DEMOS 1, US 1, BHI KF 1; composition as of January 2024 - men 34, women 8, percent of women 19.1%; note - total Parliamentary Assembly percent of women 17.5%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members); Court of BiH (consists of 44 national judges and 7 international judges organized into 3 divisions - Administrative, Appellate, and Criminal, which includes a War Crimes Chamber)

judge selection and term of office: BiH Constitutional Court judges - 4 selected by the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina House of Representatives, 2 selected by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly, and 3 non-Bosnian judges selected by the president of the European Court of Human Rights; Court of BiH president and national judges appointed by the High Judicial and Prosecutorial Council; Court of BiH president appointed for renewable 6-year term; other national judges appointed to serve until age 70; international judges recommended by the president of the Court of BiH and appointed by the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina; international judges appointed to serve until age 70

subordinate courts: the Federation has 10 cantonal courts plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has a supreme court, 5 district courts, and a number of municipal courts

Political parties and leaders

Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]
Bosnian-Herzegovinian Initiative or BHI KF [Fuad KASUMOVIC]
Civic Alliance or GS [Reuf BAJROVIC]
Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HDZ-BiH [Dragan COVIC]
Democratic Front or DF [Zeljko KOMSIC]
Democratic Union or DEMOS [Nedeljko CUBRILOVIC]
For Justice and Order [Nebojsa VUKANOVIC]
Our Party or NS/HC [Edin FORTO]
Party for Democratic Action or SDA [Bakir IZETBEGOVIC]
Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Branislav BORENOVIC]
People and Justice Party or NiP [Elmedin KONAKOVIC]
People's European Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or NES [Nermin OGRESEVIC]
Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Milan MILICEVIC]
Social Democratic Party or SDP [Nermin NIKSIC]
United Srpska or US [Nenad STEVANDIC]

International organization participation

BIS, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

note: Bosnia-Herzegovina is an EU candidate country whose satisfactory completion of accession criteria is required before being granted full EU membership

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Sven ALKALAJ (since 30 June 2023)

chancery: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037

telephone: [1] (202) 337-1500

FAX: [1] (202) 337-1502

email address and website:
consularaffairs@bhembassy; info@bhembassy.org

http://www.bhembassy.org/index.html

consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Michael J. MURPHY (since 23 February 2022)

embassy: 1 Robert C. Frasure Street, 71000 Sarajevo

mailing address: 7130 Sarajevo Place, Washington DC  20521-7130

telephone: [387] (33) 704-000

FAX: [387] (33) 659-722

email address and website:
sarajevoACS@state.gov

https://ba.usembassy.gov/

branch office(s): Banja Luka, Mostar

Flag description

a wide blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle; the triangle approximates the shape of the country and its three points stand for the constituent peoples - Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs; the stars represent Europe and are meant to be continuous (thus the half stars at top and bottom); the colors (white, blue, and yellow) are often associated with neutrality and peace, and traditionally are linked with Bosnia

note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Brazil, Eritrea, and Vanuatu

National symbol(s)

golden lily; national colors: blue, yellow, white

National anthem

name: "Drzavna himna Bosne i Hercegovine" (The National Anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina)

lyrics/music: none officially/Dusan SESTIC

note: music adopted 1999; lyrics proposed in 2008 and others in 2016 were not approved

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 4 (3 cultural, 1 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Old Bridge Area of Mostar (c); Mehmed Paša Sokolović Bridge (c); Stećci Medieval Tombstones Graveyards (c); Primeval Beech Forests - Janj Forest (n)

Economy

Economic overview

import-dominated economy; remains consumption-heavy; lack of private sector investments and diversification; jointly addressing structural economic challenges; Chinese energy infrastructure investments; high unemployment; tourism industry impacted by COVID-19

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$54.12 billion (2022 est.)
$51.986 billion (2021 est.)
$48.407 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 112

Real GDP growth rate

4.11% (2022 est.)
7.39% (2021 est.)
-3.02% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 105

Real GDP per capita

$16,700 (2022 est.)
$15,900 (2021 est.)
$14,600 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 102

GDP (official exchange rate)

$24.474 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.98% (2021 est.)
-1.05% (2020 est.)
0.56% (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 31

Credit ratings

Moody's rating: B3 (2012)

Standard & Poors rating: B (2011)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 6.8% (2017 est.)

industry: 28.9% (2017 est.)

services: 64.3% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 98; industry 85; agriculture 112

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 77.4% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 20% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 16.6% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 2.3% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 38.7% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -55.1% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

maize, milk, vegetables, potatoes, wheat, plums/sloes, apples, barley, cabbages, poultry

Industries

steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, ammunition, domestic appliances, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate

1.77% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 132

Labor force

1.382 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 140

Unemployment rate

12.66% (2022 est.)
14.9% (2021 est.)
15.87% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 184

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 32.9% (2021 est.)

male: 28.2%

female: 39.9%

comparison ranking: total 30

Population below poverty line

16.9% (2015 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Average household expenditures

on food: 30.7% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 9.2% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.9%

highest 10%: 25.8% (2011 est.)

Remittances

10.08% of GDP (2022 est.)
10.04% of GDP (2021 est.)
9.45% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Budget

revenues: $8.434 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $8.154 billion (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

2.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 15

Public debt

41.85% of GDP (2022 est.)
47.02% of GDP (2021 est.)
45.42% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: central government debt as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 127

Taxes and other revenues

19.14% (of GDP) (2022 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 94

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$1.065 billion (2022 est.)
-$418.984 million (2021 est.)
-$574.322 million (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 126

Exports

$11.794 billion (2022 est.)
$10.058 billion (2021 est.)
$7.02 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 105

Exports - partners

Germany 14%, Italy 12%, Croatia 11%, Serbia 11%, Austria 9%, Slovenia 8% (2019)

Exports - commodities

electricity, seating, insulated wiring, lumber, furniture (2021)

Imports

$15.162 billion (2022 est.)
$12.738 billion (2021 est.)
$9.726 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 106

Imports - partners

Croatia 15%, Serbia 13%, Germany 10%, Italy 9%, Slovenia 7%, China 6% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, cars, packaged medicines, coal, electricity (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$8.762 billion (2022 est.)
$9.475 billion (2021 est.)
$8.707 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 88

Debt - external

$10.87 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$10.64 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 112

Exchange rates

konvertibilna markas (BAM) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
1.859 (2022 est.)
1.654 (2021 est.)
1.717 (2020 est.)
1.747 (2019 est.)
1.657 (2018 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 4.775 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 11,657,450,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 7.316 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 3.266 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 1.257 billion kWh (2019 est.)

comparison rankings: imports 50; exports 26; installed generating capacity 90; transmission/distribution losses 110; consumption 94

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 62.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 1.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 35.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 6.966 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 7.752 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 525,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 1.366 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 2.264 billion metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 34,700 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 13,900 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 213

Refined petroleum products - exports

4,603 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 92

Refined petroleum products - imports

18,280 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 129

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 218.266 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 218.266 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

16.209 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 10.923 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 4.871 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 415,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 95

Energy consumption per capita

71.815 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 83

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 651,069 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 21 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 84

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 3,728,775 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 114 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 135

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: the telecom market has been liberalized and a regulatory framework created based on the EU’s regulatory framework for communications; although Bosnia-Herzegovina remains an EU candidate country, in July 2017 it applied amended mobile roaming charges to fit in with changes introduced across the Union; further roaming agreements were made in 2019 with other western Balkan countries; the fixed-line broadband network is comparatively underdeveloped, with the result that investments made in mobile upgrades to facilitate broadband connectivity in the country to a greater extent than is common elsewhere in Europe; internet services are available; DSL and cable are the main platforms for fixed-line connectivity, while fiber broadband as yet has only a small market presence; the three MNOs, each affiliated with one of the incumbent fixed-line operators, provide national coverage with 3G, though LTE coverage is only about 89%; their upgraded networks are helping to support broadband in rural areas where fixed-line infrastructure is insufficient; mobile data and mobile broadband offers will provide future revenue growth given the limited potential of mobile voice services; the MNOs tested LTE services under trial licenses from 2013, commercial launches were delayed until the award of spectrum in early 2019; the regulator stipulated that licenses must provide national coverage within five years; trials of 5G technology have been undertaken, though there are no plans to launch services commercially in the short term, given that the MNOs can continue to exploit the capacity of their existing LTE networks (2021)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 21 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular subscribership stands at 114 telephones per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 387; no satellite earth stations

Broadcast media

3 public TV broadcasters: Radio and TV of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Federation TV (operating 2 networks), and Republika Srpska Radio-TV; a local commercial network of 5 TV stations; 3 private, near-national TV stations and dozens of small independent TV broadcasting stations; 3 large public radio broadcasters and many private radio stations (2019)

Internet users

total: 2.508 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 76% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 128

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 770,424 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 24 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 78

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 7,070 (2015)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 87 (2015) mt-km

Airports

13 (2024)

comparison ranking: 153

Heliports

3 (2024)

Pipelines

147 km gas, 9 km oil (2013)

Railways

total: 965 km (2014)

standard gauge: 965 km (2014) 1.435-m gauge (565 km electrified)

comparison ranking: total 91

Roadways

total: 8,619 km (2022)

comparison ranking: total 140

Waterways

990 km (2022) (Sava River on northern border; open to shipping but use limited)

comparison ranking: 70

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, Brcko, Orasje (Sava River)

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (AFBiH or Oruzanih Snaga Bosne i Hercegovine, OSBiH): Army, Air, Air Defense forces organized into an Operations Command and a Support Command

Ministry of Security: Border Police (2024)

Military expenditures

0.8% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.9% of GDP (2021)
0.9% of GDP (2020)
0.8% of GDP (2019)
0.9% of GDP (2018)

comparison ranking: 134

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 10,000 active-duty personnel (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory is largely Soviet-era material with a smaller mix of mostly secondhand from other countries, particularly the US (2023)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2005 (2023)

note: as of 2022, women made up about 7% of the military's full-time personnel

Military - note

the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (AFBiH) are comprised of the former Bosnian-Croat Army of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Vojska Federacije Bosne i Hercegovin, VF) and the Bosnian-Serb Republic of Serbia Army (Vojska Republike Srpske, VRS); the two forces were unified under the 2006 Law on Defense, and the combined force includes each ethnic group; the 2006 law also established the country’s Ministry of Defense

the AFBiH is responsible for territorial defense, providing assistance to civil authorities during disasters or other emergencies, and participating in collective security and peace support operations; it is a compact and professional force organized into five brigades under an Operational Command: three infantry, one tactical support, and one air and air defense; each of the infantry brigades is headquartered inside of their respective ethnicity territory, while the Operational Command is in Sarajevo; Bosnia and Herzegovina aspires to join NATO; it joined NATO’s Partnership for Peace (PfP) program in 2007 and was invited to join NATO’s Membership Action Plan in 2010; the AFBiH is undergoing a defense modernization and reform program for preparing to join and integrate with NATO; it has contributed small numbers of troops to EU, NATO, and UN missions

NATO maintains a military headquarters in Sarajevo with the mission of assisting Bosnia and Herzegovina with the PfP program and promoting closer integration with NATO, as well as providing logistics and other support to the EU Force Bosnia and Herzegovina (EUFOR), which has operated in the country to oversee implementation of the Dayton/Paris Agreement since taking over from NATO's Stabilization Force (SFOR) in 2004; EUFOR has about 1,100 troops from 22 countries (2023)

Terrorism

Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps/Qods Force

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Bosnia and Herzegovina-Serbia: Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute.

Bosnia and Herzegovina-Croatia: none identified

Bosnia and Herzegovina-Montenegro: none identified

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: 91,000 (Bosnian Croats, Serbs, and Bosniaks displaced by inter-ethnic violence, human rights violations, and armed conflict during the 1992-95 war) (2022)

stateless persons: 48 (2022)

note: 153,304 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-March 2024)

Illicit drugs

drug trafficking groups are major players in the procurement and transportation of of large quantities of cocaine destined for European markets