Photos of Brazil

This photograph shows a section of the Negro River in Jau National Park, Amazonas state. Fed by multiple waterways, the Negro River is the Amazon's largest tributary. The mosaic of partially-submerged islands visible in the channel of this enhanced satellite image disappears when rainy season downpours raise the water level. Jau National Park is South America's largest forest reserve, covering 23,000 sq km (8,900 sq mi); it is listed with three other protected areas as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Image courtesy of USGS.



After more than three centuries under Portuguese rule, Brazil gained its independence in 1822, maintaining a monarchical system of government until the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the subsequent proclamation of a republic by the military in 1889. Brazilian coffee exporters politically dominated the country until populist leader Getúlio VARGAS rose to power in 1930. VARGAS governed through various versions of democratic and authoritarian regimes from 1930 to 1945. Democratic rule returned in 1945 -- including a democratically elected VARGAS administration from 1951 to 1954 -- and lasted until 1964, when the military overthrew President João GOULART. The military regime censored journalists and repressed and tortured dissidents in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The dictatorship lasted until 1985, when the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers, and the Brazilian Congress passed its current constitution in 1988. 

By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of its interior. Having successfully weathered a period of global financial difficulty in the late 20th century, Brazil was soon seen as one of the world's strongest emerging markets and a contributor to global growth under President Luiz Inácio LULA da Silva (2003-2010). The awarding of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2016 Summer Olympic Games -- the first ever to be held in South America -- to Brazil was symbolic of the country's rise. However, from about 2013 to 2016, Brazil was plagued by a sagging economy, high unemployment, and high inflation, only emerging from recession in 2017. Congress removed then-President Dilma ROUSSEFF (2011-2016) from office in 2016 for having committed impeachable acts against Brazil's budgetary laws, and her vice president, Michel TEMER, served the remainder of her second term. A money-laundering investigation, Operation Lava Jato, uncovered a vast corruption scheme and prosecutors charged several high-profile Brazilian politicians with crimes. Former President LULA was convicted of accepting bribes and served jail time (2018-19), although his conviction was overturned in 2021. LULA's revival became complete in 2022 when he narrowly defeated incumbent Jair BOLSONARO (2019-2022) in the presidential election. Positioning Brazil as an independent global leader on climate change and promoting sustainable development, LULA took on the 2024 G20 presidency, balancing the fight against deforestation with sustainable energy and other projects designed to alleviate poverty and promote economic growth, such as expanding fossil fuel exploration. 

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates

10 00 S, 55 00 W

Map references

South America


total: 8,515,770 sq km

land: 8,358,140 sq km

water: 157,630 sq km

note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo

comparison ranking: total 6

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than the US

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 16,145 km

border countries (10): Argentina 1,263 km; Bolivia 3,403 km; Colombia 1,790 km; French Guiana 649 km; Guyana 1,308 km; Paraguay 1,371 km; Peru 2,659 km; Suriname 515 km; Uruguay 1,050 km; Venezuela 2,137 km


7,491 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin


mostly tropical, but temperate in south


mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt


highest point: Pico da Neblina 2,994 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 320 m

Natural resources

alumina, bauxite, beryllium, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, niobium, phosphates, platinum, tantalum, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

Land use

agricultural land: 32.9% (2018 est.)

arable land: 8.6% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 23.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 61.9% (2018 est.)

other: 5.2% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

69,029 sq km (2017)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Lagoa dos Patos - 10,140 sq km

salt water lake(s): Lagoa Mirim (shared with Uruguay) - 2,970 sq km

Major rivers (by length in km)

Amazon river mouth (shared with Peru [s]) - 6,400 km; Río de la Plata/Paraná river source (shared with Paraguay, Argentina, and Uruguay [m]) - 4,880 km; Tocantins - 3,650 km; São Francisco - 3,180 km; Paraguay river source (shared with Argentina and Paraguay [m]) - 2,549 km; Rio Negro river mouth (shared with Colombia [s] and Venezuela) - 2,250 km; Uruguay river source (shared with Argentina and Uruguay [m]) - 1,610 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Amazon (6,145,186 sq km), Orinoco (953,675 sq km), Paraná (2,582,704 sq km), São Francisco (617,814 sq km), Tocantins (764,213 sq km)

Major aquifers

Amazon Basin, Guarani Aquifer System, Maranhao Basin

Population distribution

the vast majority of people live along, or relatively near, the Atlantic coast in the east; the population core is in the southeast, anchored by the cities of São Paolo, Brasília, and Rio de Janeiro

Natural hazards

recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south

Geography - note

note 1: largest country in South America and in the Southern Hemisphere; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador; most of the Pantanal, the world's largest tropical wetland, extends through the west central part of the country; shares Iguaçu Falls (Iguazú Falls), the world's largest waterfalls system, with Argentina

note 2: cassava (manioc) the sixth most important food crop in the world - after maize, rice, wheat, potatoes, and soybeans - seems to have originated in the west-central part of Brazil; pineapples are probably indigenous to the southern Brazil-Paraguay region

note 3: Rocas Atoll, located off the northeast coast of Brazil, is the only atoll in the South Atlantic

Rocas Atoll:
Rocas Atoll

People and Society


total: 220,051,512

male: 108,166,491

female: 111,885,021 (2024 est.)

comparison rankings: female 7; male 7; total 7


noun: Brazilian(s)

adjective: Brazilian

Ethnic groups

mixed 45.3%, White 43.5%, Black 10.2%, Indigenous 0.6%, Asian 0.4% (2022 est.)


Portuguese (official and most widely spoken language); note - less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages

major-language sample(s):
O Livro de Fatos Mundiais, a fonte indispensável para informação básica. (Brazilian Portuguese)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.


Roman Catholic 52.8%, Protestant 26.7% (Evangelical 25.5%, other Protestant 1.2%), African-American cultist/Umbanda 1.8%, other 3%, agnostic/atheist 0.6%, none 13.6%, unspecified 1.4% (2023 est.)

Demographic profile

Brazil's rapid fertility decline since the 1960s is the main factor behind the country's slowing population growth rate, aging population, and fast-paced demographic transition. Brasilia has not taken full advantage of its large working-age population to develop its human capital and strengthen its social and economic institutions but is funding a study abroad program to bring advanced skills back to the country. The current favorable age structure will begin to shift around 2025, with the labor force shrinking and the elderly starting to compose an increasing share of the total population. Well-funded public pensions have nearly wiped out poverty among the elderly, and Bolsa Familia and other social programs have lifted tens of millions out of poverty. More than half of Brazil's population is considered middle class, but poverty and income inequality levels remain high; the Northeast, North, and Center-West, women, and black, mixed race, and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. Disparities in opportunities foster social exclusion and contribute to Brazil's high crime rate, particularly violent crime in cities and favelas (slums).

Brazil has traditionally been a net recipient of immigrants, with its southeast being the prime destination. After the importation of African slaves was outlawed in the mid-19th century, Brazil sought Europeans (Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Germans) and later Asians (Japanese) to work in agriculture, especially coffee cultivation. Recent immigrants come mainly from Argentina, Chile, and Andean countries (many are unskilled illegal migrants) or are returning Brazilian nationals. Since Brazil's economic downturn in the 1980s, emigration to the United States, Europe, and Japan has been rising but is negligible relative to Brazil's total population. The majority of these emigrants are well-educated and middle-class. Fewer Brazilian peasants are emigrating to neighboring countries to take up agricultural work.

Age structure

0-14 years: 19.6% (male 22,025,593/female 21,088,398)

15-64 years: 69.5% (male 75,889,089/female 77,118,722)

65 years and over: 10.9% (2024 est.) (male 10,251,809/female 13,677,901)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 43.1

youth dependency ratio: 29.4

elderly dependency ratio: 13.7

potential support ratio: 7.3 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 35.1 years (2024 est.)

male: 34 years

female: 36.1 years

comparison ranking: total 101

Population growth rate

0.61% (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 138

Birth rate

13.2 births/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 131

Death rate

7 deaths/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 119

Net migration rate

-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 103

Population distribution

the vast majority of people live along, or relatively near, the Atlantic coast in the east; the population core is in the southeast, anchored by the cities of São Paolo, Brasília, and Rio de Janeiro


urban population: 87.8% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.87% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

22.620 million São Paulo, 13.728 million Rio de Janeiro, 6.248 million Belo Horizonte, 4.873 million BRASÍLIA (capital), 4.264 million Recife, 4.212 million Porto Alegre (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2024 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

72 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 86

Infant mortality rate

total: 12.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2024 est.)

male: 14.6 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 11.1 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 107

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.3 years (2024 est.)

male: 72.6 years

female: 80.1 years

comparison ranking: total population 113

Total fertility rate

1.74 children born/woman (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 151

Gross reproduction rate

0.85 (2024 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.8% of population

rural: 96.9% of population

total: 99.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.2% of population

rural: 3.1% of population

total: 0.6% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

10.3% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

2.31 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

2.1 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 94.1% of population

rural: 63.6% of population

total: 90.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 5.9% of population

rural: 36.4% of population

total: 9.8% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases: hepatitis B (2024)

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

22.1% (2016)

comparison ranking: 81

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 6.12 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 3.84 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.24 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 2 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.04 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 68

Tobacco use

total: 12.8% (2020 est.)

male: 16.2% (2020 est.)

female: 9.4% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 119

Education expenditures

6% of GDP (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 41


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 94.7%

male: 94.4%

female: 94.9% (2022)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years

male: 15 years

female: 16 years (2020)


Environment - current issues

deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; illegal wildlife trade; illegal poaching; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills

Environment - international agreements

party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping-London Protocol


mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Land use

agricultural land: 32.9% (2018 est.)

arable land: 8.6% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 23.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 61.9% (2018 est.)

other: 5.2% (2018 est.)


urban population: 87.8% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.87% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.62% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 61

Revenue from coal

0.01% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 51

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 10.94 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 462.3 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 401.83 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 79,889,010 tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 1,118,446 tons (2014 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 1.4% (2014 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Lagoa dos Patos - 10,140 sq km

salt water lake(s): Lagoa Mirim (shared with Uruguay) - 2,970 sq km

Major rivers (by length in km)

Amazon river mouth (shared with Peru [s]) - 6,400 km; Río de la Plata/Paraná river source (shared with Paraguay, Argentina, and Uruguay [m]) - 4,880 km; Tocantins - 3,650 km; São Francisco - 3,180 km; Paraguay river source (shared with Argentina and Paraguay [m]) - 2,549 km; Rio Negro river mouth (shared with Colombia [s] and Venezuela) - 2,250 km; Uruguay river source (shared with Argentina and Uruguay [m]) - 1,610 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Amazon (6,145,186 sq km), Orinoco (953,675 sq km), Paraná (2,582,704 sq km), São Francisco (617,814 sq km), Tocantins (764,213 sq km)

Major aquifers

Amazon Basin, Guarani Aquifer System, Maranhao Basin

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 16.13 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 9.51 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 41.42 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

8.65 trillion cubic meters (2020 est.)


total global geoparks and regional networks: 6

global geoparks and regional networks: Araripe; Cacapava; Quarta Colonia; Serido; Southern Canyons Pathways; Uberaba (2024)


Country name

conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil

conventional short form: Brazil

local long form: República Federativa do Brasil

local short form: Brasil

etymology: the country name derives from the brazilwood tree that used to grow plentifully along the coast of Brazil and that was used to produce a deep red dye

Government type

federal presidential republic


name: Brasília

geographic coordinates: 15 47 S, 47 55 W

time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

time zone note: Brazil has four time zones, including one for the Fernando de Noronha Islands

etymology: name bestowed on the new capital of Brazil upon its inauguration in 1960; previous Brazilian capitals had been Salvador from 1549 to 1763 and Rio de Janeiro from 1763 to 1960

Administrative divisions

26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins


7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday

Independence Day, 7 September (1822)


history: several previous; latest ratified 5 October 1988

amendments: proposed by at least one third of either house of the National Congress, by the president of the republic, or by simple majority vote by more than half of the state legislative assemblies; passage requires at least three-fifths majority vote by both houses in each of two readings; constitutional provisions affecting the federal form of government, separation of powers, suffrage, or individual rights and guarantees cannot be amended; amended many times, last in 2023

Legal system

civil law; note - a new civil law code was enacted in 2002 replacing the 1916 code

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: yes

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years


voluntary between 16 to 18 years of age, over 70, and if illiterate; compulsory between 18 to 70 years of age; note - military conscripts by law cannot vote

Executive branch

chief of state: President Luiz Inácio LULA da Silva (since 1 January 2023); Vice President Geraldo José Rodrigues ALCKMIN Filho (since 1 January 2023); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Luiz Inácio LULA da Silva (since 1 January 2023); Vice President Geraldo José Rodrigues ALCKMIN Filho (since 1 January 2023)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a single consecutive term and additional terms after at least one term has elapsed); election last held on 2 October 2022 with runoff on 30 October 2022 (next to be held on 4 October 2026)

election results:
2022: Luiz Inácio LULA da Silva elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Luiz Inácio LULA da Silva (PT) 48.4%, Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 43.2%, Simone Nassar TEBET (MDB) 4.2%, Ciro GOMES (PDT) 3%, other 1.2%; percent of vote in second round - Luiz Inácio LULA da Silva (PT) 50.9%, Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 49.1%

Jair BOLSONARO elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 46%, Fernando HADDAD (PT) 29.3%, Ciro GOMEZ (PDT) 12.5%, Geraldo ALCKMIN (PSDB) 4.8%, other 7.4%; percent of vote in second round - Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 55.1%, Fernando HADDAD (PT) 44.9%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of:
Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members each from 26 states and 3 from the federal district directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 8-year terms, with one-third and two-thirds of the membership elected alternately every 4 years)

Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by open party-list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)

elections: Federal Senate - last held on 2 October 2022 for one-third of the Senate (next to be held on 4 October 2026 for two-thirds of the seats)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 2 October 2022 (next to be held on 4 October 2026)

election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - PL 25.4%, PSB 13.7%, PT 12.1%, PSD 11.4%, Progressistas 7.6%, Brazil Union 5.5%, PSC 4.3%, Republicans 4.3%, MDB 3.9%, other 11.8%; seats by party - PL 8, Brazil Union 5, PT 4, PP 3, Republicans 2, PSD 2, MDB 1, PSB 1, PSC 1
note - composition of the Federal Senate as of March 2024 - seats by party - PL 13, Brazil Union 12, MDB 10, PSD 10, PT 9, Progressistas 7, Podemos 6, PSDB 4, Republicans 3, PDT 2, Cidadania 1, PSB 1, PSC 1, PROS 1, REDE 1; composition - men 67, women 14, percentage women 17.3% 

Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PL 16.6%, PT 12.1%, Brazil Union 9.3%, PP 8%, PSD 7.6%, MDB 7.2%, Republicans 7%, PSB 3.8%, PDT 3.5%, PSOL 3.5%, Podemos 3.3%, PSDB 3%, Avante 2%, PSC 1.8%, SD 1.6%, Cidadania 1.5%, Patriota 1.4%, PTB 1.3%, NOVO 1.2%, PCdoB 1.1%, PV 0.9%, PROS 0.7%, REDE 0.7%, other 0.9%; seats by party - PL 99, PT 69, Brazil Union 59, PP 47, MDB 42, PSD 42, Republicans 40, PDT 17, PSB 14, PSDB 13, Podemos 12, PSOL 12, Avante 7, PCdoB 6, PSC 6, PV 6, Cidadania 5, Patriota 4, SD 4, NOVO 3, PROS 3, REDE 2, PTB 1; composition - men 423, women 90, percentage women 17.5%; total National Congress percentage women 17.5%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Federal Court or Supremo Tribunal Federal (consists of 11 justices)

judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president and approved by the Federal Senate; justices appointed to serve until mandatory retirement at age 75

subordinate courts: Tribunal of the Union, Federal Appeals Court, Superior Court of Justice, Superior Electoral Court, regional federal courts; state court system

Political parties and leaders

Act (Agir) [Daniel TOURINHO] (formerly Christian Labor Party or PTC)
Avante [Luis Henrique de Oliveira RESENDE] (formerly Labor Party of Brazil or PTdoB)
Brazil Union (União Brasil); note - founded from a merger between the Democrats (DEM) and the Social Liberal Party (PSL) 
Brazilian Communist Party or PCB [Astrogildo PEREIRA]
Brazilian Democratic Movement or MDB [Luiz Felipe Baleia TENUTO Rossi]
Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Kassyo Santos RAMOS]
Brazilian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Júlio Cezar FIDELIX da Cruz]
Brazilian Labor Party or PTB
Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Bruno Cavalcanti de ARAÚJO]
Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Carlos Roberto SIQUEIRA de Barros]
Christian Democracy or DC [José Maria EYMAEL] (formerly Christian Social
Cidadania [Roberto João Pereira FREIRE] (formerly Popular Socialist Party or PPS)
Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Luciana SANTOS]
Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Ciro FERREIRA Gomes]
Democratic Party or PSDC
Democrats or DEM [Jose AGRIPINO] (formerly Liberal Front Party or PFL); note - dissolved in February 2022
Green Party or PV [José Luiz PENNA]
Liberal Party or PL [Valdemar Costa Neto] (formerly Party of the Republic or PR)
National Mobilization Party or PMN [Antonio Carlos Bosco MASSAROLLO]
New Party or NOVO [Eduardo RIBEIRO]
Patriota [Ovasco RESENDE] (formerly National Ecologic Party or PEN)
Podemos [Renata ABREU] (formerly National Labor Party or PTN)
Progressive Party (Progressistas) or PP [Ciro NOGUEIRA Lima Filho]
Republican Social Order Party or PROS [Euripedes JUNIOR]
Republicans (Republicanos) [Marcos Antônio PEREIRA] (formerly Brazilian Republican Party or PRB)
Social Christian Party or PSC [Everaldo Dias PEREIRA]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Alfredo COATIT Neto]
Social Liberal Party or PSL [Luciano Caldas BIVAR]
Socialism and Freedom Party or PSOL [Juliano MEDEIROS]
Solidarity or SD [Paulinho DA FORÇA]
Sustainability Network or REDE [Marina SILVA]
United Socialist Workers' Party or PSTU [José Maria DE ALMEIDA]
Workers' Cause Party or PCO [Rui Costa PIMENTA]
Workers' Party or PT [Gleisi Helena HOFFMANN]

International organization participation

AfDB (nonregional member), BIS, BRICS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, CPLP, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, LAS (observer), Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OECD (enhanced engagement), OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, PROSUR, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNHRC, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNOOSA, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Maria Luiza Ribeiro VIOTTI (since 30 June 2023)

chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700

FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Orlando, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Elizabeth Frawley BAGLEY (since 5 February 2023)

embassy: SES - Avenida das Nações, Quadra 801, Lote 3, 70403-900 - Brasília, DF

mailing address: 7500 Brasilia Place, Washington DC  20521-7500

telephone: [55] (61) 3312-7000

FAX: [55] (61) 3225-9136

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Recife, Porto Alegre, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo

branch office(s): Belo Horizonte

Flag description

green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress); the current flag was inspired by the banner of the former Empire of Brazil (1822-1889); on the imperial flag, the green represented the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil, while the yellow stood for the Habsburg Family of his wife; on the modern flag the green represents the forests of the country and the yellow rhombus its mineral wealth (the diamond shape roughly mirrors that of the country); the blue circle and stars, which replaced the coat of arms of the original flag, depict the sky over Rio de Janeiro on the morning of 15 November 1889 - the day the Republic of Brazil was declared; the number of stars has changed with the creation of new states and has risen from an original 21 to the current 27 (one for each state and the Federal District)

note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Eritrea, and Vanuatu

National symbol(s)

Southern Cross constellation; national colors: green, yellow, blue

National anthem

name: "Hino Nacional Brasileiro" (Brazilian National Anthem)

lyrics/music: Joaquim Osorio Duque ESTRADA/Francisco Manoel DA SILVA

note: music adopted 1890, lyrics adopted 1922; the anthem's music, composed in 1822, was used unofficially for many years before it was adopted

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 23 (15 cultural, 7 natural, 1 mixed)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Brasilia (c); Historic Salvador de Bahia (c); Historic Ouro Preto (c); Historic Olinda (c); Iguaçu National Park (n); Jesuit Missions of the Guaranis (c); Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes (c); Central Amazon Conservation Complex (n); Atlantic Forest South-East Reserves (n); Paraty and Ilha Grande – Culture and Biodiversity (m)


Economic overview

industrial-led economic growth model; recovering from 2014-2016 recession when COVID-19 hit; industry limited by Amazon rainforest but increasing deforestation; new macroeconomic structural reforms; high income inequality; left UNASUR to join PROSUR

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$3.25 trillion (2022 est.)
$3.158 trillion (2021 est.)
$3.008 trillion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 8

Real GDP growth rate

2.9% (2022 est.)
4.99% (2021 est.)
-3.28% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 140

Real GDP per capita

$15,100 (2022 est.)
$14,700 (2021 est.)
$14,100 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 111

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1.92 trillion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

9.28% (2022 est.)
8.3% (2021 est.)
3.21% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 151

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BB (2023)

Moody's rating: Ba2 (2016)

Standard & Poors rating: BB- (2018)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 6.6% (2017 est.)

industry: 20.7% (2017 est.)

services: 72.7% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 60; industry 142; agriculture 116

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 63.4% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 20% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 15.6% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: -0.1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 12.6% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -11.6% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

sugarcane, soybeans, maize, milk, cassava, oranges, chicken, rice, beef, wheat (2022)

note: top ten agricultural products based on tonnage


textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment

Industrial production growth rate

1.62% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 136

Labor force

108.751 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 5

Unemployment rate

9.23% (2022 est.)
13.16% (2021 est.)
13.7% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 160

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 31.9% (2021 est.)

male: 27%

female: 38.2%

comparison ranking: total 32

Population below poverty line

4.2% (2016 est.)

note: approximately 4% of the population are below the "extreme" poverty line

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

52.9 (2021 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

comparison ranking: 7

Average household expenditures

on food: 16.3% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 1.7% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1%

highest 10%: 41.5% (2021 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population


0.26% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.25% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.24% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities


revenues: $424.196 billion (2020 est.)

expenditures: $617.332 billion (2020 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-1.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 84

Public debt

80.41% of GDP (2022 est.)
86.09% of GDP (2021 est.)
98.71% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: central government debt as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 40

Taxes and other revenues

14.97% (of GDP) (2022 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 142

Current account balance

-$53.62 billion (2022 est.)
-$46.358 billion (2021 est.)
-$28.208 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 203


$380.619 billion (2022 est.)
$315.494 billion (2021 est.)
$238.221 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 25

Exports - partners

China 26%, US 11%, Argentina 5%, Netherlands 3%, Spain 3% (2022)

note: top five export partners based on percentage share of exports

Exports - commodities

soybeans, crude petroleum, iron ore, refined petroleum, corn (2022)

note: top five export commodities based on value in dollars


$376.084 billion (2022 est.)
$306.087 billion (2021 est.)
$230.508 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 21

Imports - partners

China 24%, US 18%, Germany 5%, Argentina 5%, India 4% (2022)

note: top five import partners based on percentage share of imports

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, fertilizers, vehicle parts/accessories, crude petroleum, pesticides (2022)

note: top five import commodities based on value in dollars

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$324.673 billion (2022 est.)
$362.21 billion (2021 est.)
$355.614 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 11

Debt - external

$681.336 billion (2019 est.)
$660.693 billion (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 20

Exchange rates

reals (BRL) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
5.164 (2022 est.)
5.394 (2021 est.)
5.155 (2020 est.)
3.944 (2019 est.)
3.654 (2018 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 99.4% (2021)

electrification - urban areas: 99.7% (2021)

electrification - rural areas: 97.3% (2021)


installed generating capacity: 195.037 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 540,997,340,000 kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 395 million kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 25.113 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 105.727 billion kWh (2020 est.)

comparison rankings: transmission/distribution losses 210; imports 6; exports 78; consumption 6; installed generating capacity 7

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 11.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 2.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 1.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 9.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 65.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 9.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Nuclear energy

Number of operational nuclear reactors: 2 (2023)

Number of nuclear reactors under construction: 1

Net capacity of operational nuclear reactors: 1.88GW (2023)

Percent of total electricity production: 2.5% (2021)

Percent of total energy produced: 1% (2021)

Number of nuclear reactors permanently shut down: 0


production: 13.993 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 31.841 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 16,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 19.217 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 6.596 billion metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 3,629,100 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 3,142,300 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 1,123,300 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 186,200 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 12,714,600,000 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

2.811 million bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 7

Refined petroleum products - exports

279,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 28

Refined petroleum products - imports

490,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 17

Natural gas

production: 25,395,979,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 35,253,198,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 9,724,017,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 363.984 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

456.67 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 63.53 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 328.824 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 64.316 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 14

Energy consumption per capita

59.444 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 93


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 27.258 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 13 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 9

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 212.926 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 99 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 7

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Brazil is one of the largest mobile and broadband markets in Latin America with healthy competition and pricing; 5G services was provided to all capital cities in July 2022, as well as about 35,500km of the national highway network; the country also has one of the largest fixed line broadband markets in Latin America, though broadband subscriptions is only slightly above the regional average, trailing behind Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay; amendments to the licensing regime adopted in October 2019 also require that ISPs which have switched to authorizations invest money saved from lighter regulations in the expansion of broadband services; the fixed line broadband market has seen rapid growth for a number of years, with a growing focus on fiber broadband; in 2019 the number of fiber accesses overtook DSL connections; the country is a key landing point for a number of important submarine cables connecting to the US, Central and South America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Africa; several new cable systems are due to come into service through to 2022, which will increase bandwidth and push down broadband prices for end-users; investments have also been made into terrestrial fiber cables between Brazil, Argentina, and Chile (2022)

domestic: fixed-line connections stand at roughly 13 per 100 persons;  mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 102 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 55; landing points for a number of submarine cables, including Malbec, ARBR, Tamnat, SAC, SAm-1, Atlantis -2, Seabras-1, Monet, EllaLink, BRUSA, GlobeNet, AMX-1, Brazilian Festoon, Bicentenario, Unisur, Junior, Americas -II, SAE x1, SAIL, SACS and SABR that provide direct connectivity to South and Central America, the Caribbean, the US, Africa, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station; satellites is a major communication platform, as it is almost impossible to lay fiber optic cable in the thick vegetation (2019)

Broadcast media

state-run Radiobras operates a radio and a TV network; more than 1,000 radio stations and more than 100 TV channels operating - mostly privately owned; private media ownership highly concentrated (2022)

Internet users

total: 170.1 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 81% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 4

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 36,344,670 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 4


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 9 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 443

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 102,109,977 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,845,650,000 (2018) mt-km


4,919 (2024)

comparison ranking: 2


1,768 (2024)


5,959 km refined petroleum product (1,165 km distribution, 4,794 km transport), 11,696 km natural gas (2,274 km distribution, 9,422 km transport), 1,985 km crude oil (distribution), 77 km ethanol/petrochemical (37 km distribution, 40 km transport) (2016)


total: 29,849.9 km (2014)

standard gauge: 194 km (2014) 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 23,341.6 km (2014) 1.000-m gauge (24 km electrified)

broad gauge: 5,822.3 km (2014) 1.600-m gauge (498.3 km electrified)

dual gauge: 492 km (2014) 1.600-1.000-m gauge

comparison ranking: total 9


total: 2 million km

paved: 246,000 km

unpaved: 1.754 million km (2018)

comparison ranking: total 4


50,000 km (2012) (most in areas remote from industry and population)

comparison ranking: 2

Merchant marine

total: 888 (2023)

by type: bulk carrier 13, container ship 20, general cargo 38, oil tanker 27, other 790

comparison ranking: total 26


total ports: 45 (2024)

large: 4

medium: 7

small: 19

very small: 15

ports with oil terminals: 31

key ports: Belem, DTSE/Gegua Oil Terminal, Itajai, Port de Salvador, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Santos, Tubarao, Vitoria

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Brazilian Armed Forces (Forças Armadas Brasileiras): Brazilian Army (Exercito Brasileiro, EB), Brazilian Navy (Marinha do Brasil, MB, includes Naval Aviation (Aviacao Naval Brasileira) and Marine Corps (Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais)), Brazilian Air Force (Forca Aerea Brasileira, FAB) (2024)

note: Brazil's Federal Police are under the Minister of Justice and Public Security

Military expenditures

1.1% of GDP (2023 est.)
1.2% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.4% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.4% of GDP (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 117

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 360,000 active military personnel (220,000 Army; 70,000 Navy; 70,000 Air Force); approximately 400,000 paramilitary security forces (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Brazilian military's inventory consists of a mix of domestically produced and imported weapons, largely from Europe and the US; in recent years, the US and several European countries have been the leading suppliers of military equipment to Brazil; Brazil's defense industry designs and manufactures equipment for all three military services and for export; it also jointly produces equipment with other countries (2023)

Military service age and obligation

18-45 years of age for compulsory military service for men (women exempted); only 5-10% of those inducted are required to serve; conscript service obligation is 10-12 months; 17-45 years of age for voluntary service (2024)

note: in 2022, women comprised approximately 9% of the Brazilian military

Military - note

the Brazilian Armed Forces (BAF) are the second largest military in the Western Hemisphere behind the US; they are responsible for external security and protecting the country's sovereignty; the BAF’s missions include patrolling and protecting the country’s long borders and coastline and extensive territorial waters and river network, assisting with internal security, providing domestic disaster response and humanitarian assistance, and participating in multinational peacekeeping missions

the Army has a considerable internal security role; in the past decade, it has mobilized thousands of troops to conduct counternarcotics operations, support the police in combating crime, assist with disease outbreaks and humanitarian missions, and provide security for major events such as the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Summer Olympics; it has also cooperated with neighboring countries such as Argentina and Paraguay on border security to combat smuggling and trafficking; the Army is organized into regional commands, military regions, and geographically based divisions covering the entirety of the country; it has approximately 30 combat brigades which include light, mechanized, or motorized infantry, light armored/cavalry, special operations, artillery, and helicopter forces; many of the light infantry brigades are specialized for air mobile, airborne, jungle, mountain, or urban warfare operations; the Army has established a battalion-sized (1,000 troops) expeditionary force for foreign international missions that it plans to increase to a 3,000-strong brigade by 2030

the Navy conducts coastal, regional, and riverine operations and has a wide variety of missions ranging from sea patrolling and power projection to countering piracy, illegal fishing, narcotics trafficking, and organized crime; it is organized into nine districts covering the entirety of the country; the Navy’s principal warships include frigates, corvettes, and offshore patrol ships, attack submarines, and a multi-purpose helicopter landing platform (LPH) amphibious assault ship that serves as the fleet’s flagship; it also has a considerable coastal and riverine patrol vessel fleet, an aviation wing with combat aircraft and helicopters, and a marine amphibious force

the Air Force has over 100 fighter and ground attack aircraft, as well as dozens of support aircraft and helicopters for missions such as patrolling, reconnaissance, transport, logistics, special missions, and training

the three national police forces – the Federal Police, Federal Highway Police, and Federal Railway Police – have domestic security responsibilities and report to the Ministry of Justice and Public Security (Ministry of Justice); there are two distinct units within the state police forces: the civil police, which performs an investigative role, and the military police, charged with maintaining law and order in the states and the Federal District; despite the name, military police forces report to the Ministry of Justice, not the Ministry of Defense; the National Public Security Force (Forca Nacional de Seguranca Publica or SENASP) is a national police force made up of Military Police from various states

Brazil has Major Non-NATO Ally (MNNA) status with the US, a designation under US law that provides foreign partners with certain benefits in the areas of defense trade and security cooperation

the origins of Brazil's military stretch back to the 1640s; Brazil provided a 25,000-man expeditionary force with air and ground units to fight with the Allies in the Mediterranean Theater during World War II; the Navy participated in the Battle of the Atlantic (2023)


Space agency/agencies

Brazilian Space Agency (Agência Espacial Brasileira, AEB; established in 1994 when Brazil’s space program was transferred from the military to civilian control); National Institute for Space Research (established, 1971; part of the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovations); Space Operations Command (Armed Forces); Department of Aerospace Science and Technology (DCTA; established in 1953 as a military space research program under the Brazilian Air Force) (2024)

Space launch site(s)

Alcantara Launch Site (Maranhão state); Barreira do Inferno Launch Center (Rio Grande do Norte state) (2024)

Space program overview

has an active program with a long history; develops, builds, operates, and tracks satellites, including communications, remote sensing (RS), multi-mission, navigational, and scientific/testing/research; satellites are launched by foreign partners, but Brazil has a long-standing sounding (research) rocket and space launch vehicle (SLV) program and rocket launch facilities; cooperates with a variety of foreign space agencies and commercial entities, including those of Argentina, Canada, the European Space Agency and individual member states (particularly France and Germany), India, Japan, Russia, South Africa, South Korea, Ukraine, and the US; has a state-controlled communications company that operates Brazil’s communications satellites and a growing commercial space sector with expertise in satellite technology (2024)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S


Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Hizballah (2022)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 510,499 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum, are recognized as refugees, or received alternative legal stay) (2023)

IDPs: 5,600 (2022)

stateless persons: 12 (2022)

Illicit drugs

a significant drug transit and destination country for cocaine bound for Europe and other destinations including the United States; domestic drug use and addiction is a significant problem and it is second only to the United States in cocaine consumption; a major source of precursor or essential chemicals used in the production of illicit narcotics