Photos of Chile

Pink flamingos in Torres del Paine National Park in southern Chilean Patagonia. The park encompasses mountains, glaciers, lakes, and rivers and is one of the largest and most visited parks in the country. Torres del Paine, which translates to “blue towers” in the native Tehuelche language, refers to the distinctive three, gray, granite peaks seen in the center far distance. Photo courtesy of NOAA / Philip Hall.



Indigenous groups inhabited central and southern Chile for several thousand years, living in mixed pastoralist and settled communities. The Inca then ruled the north of the country for nearly a century prior to the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century. In 1541, the Spanish established the Captaincy General of Chile, which lasted until Chile declared its independence in 1810. The subsequent struggle with the Spanish became tied to other South American independence conflicts, with a decisive victory not being achieved until 1818. In the War of the Pacific (1879-83), Chile defeated Peru and Bolivia to win its current northernmost regions. By the 1880s, the Chilean central government cemented its control over the central and southern regions inhabited by Mapuche Indigenous peoples. Between 1891 and 1973, a series of elected governments succeeded each other until the Marxist government of Salvador ALLENDE was overthrown in 1973 in a military coup led by General Augusto PINOCHET, who ruled until a democratically elected president was inaugurated in 1990. Economic reforms that were maintained consistently since the 1980s contributed to steady growth, reduced poverty rates by over half, and helped secure the country's commitment to democratic and representative government. Chile has increasingly assumed regional and international leadership roles befitting its status as a stable, democratic nation.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Southern South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru

Geographic coordinates

30 00 S, 71 00 W

Map references

South America


total: 756,102 sq km

land: 743,812 sq km

water: 12,290 sq km

note: includes Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) and Isla Sala y Gomez

comparison ranking: total 39

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 7,801 km

border countries (3): Argentina 6,691 km; Bolivia 942 km; Peru 168 km


6,435 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200/350 nm


temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region; cool and damp in south


low coastal mountains, fertile central valley, rugged Andes in east


highest point: Nevado Ojos del Salado 6,893 m (highest volcano in the world)

lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 1,871 m

Natural resources

copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 21.1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 1.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.6% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 18.8% (2018 est.)

forest: 21.9% (2018 est.)

other: 57% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

11,100 sq km (2012)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Lago General Carrera (shared with Argentina) - 2,240 sq km; Lago O'Higgins (shared with Argentina) - 1,010 sq km; Lago Llanquihue - 800 sq km; Lago Fagnano (shared with Argentina) - 590 sq km

Population distribution

90% of the population is located in the middle third of the country around the capital of Santiago; the far north (anchored by the Atacama Desert) and the extreme south are relatively underpopulated

Natural hazards

severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis

volcanism: significant volcanic activity due to more than three-dozen active volcanoes along the Andes Mountains; Lascar (5,592 m), which last erupted in 2007, is the most active volcano in the northern Chilean Andes; Llaima (3,125 m) in central Chile, which last erupted in 2009, is another of the country's most active; Chaiten's 2008 eruption forced major evacuations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Cerro Hudson, Calbuco, Copahue, Guallatiri, Llullaillaco, Nevados de Chillan, Puyehue, San Pedro, and Villarrica; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

Geography - note

note 1: the longest north-south trending country in the world, extending across 39 degrees of latitude; strategic location relative to sea lanes between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage)

note 2: Chile is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire

note 3: the Atacama Desert - the driest desert in the world - spreads across the northern part of the country; Ojos del Salado (6,893 m) in the Atacama Desert is the highest active volcano in the world, Chile's tallest mountain, and the second highest in the Western Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere - its small crater lake (at 6,390 m) is the world's highest lake

People and Society


total: 18,664,652

male: 9,169,736

female: 9,494,916 (2024 est.)

comparison rankings: female 67; male 67; total 67


noun: Chilean(s)

adjective: Chilean

Ethnic groups

White and non-Indigenous 88.9%, Mapuche 9.1%, Aymara 0.7%, other Indigenous groups 1% (includes Rapa Nui, Likan Antai, Quechua, Colla, Diaguita, Kawesqar, Yagan or Yamana), unspecified 0.3% (2012 est.)


Spanish 99.5% (official), English 10.2%, Indigenous 1% (includes Mapudungun, Aymara, Quechua, Rapa Nui), other 2.3%, unspecified 0.2%; note - shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2012 est.)

major-language sample(s):
La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Spanish audio sample:


Roman Catholic 42%, Evangelical 14%, other 6%, none 37% (2021 est.)

Demographic profile

Chile is in the advanced stages of demographic transition and is becoming an aging society - with fertility below replacement level, low mortality rates, and life expectancy on par with developed countries. Nevertheless, with its dependency ratio nearing its low point, Chile could benefit from its favorable age structure. It will need to keep its large working-age population productively employed, while preparing to provide for the needs of its growing proportion of elderly people, especially as women - the traditional caregivers - increasingly enter the workforce. Over the last two decades, Chile has made great strides in reducing its poverty rate, which is now lower than most Latin American countries. However, its severe income inequality ranks as the worst among members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Unequal access to quality education perpetuates this uneven income distribution.

Chile has historically been a country of emigration but has slowly become more attractive to immigrants since transitioning to democracy in 1990 and improving its economic stability (other regional destinations have concurrently experienced deteriorating economic and political conditions). Most of Chile's small but growing foreign-born population consists of transplants from other Latin American countries, especially Peru.

Age structure

0-14 years: 19.2% (male 1,822,908/female 1,751,528)

15-64 years: 67.3% (male 6,274,620/female 6,278,467)

65 years and over: 13.6% (2024 est.) (male 1,072,208/female 1,464,921)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 45.2

youth dependency ratio: 26.8

elderly dependency ratio: 18.4

potential support ratio: 5.4 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 36.9 years (2024 est.)

male: 35.8 years

female: 38.2 years

comparison ranking: total 85

Population growth rate

0.61% (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 136

Birth rate

12.4 births/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 140

Death rate

6.6 deaths/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 133

Net migration rate

0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 74

Population distribution

90% of the population is located in the middle third of the country around the capital of Santiago; the far north (anchored by the Atacama Desert) and the extreme south are relatively underpopulated


urban population: 88% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.78% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

6.903 million SANTIAGO (capital), 1.009 million Valparaiso, 912,000 Concepcion (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2024 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

15 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 136

Infant mortality rate

total: 6.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2024 est.)

male: 6.9 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5.7 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 166

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 80.3 years (2024 est.)

male: 77.3 years

female: 83.3 years

comparison ranking: total population 55

Total fertility rate

1.75 children born/woman (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 148

Gross reproduction rate

0.85 (2024 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

9.8% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

2.84 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

2.1 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

28% (2016)

comparison ranking: 32

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 7.8 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 2.76 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 2.61 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 2.43 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 47

Tobacco use

total: 29.2% (2020 est.)

male: 31.6% (2020 est.)

female: 26.8% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 34

Education expenditures

5.6% of GDP (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 53


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97%

male: 97.1%

female: 97% (2021)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 17 years

male: 16 years

female: 17 years (2020)


Environment - current issues

air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; noise pollution; improper garbage disposal; soil degradation; widespread deforestation and mining threaten the environment; wildlife conservation

Environment - international agreements

party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements


temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region; cool and damp in south

Land use

agricultural land: 21.1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 1.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.6% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 18.8% (2018 est.)

forest: 21.9% (2018 est.)

other: 57% (2018 est.)


urban population: 88% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.78% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.49% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 67

Revenue from coal

0.01% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 46

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 20.49 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 85.82 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 15.97 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 6.517 million tons (2009 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 24,113 tons (2009 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 0.4% (2009 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Lago General Carrera (shared with Argentina) - 2,240 sq km; Lago O'Higgins (shared with Argentina) - 1,010 sq km; Lago Llanquihue - 800 sq km; Lago Fagnano (shared with Argentina) - 590 sq km

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 1.29 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 1.66 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 29.42 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

923.1 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)


total global geoparks and regional networks: 1

global geoparks and regional networks: Kutralkura (2023)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Chile

conventional short form: Chile

local long form: República de Chile

local short form: Chile

etymology: derivation of the name is unclear, but it may come from the Mapuche word "chilli" meaning "limit of the earth" or from the Quechua "chiri" meaning "cold"

Government type

presidential republic


name: Santiago; note - Valparaiso is the seat of the national legislature

geographic coordinates: 33 27 S, 70 40 W

time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in August; ends second Sunday in May; note - Punta Arenas observes DST throughout the year

time zone note: Chile has three time zones: the continental portion at UTC-3; the southern Magallanes region, which does not use daylight savings time and remains at UTC-3 for the summer months; and Easter Island at UTC-5

etymology: Santiago is named after the biblical figure Saint James (ca. A.D. 3-44), patron saint of Spain, but especially revered in Galicia; "Santiago" derives from the local Galician evolution of the Vulgar Latin "Sanctu Iacobu"; Valparaiso derives from the Spanish "Valle Paraiso" meaning "Paradise Valley"

Administrative divisions

16 regions (regiones, singular - region); Aysen, Antofagasta, Araucania, Arica y Parinacota, Atacama, Biobio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los Lagos, Los Rios, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena (Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica), Maule, Nuble, Region Metropolitana (Santiago), Tarapaca, Valparaiso

note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica


18 September 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday

Independence Day, 18 September (1810)


history: many previous; latest adopted 11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; in September 2022 and again in December 2023, referendums presented for a new constitution were both defeated, and the September 1980 constitution remains in force

amendments: proposed by members of either house of the National Congress or by the president of the republic; passage requires at least four-sevenths majority vote of the membership in both houses and approval by the president; passage of amendments to constitutional articles, such as the republican form of government, basic rights and freedoms, the Constitutional Tribunal, electoral justice, the Council of National Security, or the constitutional amendment process, requires at least four-sevenths majority vote by both houses of Congress and approval by the president; the president can opt to hold a referendum when Congress and the president disagree on an amendment; amended many times, last in 2022

Legal system

civil law system influenced by several West European civil legal systems; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Tribunal

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: yes

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Gabriel BORIC (since 11 March 2022); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Gabriel BORIC (since 11 March 2022)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term; election last held on 21 November 2021 with a runoff held on 19 December 2021 (next to be held on 23 November 2025 with runoff if needed on 20 December)

election results:
2021: Gabriel BORIC elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Jose Antonio KAST (FSC) 27.9%; Gabriel BORIC (AD) 25.8%; Franco PARISI (PDG) 12.8%; Sebastian SICHEL (ChP+) 12.8%; Yasna PROVOSTE (New Social Pact) 11.6%; other 9.1%; percent of vote in second round - Gabriel BORIC 55.9%; Jose Antonio KAST 44.1%

 Sebastian PINERA Echenique elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Sebastian PINERA Echenique (independent) 36.6%; Alejandro GUILLIER (independent) 22.7%; Beatriz SANCHEZ (independent) 20.3%; Jose Antonio KAST (independent) 7.9%; Carolina GOIC (PDC) 5.9%; Marco ENRIQUEZ-OMINAMI (PRO) 5.7%; other 0.9%; percent of vote in second round - Sebastian PINERA Echenique 54.6%, Alejandro GUILLIER 45.4%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of:
Senate or Senado (50 seats); members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by open party-list proportional representation vote to serve 8-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 4 years)
Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (155 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by open party-list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 21 November 2021 (next to be held on 23 November 2025)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 21 November 2021 (next to be held on 23 November 2025)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - ChP+ 12 (RN 5, UDI 5, EVOPOLI 2), NPS 8 (PS 4, PPD 2, PDC 2), AD 4 (PCCh 2, FREVS 2), PLR 1, independent 2; composition - men 37, women 13, percentage women 26%

Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - ChP+ 53 (RN 25, UDI 23, EVOPOLI 4, PRI 1), AD 37 (PCCh 12, CS 9, RD 8, Commons 6, FREVS 2), NPS 37 (PS 13, PDC 8, PPD 7, PL 4, PRSD 4, CIU 1), FSC 15 (PLR 14, PCC 1), PDG 6, PH 3, PEV 2, IU 1, independent 1; composition - men 100, women 55, percentage women 35.5%; total National Congress percentage women 33.2% as of January 2024

note: Senate seats by party/coalition as of May 2022 - ChP+ 24 (RN 12, UDI 9, EVOPOLI 3), NPS 18 (PS 7, PPD 6, PDC 5), AD 6 (PCCh 2, FREVS 2, RD 2), PLR 1, independent 1;

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (consists of a court president and 20 members or ministros); Constitutional Court (consists of 10 members and is independent of the rest of the judiciary); Elections Qualifying Court (consists of 5 members)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and judges (ministers) appointed by the president of the republic and ratified by the Senate from lists of candidates provided by the court itself; judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 70; Constitutional Court members appointed - 3 by the Supreme Court, 3 by the president of the republic, 2 by the Chamber of Deputies, and 2 by the Senate; members serve 9-year terms with partial membership replacement every 3 years (the court reviews constitutionality of legislation); Elections Qualifying Court members appointed by lottery - 1 by the former president or vice president of the Senate and 1 by the former president or vice president of the Chamber of Deputies, 2 by the Supreme Court, and 1 by the Appellate Court of Valparaiso; members appointed for 4-year terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; oral criminal tribunals; military tribunals; local police courts; specialized tribunals and courts in matters such as family, labor, customs, taxes, and electoral affairs

Political parties and leaders

Approve Dignity (Apruebo Dignidad) coalition or AD (included PC, FA, and FREVS); note - dissolved 2023
Broad Front Coalition (Frente Amplio) or FA (includes RD, CS, and Comunes) [Gonzalo WINTER]
Chile We Can Do More (Chile Podemos Más) or ChP+ (coalition includes EVOPOLI, PRI, RN, UDI)
Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Alberto UNDURRAGA Vicuña]
Common Sense Party or SC [Rodrigo CARAMORI Donoso]
Commons (Comunes) [Marco VELARDE Salinas]
Communist Party of Chile or PCCh [Lautaro CARMONA Soto]
Democratic Revolution or RD [Diego VELA Grau]
Democrats or PD [Ximena RINCON González]
Equality Party or PI [Iván CARRASCO Mora]
Green Ecological Party or PEV [Felix GONZALEZ] (dissolved 7 February 2022)
Green Popular Alliance or AVP [Carlos PICHUANTE Verdugo]
Humanist Action Party or PAH [Tomás HIRSCH Goldschmidt]
Humanist Party or PH [Claudio OJEDA Murillo]
Independent Democratic Union or UDI [Javier MACAYA]
Liberal Party (Partido Liberal de Chile) or PL [Juan Carlos URZÚA Pettinelli]
National Renewal or RN [Rodrigo GALILEA Vial]
New Social Pact or NPS [Yasna PROVOSTE] (includes PDC, PL, PPD, PRSD, PS)
Party for Democracy or PPD [Jaime QUINTANA Leal]
Party of the People or PDG [Luis MORENO Villablanca]
Political Evolution or EVOPOLI [Gloria HUTT Hesse]
Popular Party or PP [Cristián CUEVAS Zambrano]
Progressive Homeland Party or PRO [Ignacio BUSTOS Sáez]
Radical Party or PR [Leonardo CUBILLOS Ramírez]
Republican Party or PLR [Arturo SQUELLA Ovalle]
Social Christian Party or PSC [Sara CONCHA Smith]
Social Convergence or CS [Diego IBÁÑEZ Cotroneo]
Social Green Regionalist Federation or FREVS [Flavia TORREALBA Diaz]
Socialist Party or PS [Paulina VODANOVIC Rojas]
Yellow Movement for Chile or AMAR [Andrés JOUANNET Valderrama]

International organization participation

APEC, BIS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-15, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OECD (enhanced engagement), OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, PROSUR, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Juan Gabriel VALDES Soublette (since 7 June 2022)

chancery: 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 785-1746

FAX: [1] (202) 887-5579

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Bernadette M. MEEHAN (since 30 September 2022)

embassy: Avenida Andres Bello 2800, Las Condes, Santiago

mailing address: 3460 Santiago Place, Washington DC  20521-3460

telephone: [56] (2) 2330-3000

FAX: [56] (2) 2330-3710

email address and website:

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center representing a guide to progress and honor; blue symbolizes the sky, white is for the snow-covered Andes, and red represents the blood spilled to achieve independence

note: design influenced by the US flag

National symbol(s)

huemul (mountain deer), Andean condor; national colors: red, white, blue

National anthem

name: "Himno Nacional de Chile" (National Anthem of Chile)

lyrics/music: Eusebio LILLO Robles and Bernardo DE VERA y Pintado/Ramon CARNICER y Battle

note: music adopted 1828, original lyrics adopted 1818, adapted lyrics adopted 1847; under Augusto PINOCHET's military rule, a verse glorifying the army was added; however, as a protest, some citizens refused to sing this verse; it was removed when democracy was restored in 1990

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 7 (all cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Rapa Nui National Park; Churches of Chiloe; Historic Valparaiso; Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works; Sewell Mining Town; Qhapaq Ñan/Andean Road System; Chinchorro archeological sites


Economic overview

export-driven economy; leading copper producer; though hit by COVID-19, fairly quick rebound from increased liquidity and rapid vaccine rollouts; decreasing poverty but still lingering inequality; public debt rising but still manageable; recent political violence has had negative economic consequences

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$507.465 billion (2022 est.)
$495.375 billion (2021 est.)
$443.339 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 42

Real GDP growth rate

2.44% (2022 est.)
11.74% (2021 est.)
-6.15% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 156

Real GDP per capita

$25,900 (2022 est.)
$25,400 (2021 est.)
$23,000 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 79

GDP (official exchange rate)

$301.025 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

11.64% (2022 est.)
4.52% (2021 est.)
3.05% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 173

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: A- (2020)

Moody's rating: A1 (2018)

Standard & Poors rating: A+ (2017)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 4.2% (2017 est.)

industry: 32.8% (2017 est.)

services: 63% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 102; industry 62; agriculture 135

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 62.3% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 14% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 21.5% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.5% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 28.7% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -27% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

grapes, milk, apples, wheat, potatoes, chicken, tomatoes, sugar beets, maize, oats (2022)

note: top ten agricultural products based on tonnage


copper, lithium, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles

Industrial production growth rate

-1.67% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 188

Labor force

9.63 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 56

Unemployment rate

8.25% (2022 est.)
9.28% (2021 est.)
10.94% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 150

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 21.4% (2021 est.)

male: 20.4%

female: 22.8%

comparison ranking: total 75

Population below poverty line

10.8% (2020 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

44.9 (2020 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

comparison ranking: 26

Average household expenditures

on food: 18.5% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 3.4% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.1%

highest 10%: 35.8% (2020 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population


0.02% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.02% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.03% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities


revenues: $55.16 billion (2020 est.)

expenditures: $73.176 billion (2020 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-2.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 124

Public debt

23.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
21% of GDP (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 179

Taxes and other revenues

19.6% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 89

Current account balance

-$27.102 billion (2022 est.)
-$23.193 billion (2021 est.)
-$4.952 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 199


$107.078 billion (2022 est.)
$100.747 billion (2021 est.)
$79.579 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 48

Exports - partners

China 39%, US 14%, Japan 8%, South Korea 6%, Brazil 5% (2022)

note: top five export partners based on percentage share of exports

Exports - commodities

copper ore, refined copper, carbonates, fish, raw copper (2022)

note: top five export commodities based on value in dollars


$118.094 billion (2022 est.)
$102.595 billion (2021 est.)
$68.134 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 46

Imports - partners

China 26%, US 22%, Brazil 10%, Argentina 5%, Germany 3% (2022)

note: top five import partners based on percentage share of imports

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, cars, crude petroleum, garments, trucks (2022)

note: top five import commodities based on value in dollars

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$39.102 billion (2022 est.)
$51.252 billion (2021 est.)
$39.166 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 47

Debt - external

$193.298 billion (2019 est.)
$181.089 billion (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 39

Exchange rates

Chilean pesos (CLP) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
873.314 (2022 est.)
758.955 (2021 est.)
792.727 (2020 est.)
702.897 (2019 est.)
641.277 (2018 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)


installed generating capacity: 29.808 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 75.302 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 4.62 billion kWh (2020 est.)

comparison rankings: transmission/distribution losses 166; imports 187; exports 181; consumption 40; installed generating capacity 35

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 51.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 9.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 6.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 26% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 5.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)


production: 542,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 10.573 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 134,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 10.607 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 1.181 billion metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 11,900 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 361,700 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 172,700 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 150 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

216,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 49

Refined petroleum products - exports

7,359 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 87

Refined petroleum products - imports

166,400 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 38

Natural gas

production: 1,109,962,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

consumption: 6,558,312,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 4,602,471,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 97.976 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

88.333 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 24.217 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 51.228 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 12.888 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 47

Energy consumption per capita

81.953 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 72


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 2.217 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 11 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 51

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 26.415 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 135 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 50

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: the market for fixed and mobile telephony is highly competitive and rapidly evolving; the mobile rate is among the highest in South America; LTE infrastructure is extensive and 5G spectrum auctions which took place in February 2021 prompted deployment of 5G networks, following extensive trials held by the MNOs; fixed broadband is relatively high for the region, with services among the fastest and least expensive in Latin America; government initiatives such as the National Fiber Optic project and Fibra Óptica Austral are providing high-capacity connectivity across the country and will further increase fixed-line broadband; there is a strong focus on fiber broadband, with the number of fiber subscribers having increased 61.7% in 2020, year-on-year; technological improvements have allowed operators to provide a variety of services via their networks, giving rise to a number of bundled packages at competitive prices, including access to video on demand services which in turn is increasing fixed-line broadband; traditional fixed-line teledensity continues to fall as consumers switch to mobile networks and to fixed broadband for voice and data connectivity; more than 8,300 schools receive free broadband as part of the ‘Connectivity for Education 2030’ project (2021)

domestic: number of fixed-line connections 13 per 100, mobile-cellular usage continues to increase, reaching 136 telephones per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 56; landing points for the Pan-Am, Prat, SAm-1, American Movil-Telxius West Coast Cable, FOS Quellon-Chacabuco, Fibra Optical Austral, SAC and Curie submarine cables providing links to the US, Caribbean and to Central and South America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)

Broadcast media

national and local terrestrial TV channels, coupled with extensive cable TV networks; the state-owned Television Nacional de Chile (TVN) network is self-financed through commercial advertising revenues and is not under direct government control; large number of privately owned TV stations; about 250 radio stations

Internet users

total: 17.1 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 90% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 46

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 3,763,826 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 41


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 9 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 173

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 19,517,185 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,226,440,000 (2018) mt-km


374 (2024)

comparison ranking: 18


114 (2024)


3,160 km gas, 781 km liquid petroleum gas, 985 km oil, 722 km refined products (2013)


total: 7,281.5 km (2014)

narrow gauge: 3,853.5 km (2014) 1.000-m gauge

broad gauge: 3,428 km (2014) 1.676-m gauge (1,691 km electrified)

comparison ranking: total 30


total: 77,801 km (2016)

comparison ranking: total 64

Merchant marine

total: 249 (2023)

by type: bulk carrier 3, container ship 5, general cargo 66, oil tanker 14, other 161

comparison ranking: total 64


total ports: 39 (2024)

large: 0

medium: 2

small: 10

very small: 27

ports with oil terminals: 25

key ports: Antofagasta, Bahia de Valdivia, Bahia de Valparaiso, Coronel, Iquique, Mejillones, Puerto Montt, Puerto San Antonio, Rada de Arica, Rada Punta Arenas, Talcahuano, Tocopilla

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Armed Forces of Chile (Fuerzas Armadas de Chile): Chilean Army (Ejército de Chile), Chilean Navy (Armada de Chile, includes marine units and coast guard or Maritime Territory and Merchant Marine Directorate (Directemar)), Chilean Air Force (Fuerza Aerea de Chile, FACh) (2024)

note: the National Police Force (Carabineros de Chile) are responsible to both the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of the Interior and Public Security

Military expenditures

1.5% of GDP (2023 est.)
1.6% of GDP (2022 est.)
2% of GDP (2021 est.)
2% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.9% of GDP (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 90

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 80,000 active armed forces personnel (45,000 Army; 25,000 Navy; 10,000 Air Force); approximately 50,000 Carabineros (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Chilean military inventory is comprised of a wide mix of mostly Western equipment and some domestically produced systems; in recent years, it has received military hardware from a variety of countries, including Australia, the UK, and the US; Chile's defense industry has capabilities in military aircraft, ships, and vehicles (2023)

Military service age and obligation

18-45 years of age for voluntary male and female military service; selective compulsory service (there are usually enough volunteers to make compulsory service unnecessary); service obligation is a minimum of 12 months for Army and 22 months for Navy and Air Force (2023)

note: as of 2021, women comprised approximately 18% of the armed forces

Military - note

the Chilean military is regarded as one of the top militaries in the region; it is responsible for territorial defense and ensuring the country’s sovereignty; the military also assists with disaster and humanitarian relief and some internal security duties such as border security or maintaining public order if required; a key focus in recent years has been securing the border area with Bolivia and Peru; it trains regularly and participates in bilateral and multinational training exercises, as well as international peacekeeping operations 

the Chilean Army was founded in 1810, but traces its origins back to the Army of the Kingdom of Chile, which was established by the Spanish Crown in the early 1600s; the current Army has six divisions, an aviation brigade, and a special operations command; the divisions are comprised of a mix of armored, light infantry, mechanized infantry, motorized infantry, and mountain infantry brigades, regiments, and detachments; Chile's military aviation was inaugurated in 1913 with the creation of a military aviation school; the modern Air Force has about 200 fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters, including about 50 US-made fighters

the Navy traces its origins to 1817; it was first led by a British officer and its first ships were largely crewed by American, British, and Irish sailors; by the 1880s, the Chilean Navy was one of the most powerful in the Americas, and included the world’s first protected cruiser (a ship with an armored deck to protect vital machine spaces); today, its principle warships are eight frigates, four offshore patrol ships, a landing platform dock (LPD) amphibious assault ship, and four attack submarines; these are supported by a few missile attack craft and dozens of coastal patrol boats; the Navy also has marine amphibious infantry brigade and an aviation force with maritime patrol and anti-submarine warfare aircraft

Chile and Argentina have a joint peacekeeping force known as the Combined Southern Cross Peacekeeping Force (FPC), designed to be made available to the UN; the FPC is made up of two battalions, one from each country, a command and service company, an air component (a squadron of Argentine and Chilean helicopters), a naval component, and a combined logistics support unit (2023)


Space agency/agencies

the Chilean Space Agency was established in 2001 and dissolved in 2014, at which time the space program became part of the Ministry of Defense; the Ministry of Science also participates in Chile’s space program (2024)

Space program overview

has a space program with a considerable history and largely focused on the acquisition and operation of satellites; operates foreign-built satellites and satellite ground stations; building small remote sensing (RS) satellites; researching and developing additional capabilities and technologies associated with the production of satellites and satellite sub-systems; is a world leader in astronomy and astrophysics (Chile’s Atacama Desert, where the skies are exceptionally clear and dry for more than 300 days a year, is home to more than a dozen astronomical observatories including the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, the Las Campanas Observatory, and the European Southern Observatory); Chile is also home to several astronomy institutes; has established relations with space agencies and industries of Canada, China, France, India, Israel, Mexico, Russia, the UK, and the US (2024)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 444,423 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum or have received alternative legal stay) (2023)

Illicit drugs

transshipment country for cocaine destined for Europe and the region; some money laundering activity, especially through the Iquique Free Trade Zone; imported precursors passed on to Bolivia; domestic cocaine consumption is rising, making Chile a significant consumer of cocaine