This true-color satellite image of lower South America shows the Andes along the left-hand side, starting out wide up top and narrowing as they move south. The white spine-like strip along the lower Andes is snow. Mount Aconcagua, the tallest mountain in the Western Hemisphere, is located in this section of the Andes. To the east, the muddy green featureless areas in the image are the vast wetlands of Paraguay (further north) and Argentina (in the south). The largest lake in this region is Lake Mar Chiquita, which sits on the western edge of these wetlands. The two whitish tan patches between the lake and the Andes are the much smaller, snow-covered Sierra de Cordoba mountains. Photo courtesy of NASA.
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Introduction

Background

Several Indigenous groups, principally belonging to the Guarani language family, inhabited the area of modern Paraguay before the arrival of the Spanish in the early 16th century, when the territory was incorporated into the Viceroyalty of Peru. Paraguay achieved its independence from Spain in 1811 with the help of neighboring states. In the aftermath of independence, a series of military dictators ruled the country until 1870. During the disastrous War of the Triple Alliance (1864-70) - fought against Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay - Paraguay lost two thirds of its adult males and much of its territory. The country stagnated economically for the next half century and experienced a tumultuous series of political regimes. Following the Chaco War of 1932-35 with Bolivia, Paraguay gained a large part of the Chaco lowland region. The 35-year military dictatorship of Alfredo STROESSNER ended in 1989, and Paraguay has held relatively free and regular presidential elections since the country's return to democracy.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Central South America, northeast of Argentina, southwest of Brazil

Geographic coordinates

23 00 S, 58 00 W

Map references

South America

Area

total: 406,752 sq km

land: 397,302 sq km

water: 9,450 sq km

country comparison to the world: 61

Area - comparative

about three times the size of New York state; slightly smaller than California

Area comparison map
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 4,655 km

border countries (3): Argentina 2,531 km; Bolivia 753 km; Brazil 1,371 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

subtropical to temperate; substantial rainfall in the eastern portions, becoming semiarid in the far west

Terrain

grassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay; Gran Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the river, and dry forest and thorny scrub elsewhere

Elevation

highest point: Cerro Pero 842 m

lowest point: junction of Rio Paraguay and Rio Parana 46 m

mean elevation: 178 m

Natural resources

hydropower, timber, iron ore, manganese, limestone

Land use

agricultural land: 53.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 10.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 42.8% (2018 est.)

forest: 43.8% (2018 est.)

other: 2.4% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

1,362 sq km (2012)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Rio de la Plata/Parana (shared with Brazil [s], Argentina, and Uruguay [m]) - 4,880 km; Paraguay river mouth (shared with Brazil [s] and Argentina) - 2,549 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Paraná (2,582,704 sq km)

Major aquifers

Guarani Aquifer System

Population distribution

most of the population resides in the eastern half of the country; to the west lies the Gran Chaco (a semi-arid lowland plain), which accounts for 60% of the land territory, but only 2% of the overall population

Natural hazards

local flooding in southeast (early September to June); poorly drained plains may become boggy (early October to June)

Geography - note

note 1: landlocked; lies between Argentina, Bolivia, and Brazil; population concentrated in eastern and southern part of country

note 2: pineapples are probably indigenous to the southern Brazil-Paraguay region 

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Paraguayan(s)

adjective: Paraguayan

Ethnic groups

Mestizo (mixed Spanish and Amerindian ancestry) 95%, other 5%

Languages

Spanish (official) and Guarani (official) 46.3%, only Guarani 34%, only Spanish 15.2%, other (includes Portuguese, German, other Indigenous languages) 4.1%, no response 0.4%; note - data represent predominant household language (2012 est.)

major-language sample(s):
La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Spanish audio sample:

Religions

Roman Catholic 89.6%, Protestant 6.2%, other Christian 1.1%, other or unspecified 1.9%, none 1.1% (2002 est.)

Demographic profile

Paraguay falls below the Latin American average in several socioeconomic categories, including immunization rates, potable water, sanitation, and secondary school enrollment, and has greater rates of income inequality and child and maternal mortality. Paraguay's poverty rate has declined in recent years but remains high, especially in rural areas, with more than a third of the population below the poverty line. However, the well-being of the poor in many regions has improved in terms of housing quality and access to clean water, telephone service, and electricity. The fertility rate continues to drop, declining sharply from an average 4.3 births per woman in the late 1990s to about 2 in 2013, as a result of the greater educational attainment of women, increased use of contraception, and a desire for smaller families among young women.

Paraguay is a country of emigration; it has not attracted large numbers of immigrants because of political instability, civil wars, years of dictatorship, and the greater appeal of neighboring countries. Paraguay first tried to encourage immigration in 1870 in order to rebound from the heavy death toll it suffered during the War of the Triple Alliance, but it received few European and Middle Eastern immigrants. In the 20th century, limited numbers of immigrants arrived from Lebanon, Japan, South Korea, and China, as well as Mennonites from Canada, Russia, and Mexico. Large flows of Brazilian immigrants have been arriving since the 1960s, mainly to work in agriculture. Paraguayans continue to emigrate to Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, the United States, Italy, Spain, and France.

Age structure

0-14 years: 23.41% (male 857,303/female 826,470)

15-24 years: 17.71% (male 640,400/female 633,525)

25-54 years: 42.63% (male 1,532,692/female 1,532,851)

55-64 years: 8.37% (male 306,100/female 295,890)

65 years and over: 7.88% (male 267,351/female 299,103) (2020 est.)

2022 population pyramid
2022 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 55.5

youth dependency ratio: 49.9

elderly dependency ratio: 10.6

potential support ratio: 9.4 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 29.7 years

male: 29.5 years

female: 29.9 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 128

Birth rate

16.32 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 100

Death rate

4.87 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 201

Net migration rate

-0.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 101

Population distribution

most of the population resides in the eastern half of the country; to the west lies the Gran Chaco (a semi-arid lowland plain), which accounts for 60% of the land territory, but only 2% of the overall population

Urbanization

urban population: 62.8% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 1.64% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

3.452 million ASUNCION (capital) (2022)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

22.9 years (2008 est.)

note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-29

Maternal mortality ratio

84 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 77

Infant mortality rate

total: 23.21 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 27.5 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 18.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 71

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 78.37 years

male: 75.72 years

female: 81.15 years (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 73

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

7.2% of GDP (2019)

Physicians density

1.05 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

0.8 beds/1,000 population (2016)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.6% of population

rural: 90.6% of population

total: 96.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.4% of population

rural: 9.4% of population

total: 3.8% of population (2020 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

(2020 est.) <500

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: intermediate (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 5.47 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 3.27 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.59 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 1.59 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.03 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 79

Tobacco use

total: 11.5% (2020 est.)

male: 18.6% (2020 est.)

female: 4.4% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 126

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 3.6%

women married by age 18: 21.6% (2016 est.)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 94.5%

male: 94.9%

female: 94.2% (2020)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 17.1%

male: 13.1%

female: 23.3% (2020 est.)

Environment

Environment - current issues

deforestation; water pollution; rivers suffer from toxic dumping; tanneries release mercury and chromium into rivers and streams; loss of wetlands; inadequate means for waste disposal pose health risks for many urban residents

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban, Tropical Timber 2006

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 11.16 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 7.41 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 27.65 megatons (2020 est.)

Climate

subtropical to temperate; substantial rainfall in the eastern portions, becoming semiarid in the far west

Land use

agricultural land: 53.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 10.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 42.8% (2018 est.)

forest: 43.8% (2018 est.)

other: 2.4% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 62.8% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 1.64% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 151

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: intermediate (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 1,818,501 tons (2015 est.)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Rio de la Plata/Parana (shared with Brazil [s], Argentina, and Uruguay [m]) - 4,880 km; Paraguay river mouth (shared with Brazil [s] and Argentina) - 2,549 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Paraná (2,582,704 sq km)

Major aquifers

Guarani Aquifer System

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 362 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 154 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 1.897 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

387.77 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Paraguay

conventional short form: Paraguay

local long form: Republica del Paraguay

local short form: Paraguay

etymology: the precise meaning of the name Paraguay is unclear, but it seems to derive from the river of the same name; one explanation has the name meaning "water of the Payagua" (an indigenous tribe that lived along the river)

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Asuncion

geographic coordinates: 25 16 S, 57 40 W

time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in October; ends last Sunday in March

etymology: the name means "assumption" and derives from the original name given to the city at its founding in 1537, Nuestra Senora Santa Maria de la Asuncion (Our Lady Saint Mary of the Assumption)

Administrative divisions

17 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital city*; Alto Paraguay, Alto Parana, Amambay, Asuncion*, Boqueron, Caaguazu, Caazapa, Canindeyu, Central, Concepcion, Cordillera, Guaira, Itapua, Misiones, Neembucu, Paraguari, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro

Independence

14-15 May 1811 (from Spain); note - the uprising against Spanish authorities took place during the night of 14-15 May 1811 and both days are celebrated in Paraguay

National holiday

Independence Day, 14-15 May (1811) (observed 15 May); 14 May is celebrated as Flag Day

Constitution

history: several previous; latest approved and promulgated 20 June 1992

amendments: proposed at the initiative of at least one quarter of either chamber of the National Congress, by the president of the republic, or by petition of at least 30,000 voters; passage requires a two-thirds majority vote by both chambers and approval in a referendum; amended 2011

Legal system

civil law system with influences from Argentine, Spanish, Roman, and French civil law models; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a native-born citizen of Paraguay

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 75

Executive branch

chief of state: President Mario ABDO BENITEZ (since 15 August 2018); Vice President Hugo Adalberto VELAZQUEZ Moreno (since 15 August 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Mario ABDO BENITEZ (since 15 August 2018); Vice President Hugo Adalberto VELAZQUEZ Moreno (since 15 August 2018)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a single 5-year term; election last held on 22 April 2018 (next to be held in April 2023)

election results:
2018: Mario ABDO BENITEZ elected president; percent of vote - Mario ABDO BENITEZ (ANR) 49%, Efrain ALEGRE (PLRA) 45.1%, Juan Bautista YBANEZ 3.4%, other 2.5%

2013: Horacio CARTES elected president; percent of vote - Horacio CARTES (ANR) 48.5%, Efrain ALEGRE (PLRA) 39%, Mario FERREIRO (AP) 6.2%, Anibal CARRILLO (FG) 3.5%, other 2.8%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of:
Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (45 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed-list proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (80 seats; members directly elected in 18 multi-seat constituencies - corresponding to the country's 17 departments and capital city - by closed-list proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections:
Chamber of Senators - last held on 22 April 2018 (next to be held in April 2023)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 22 April 2018 (next to be held in April 2023)

election results:
Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party/coalition - ANR 32.52%, PLRA 24.18%, FG 11.83%, PPQ 6.77%, MH 4.47%, PDP 3.66%, MCN 2.48%, UNACE 2.12%, other 11.97%; seats by party/coalition - ANR 17, PLRA 13, FG 6, PPQ 3, MH 2, PDP 2, MCN 1, UNACE 1; composition - men 38, women 7, percent of women 15.6%
Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party/coalition - ANR 39.1%, PLRA 17.74%, Ganar Alliance 12.08%, PPQ 4.46%, MH 3.19%; other 23.43%; seats by party/coalition - ANR 42, PLRA 17, Ganar Alliance 13, PPQ 3, MH 2, other 3; composition - men 66, women 14, percent of women 17.5%; note - total National Congress percent of women 16.8%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of 9 justices divided 3 each into the Constitutional Court, Civil and Commercial Chamber, and Criminal Division)

judge selection and term of office: justices proposed by the Council of Magistrates or Consejo de la Magistratura, a 6-member independent body, and appointed by the Chamber of Senators with presidential concurrence; judges can serve until mandatory retirement at age 75

subordinate courts: appellate courts; first instance courts; minor courts, including justices of the peace

Political parties and leaders

Asociacion Nacional Republicana - Colorado Party or ANR [Mario ABDO BENITEZ]
Avanza Pais coalition or AP [Adolfo FERREIRO]
Broad Front coalition (Frente Guasu) or FG [Fernando Armindo LUGO Mendez]
GANAR Alliance (Great Renewed National Alliance) (alliance between PLRA and Guasu Front)
Movimiento Cruzada Nacional or MCN
Movimiento Hagamos or MH [Antonio "Tony" APURIL]
Movimiento Union Nacional de Ciudadanos Eticos or UNACE [Jorge OVIEDO MATTO]
Partido del Movimiento al Socialismo or P-MAS [Camilo Ernesto SOARES Machado]
Partido Democratica Progresista or PDP [Rafael FILIZZOLA]
Partido Encuentro Nacional or PEN [Fernando CAMACHO]
Partido Liberal Radical Autentico or PLRA [Efrain ALEGRE]
Partido Pais Solidario or PPS [Carlos Alberto FILIZZOLA Pallares]
Partido Popular Tekojoja or PPT [Sixto PEREIRA Galeano]
Patria Querida (Beloved Fatherland Party) or PPQ [Miguel CARRIZOSA]

International organization participation

CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PROSUR, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHRC, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Jose Antonio DOS SANTOS BEDOYA (since 15 September 2021)

chancery: 2400 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington DC  20008

telephone: [1] (202) 483-6960

FAX: [1] (202) 234-4508

email address and website:
eeuuembaparsc@mre.gov.py; secretaria@embaparusa.gov.py

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Miami, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Marc OSTFIELD (since 9 March 2022)

embassy: 1776 Mariscal Lopez Avenue, Asuncion

mailing address: 3020 Asuncion Place, Washington DC  20521-3020

telephone: [595] (21) 248-3000

FAX: [595] (21) 213-728

email address and website:
ParaguayACS@state.gov

https://py.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

three equal, horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue with an emblem centered in the white band; unusual flag in that the emblem is different on each side; the obverse (hoist side at the left) bears the national coat of arms (a yellow five-pointed star within a green wreath capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles); the reverse (hoist side at the right) bears a circular seal of the treasury (a yellow lion below a red Cap of Liberty and the words PAZ Y JUSTICIA (Peace and Justice)); red symbolizes bravery and patriotism, white represents integrity and peace, and blue denotes liberty and generosity

note: the three color bands resemble those on the flag of the Netherlands; one of only three national flags that differ on their obverse and reverse sides - the others are Moldova and Saudi Arabia

National symbol(s)

lion; national colors: red, white, blue

National anthem

name: "Paraguayos, Republica o muerte!" (Paraguayans, The Republic or Death!)

lyrics/music: Francisco Esteban ACUNA de Figueroa/disputed

note: adopted 1934, in use since 1846; officially adopted following its re-arrangement in 1934

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Jesuit Missions of La Santísima Trinidad de Paraná and Jesús de Tavarangue

Economy

Economic overview

Landlocked Paraguay has a market economy distinguished by a large informal sector, featuring re-export of imported consumer goods to neighboring countries, as well as the activities of thousands of microenterprises and urban street vendors. A large percentage of the population, especially in rural areas, derives its living from agricultural activity, often on a subsistence basis. Because of the importance of the informal sector, accurate economic measures are difficult to obtain.

 

On a per capita basis, real income has grown steadily over the past five years as strong world demand for commodities, combined with high prices and favorable weather, supported Paraguay's commodity-based export expansion. Paraguay is the fifth largest soy producer in the world. Drought hit in 2008, reducing agricultural exports and slowing the economy even before the onset of the global recession. The economy fell 3.8% in 2009, as lower world demand and commodity prices caused exports to contract. Severe drought and outbreaks of hoof-and-mouth disease in 2012 led to a brief drop in beef and other agricultural exports. Since 2014, however, Paraguay’s economy has grown at a 4% average annual rate due to strong production and high global prices, at a time when other countries in the region have contracted.

 

The Paraguayan Government recognizes the need to diversify its economy and has taken steps in recent years to do so. In addition to looking for new commodity markets in the Middle East and Europe, Paraguayan officials have promoted the country’s low labor costs, cheap energy from its massive Itaipu Hydroelectric Dam, and single-digit tax rate on foreign firms. As a result, the number of factories operating in the country – mostly transplants from Brazil - has tripled since 2014.

 

Corruption, limited progress on structural reform, and deficient infrastructure are the main obstacles to long-term growth. Judicial corruption is endemic and is seen as the greatest barrier to attracting more foreign investment. Paraguay has been adverse to public debt throughout its history, but has recently sought to finance infrastructure improvements to attract foreign investment.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$87.98 billion (2020 est.)

$88.87 billion (2019 est.)

$89.23 billion (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 95

Real GDP growth rate

4.8% (2017 est.)

4.3% (2016 est.)

3.1% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 55

Real GDP per capita

$12,300 (2020 est.)

$12,600 (2019 est.)

$12,800 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 124

GDP (official exchange rate)

$38.94 billion (2017 est.)

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BB+ (2018)

Moody's rating: Ba1 (2015)

Standard & Poors rating: BB (2014)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 17.9% (2017 est.)

industry: 27.7% (2017 est.)

services: 54.5% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 66.7% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 11.3% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 17.3% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.3% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 46.6% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -42.2% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

soybeans, sugar cane, maize, cassava, wheat, rice, beef, milk, oranges, oil palm fruit

Industries

sugar processing, cement, textiles, beverages, wood products, steel, base metals, electric power

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 26.5%

industry: 18.5%

services: 55% (2008)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 17.1%

male: 13.1%

female: 23.3% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 95

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.5%

highest 10%: 37.6% (2013 est.)

Budget

revenues: 5.524 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 5.968 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

19.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

18.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 191

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$298 million (2017 est.)

$416 million (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 108

Exports

$11.81 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$13.27 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$14.36 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 98

Exports - partners

Brazil 32%, Argentina 22%, Chile 8%, Russia 8% (2019)

Exports - commodities

soybeans and soybean products, electricity, beef, corn, insulated wiring (2019)

Imports

$10.62 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$13.15 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$13.88 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 104

Imports - partners

Brazil 24%, United States 22%, China 17%, Argentina 10%, Chile 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

broadcasting equipment, cars, pesticides, refined petroleum, tires (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$7.877 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$6.881 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 79

Debt - external

$16.622 billion (2019 est.)

$16.238 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 102

Exchange rates

guarani (PYG) per US dollar -

7,045 (2020 est.)

6,426 (2019 est.)

5,915.4 (2018 est.)

5,160.4 (2014 est.)

4,462.2 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 8.831 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 12,718,590,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 31.748 billion kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 4.47 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 100% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 2,000 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 56,900 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

7.896 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 3,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 7.893 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 116

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 249,231 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 117

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 7,865,050 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 110 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 99

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: limited progress on structural reform and deficient infrastructure of the landlocked country are obstacles to the telecom platform; effective competition in mobile market, serving 96% of population through LTE; deployment of fiber; operator enabled 109 free Internet points across the country and is looking to expand to 430 points in 2022; dependent on neighboring countries for access to submarine cables (2022)

domestic: deficiencies in provision of fixed-line service have resulted in expansion of mobile-cellular services fostered by competition among multiple providers; Internet market also open to competition; fixed-line just over 3 per 100 and mobile-cellular just over 105 per 100 of the population (2020)

international: country code - 595; Paraguay's landlocked position means they must depend on neighbors for interconnection with submarine cable networks, making it cost more for broadband services; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced a downturn, particularly in mobile device production; progress toward 5G implementation has resumed, as well as upgrades to infrastructure; consumer spending on telecom services has increased due to the surge in demand for capacity and bandwidth; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home is still evident, and the spike in this area has seen growth opportunities for development of new tools and increased services

Broadcast media

6 privately owned TV stations; about 75 commercial and community radio stations; 1 state-owned radio network (2019)

Internet users

total: 4.92 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 64% (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 90

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 562,369 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 89

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 8

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 560,631 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1.97 million (2018) mt-km

Airports - with paved runways

total: 15

over 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2021)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 784

1,524 to 2,437 m: 23

914 to 1,523 m: 290

under 914 m: 471 (2021)

Railways

total: 30 km (2014)

standard gauge: 30 km (2014) 1.435-m gauge

country comparison to the world: 133

Roadways

total: 78,811 km (2020)

paved: 8,573 km (2020)

unpaved: 70,238 km (2020)

country comparison to the world: 61

Waterways

3,100 km (2012) (primarily on the Paraguay and Paraná River systems)

country comparison to the world: 34

Merchant marine

total: 110

by type: container ship 3, general cargo 25, oil tanker 5, other 77 (2021)

note: as of 2017, Paraguay registered 2,012 fluvial vessels of which 1,741 were commercial barges

country comparison to the world: 85

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Asuncion, Villeta, San Antonio, Encarnacion (Parana)

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Armed Forces Command (Commando de las Fuerzas Militares): Army (Ejercito), Navy (Armada, includes marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea)

Ministry of Internal Affairs: the National Police of Paraguay includes the Special Police Operations Force (Fuerza de Operaciones Policiales Especiales) (2022)

Military expenditures

1% of GDP (2021 est.)

1% of GDP (2020 est.)

1% of GDP (2019) (approximately $590 million)

1% of GDP (2018) (approximately $590 million)

0.9% of GDP (2017) (approximately $550 million)

country comparison to the world: 132

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 15,000 active duty personnel (10,000 Army; 3,500 Navy; 1,500 Air Force) (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Paraguayan military forces inventory is comprised of mostly older equipment from a variety of foreign suppliers, particularly Brazil and the US; since 2010, Paraguay has acquired small quantities of mostly second-hand military equipment from several countries, including Argentina, Brazil, Israel, Taiwan, and the US (2022)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for compulsory (men) and voluntary (men and women) military service; conscript service obligation is 12 months for Army, 24 months for Navy; conscripts also serve in the National Police; volunteers for the Air Force must be younger than 22 years of age with a secondary school diploma (2022)

note: as of 2021, women made up about 6% of the active military

Military - note

as of 2022, the armed forces were conducting operations against the Paraguayan People's Army (Ejército del Pueblo Paraguayo, EPP), a Marxist-nationalist insurgent group operating in the rural northern part of the country along the border with Brazil; they were also assisting internal security forces in countering narco-trafficking networks

Terrorism

Terrorist group(s)

Hizballah (2022)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Paraguay-Argentina-Brazil: unruly region at convergence of Paraguay-Argentina-Brazil borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics trafficking, and fundraising for violent extremist organizations

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 5,900 (Venezuela) (2022)

Illicit drugs

cannabis cultivation and the trafficking of Andean cocaine in the tri-border area shared with Argentina and Brazil facilitates money laundering, violence and other criminal activity.