Photos of Cote d'Ivoire

Introduction

Background

Various small kingdoms ruled the area of Cote d'Ivoire between the 15th and 19th centuries, when European explorers arrived and then began to expand their presence. In 1844, France established a protectorate. During this period, many of these kingdoms and tribes fought to maintain their cultural identities - some well into the 20th century. For example, the Sanwi kingdom - originally founded in the 17th century - tried to break away from Cote d’Ivoire and establish an independent state in 1969. 

Cote d’Ivoire achieved independence from France in 1960 but has maintained close ties with France. The export and production of cocoa and foreign investment drove economic growth that led Cote d’Ivoire to become one of the most prosperous states in West Africa. In December 1999, a military coup overthrew the government. In late 2000, junta leader Robert GUEI held rigged elections and declared himself the winner. Popular protests forced him to step aside, and Laurent GBAGBO was elected. In September 2002, Ivoirian dissidents and members of the military launched a failed coup that developed into a civil war. In 2003, a cease-fire resulted in rebels holding the north, the government holding the south, and peacekeeping forces occupying a buffer zone in the middle. In March 2007, President GBAGBO and former rebel leader Guillaume SORO signed an agreement in which SORO joined GBAGBO's government as prime minister. The two agreed to reunite the country by dismantling the buffer zone, integrating rebel forces into the national armed forces, and holding elections. In November 2010, Alassane Dramane OUATTARA won the presidential election, but GBAGBO refused to hand over power, resulting in five months of violent conflict. In April 2011, after widespread fighting, GBAGBO was formally forced from office by armed OUATTARA supporters and UN and French forces. In 2015, OUATTARA won a second term. In October 2020, OUATTARA won a controversial third presidential term, despite a two-term limit in the Ivoirian constitution, in an election boycotted by the opposition. Through political compromise with OUATTARA, the opposition did participate peacefully in March 2021 legislative elections and won a substantial minority of seats. Also in March 2021, the International Criminal Court in The Hague ruled on a final acquittal for GBAGBO, who was on trial for crimes against humanity, paving the way for GBAGBO’s June 2021 return to Abidjan. GBAGBO has publicly met with President OUATTARA since his return in June 2021 as a demonstration of political reconciliation. The next presidential election is scheduled for 2025.


 

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Geography

Location

Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Ghana and Liberia

Area

total: 322,463 sq km

land: 318,003 sq km

water: 4,460 sq km

comparison ranking: total 70

Area - comparative

slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries

total: 3,458 km

border countries (5): Burkina Faso 545 km; Ghana 720 km; Guinea 816 km; Liberia 778 km; Mali 599 km

Coastline

515 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm

Climate

tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to October)

Terrain

mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest

Elevation

highest point: Monts Nimba 1,752 m

lowest point: Gulf of Guinea 0 m

mean elevation: 250 m

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt, bauxite, copper, gold, nickel, tantalum, silica sand, clay, cocoa beans, coffee, palm oil, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 64.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 9.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 14.2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 41.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 32.7% (2018 est.)

other: 2.5% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

730 sq km (2012)

Major lakes (area sq km)

salt water lake(s): Lagune Aby - 780 sq km

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Niger (2,261,741 sq km), Volta (410,991 sq km)

Population distribution

the population is primarily located in the forested south, with the highest concentration of people residing in and around the cities on the Atlantic coast; most of the northern savanna remains sparsely populated with higher concentrations located along transportation corridors as shown in this population distribution map

Natural hazards

coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; during the rainy season torrential flooding is possible

Geography - note

most of the inhabitants live along the sandy coastal region; apart from the capital area, the forested interior is sparsely populated

People and Society

Population

29,344,847 (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 52

Nationality

noun: Ivoirian(s)

adjective: Ivoirian

Ethnic groups

Akan 38%, Voltaique or Gur 22%, Northern Mande 22%, Kru 9.1%, Southern Mande 8.6%, other 0.3% (2021 est.)

Languages

French (official), 60 native dialects of which Dioula is the most widely spoken

major-language sample(s):
The World Factbook, une source indispensable d'informations de base. (French)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

French audio sample:

Religions

Muslim 42.9%, Catholic 17.2%, Evangelical 11.8%, Methodist 1.7%, other Christian 3.2%, animist 3.6%, other religion 0.5%, none 19.1% (2014 est.)

note: the majority of foreign migrant workers are Muslim (72.7%) and Christian (17.7%)

Demographic profile

Cote d’Ivoire’s population is likely to continue growing for the foreseeable future because almost 60% of the populace is younger than 25 as of 2020, the total fertility rate is holding steady at about 3.5 children per woman, and contraceptive use is under 30%. The country will need to improve education, health care, and gender equality in order to turn its large and growing youth cohort into human capital. Even prior to 2010 unrest that shuttered schools for months, access to education was poor, especially for women. The lack of educational attainment contributes to Cote d’Ivoire’s high rates of unskilled labor, adolescent pregnancy, and HIV/AIDS prevalence.

Following its independence in 1960, Cote d’Ivoire’s stability and the blossoming of its labor-intensive cocoa and coffee industries in the southwest made it an attractive destination for migrants from other parts of the country and its neighbors, particularly Burkina Faso. The HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY administration continued the French colonial policy of encouraging labor immigration by offering liberal land ownership laws. Foreigners from West Africa, Europe (mainly France), and Lebanon composed about 25% of the population by 1998.

Ongoing economic decline since the 1980s and the power struggle after HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY’s death in 1993 ushered in the politics of "Ivoirite," institutionalizing an Ivoirian identity that further marginalized northern Ivoirians and scapegoated immigrants. The hostile Muslim north-Christian south divide snowballed into a 2002 civil war, pushing tens of thousands of foreign migrants, Liberian refugees, and Ivoirians to flee to war-torn Liberia or other regional countries and more than a million people to be internally displaced. Subsequently, violence following the contested 2010 presidential election prompted some 250,000 people to seek refuge in Liberia and other neighboring countries and again internally displaced as many as a million people. By July 2012, the majority had returned home, but ongoing inter-communal tension and armed conflict continue to force people from their homes.

Age structure

0-14 years: 36.65% (male 5,398,616/female 5,354,973)

15-64 years: 60.4% (male 8,935,673/female 8,789,040)

65 years and over: 2.95% (2023 est.) (male 389,248/female 477,297)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 79.2

youth dependency ratio: 74.9

elderly dependency ratio: 4.3

potential support ratio: 19.3 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 21 years (2023 est.)

male: 21 years

female: 21 years

comparison ranking: total 192

Population growth rate

2.16% (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 37

Birth rate

27.9 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 36

Death rate

7.5 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 104

Net migration rate

1.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 64

Population distribution

the population is primarily located in the forested south, with the highest concentration of people residing in and around the cities on the Atlantic coast; most of the northern savanna remains sparsely populated with higher concentrations located along transportation corridors as shown in this population distribution map

Urbanization

urban population: 53.1% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 3.38% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

231,000 YAMOUSSOUKRO (capital) (2018), 5.686 million ABIDJAN (seat of government) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

19.6 years (2011/12 est.)

note: data represents median age at first birth among women 20-49

Maternal mortality ratio

480 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 15

Infant mortality rate

total: 54 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 61.2 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 46.7 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 17

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 62.7 years (2023 est.)

male: 60.5 years

female: 65 years

comparison ranking: total population 212

Total fertility rate

3.47 children born/woman (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 38

Gross reproduction rate

1.71 (2023 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 89.9% of population

rural: 69.1% of population

total: 79.8% of population

unimproved: urban: 10.1% of population

rural: 30.9% of population

total: 20.2% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

3.3% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

0.16 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 77.8% of population

rural: 35% of population

total: 57.1% of population

unimproved: urban: 22.2% of population

rural: 65% of population

total: 42.9% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and sexually transmitted diseases: hepatitis B (2024)

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis

note: on 31 August 2023, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Travel Alert for polio in Africa; Côte d'Ivoire is currently considered a high risk to travelers for circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV); vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) is a strain of the weakened poliovirus that was initially included in oral polio vaccine (OPV) and that has changed over time and behaves more like the wild or naturally occurring virus; this means it can be spread more easily to people who are unvaccinated against polio and who come in contact with the stool or respiratory secretions, such as from a sneeze, of an “infected” person who received oral polio vaccine; the CDC recommends that before any international travel, anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series; before travel to any high-risk destination, the CDC recommends that adults who previously completed the full, routine polio vaccine series receive a single, lifetime booster dose of polio vaccine

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

10.3% (2016)

comparison ranking: 139

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 1.7 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 1.13 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.33 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.2 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.04 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 133

Tobacco use

total: 9.4% (2020 est.)

male: 17.9% (2020 est.)

female: 0.9% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 136

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

12.8% (2016)

comparison ranking: 40

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 7%

women married by age 18: 27%

men married by age 18: 3.5% (2016 est.)

Education expenditures

3.4% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 144

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 89.9%

male: 93.1%

female: 86.7% (2019)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 11 years

male: 11 years

female: 10 years (2020)

Environment

Environment - current issues

deforestation (most of the country's forests - once the largest in West Africa - have been heavily logged); water pollution from sewage, and from industrial, mining, and agricultural effluents

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate

tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to October)

Land use

agricultural land: 64.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 9.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 14.2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 41.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 32.7% (2018 est.)

other: 2.5% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 53.1% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 3.38% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

2.04% of GDP (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 34

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 166

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 40.41 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 9.67 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 10.3 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 4,440,814 tons (2010 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 133,224 tons (2005 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 3% (2005 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

salt water lake(s): Lagune Aby - 780 sq km

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Niger (2,261,741 sq km), Volta (410,991 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 320 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 240 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 600 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

84.14 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Cote d'Ivoire

conventional short form: Cote d'Ivoire

local long form: Republique de Cote d'Ivoire

local short form: Cote d'Ivoire

former: Ivory Coast

etymology: name reflects the intense ivory trade that took place in the region from the 15th to 17th centuries

note: pronounced coat-div-whar

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Yamoussoukro (legislative capital), Abidjan (administrative capital); note - although Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983, Abidjan remains the administrative capital as well as the officially designated economic capital; the US, like other countries, maintains its Embassy in Abidjan

geographic coordinates: 6 49 N, 5 16 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: Yamoussoukro is named after Queen YAMOUSSOU, who ruled in the village of N'Gokro in 1929 at the time of French colonization; the village was renamed Yamoussoukro, the suffix "-kro" meaning "town" in the native Baoule language; Abidjan's name supposedly comes from a misunderstanding; tradition states that an old man carrying branches met a European explorer who asked for the name of the nearest village; the man, not understanding and terrified by this unexpected encounter, fled shouting "min-chan m’bidjan," which in the Ebrie language means: "I return from cutting leaves"; the explorer, thinking that his question had been answered, recorded the name of the locale as Abidjan; a different version has the first colonists asking native women the name of the place and getting a similar response

Administrative divisions

12 districts and 2 autonomous districts*; Abidjan*, Bas-Sassandra, Comoe, Denguele, Goh-Djiboua, Lacs, Lagunes, Montagnes, Sassandra-Marahoue, Savanes, Vallee du Bandama, Woroba, Yamoussoukro*, Zanzan

Independence

7 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday

Independence Day, 7 August (1960)

Constitution

history: previous 1960, 2000; latest draft completed 24 September 2016, approved by the National Assembly 11 October 2016, approved by referendum 30 October 2016, promulgated 8 November 2016

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by Parliament; consideration of drafts or proposals requires an absolute majority vote by the parliamentary membership; passage of amendments affecting presidential elections, presidential term of office and vacancies, and amendment procedures requires approval by absolute majority in a referendum; passage of other proposals by the president requires at least four-fifths majority vote by Parliament; constitutional articles on the sovereignty of the state and its republican and secular form of government cannot be amended; amended 2020

Legal system

civil law system based on the French civil code; judicial review of legislation held in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cote d'Ivoire

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Alassane Dramane OUATTARA (since 4 December 2010); Vice President Tiémoko Meyliet KONE (since 19 April 2022); note - Vice President Tiémoko Meyliet KONE appointed by President Alassane Dramane OUATTARA before a Congressional meeting on 19 April 2022

head of government: Prime Minister Robert Beujre MAMBE (since 16 October 2023)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single renewable 5-year term; election last held on 31 October 2020 (next to be held in 2025); vice president elected on same ballot as president; prime minister appointed by the president; note – because President OUATTARA promulgated the new constitution in 2016, he has claimed that the clock is reset on term limits, allowing him to run for up to two additional terms

election results:
2020: Alassane OUATTARA reelected president; percent of vote - Alassane OUATTARA (RDR) 94.3%, Kouadio Konan BERTIN (PDCI-RDA) 2.0%, other 3.7%

2015: Alassane OUATTARA reelected president; percent of vote - Alassane OUATTARA (RDR) 83.7%, Pascal Affi N'GUESSAN (FPI) 9.3%, Konan Bertin KOUADIO (independent) 3.9%, other 3.1% 

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
Senate or Senat (99 seats; 66 members indirectly elected by the National Assembly and members of municipal, autonomous districts, and regional councils, and 33 members appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
National Assembly (255 seats - 254 for 2021-2026 term; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections:

Senate - last held on 16 September 2023 (next to be held in September 2028)
National Assembly - last held on 6 March 2021 (next to be held on 31 March 2026)

 



election results:

Senate - percent by party/coalition NA; seats by party/coalition - RHDP 56, PDCI-RDA 6, independent 2, vacant 2; composition - men 54, women 10, percent of women 15.6% (2 seats vacant); note - 33 members appointed; RHDP 25, independent 8 

National Assembly - percent of vote by party/coalition - RHDP 49.2%, PDCI-RRA-EDS 16.5%, DPIC 6%, TTB 2.1%, IPF 2%, other 24.2%; seats by party/coalition - RHDP, 137, PDCI-RRA-EDS 50, DPIC 23, EDS 8, TTB 8, IPF 2, independent 26, vacant 1; composition as of January 2024 - men 220, women 34, percent of women 13.4%; note - total Parliament percent of women 12.4%





Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into Judicial, Audit, Constitutional, and Administrative Chambers; consists of the court president, 3 vice presidents for the Judicial, Audit, and Administrative chambers, and 9 associate justices or magistrates)

judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the Superior Council of the Magistrature, a 7-member body consisting of the national president (chairman), 3 "bench" judges, and 3 public prosecutors; judges appointed for life

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (organized into civil, criminal, and social chambers); first instance courts; peace courts

Political parties and leaders

African Peoples' Party-Cote d'Ivoire or PPA-CI [Laurent GBAGBO]
Democratic Party of Cote d'Ivoire or PDCI [Henri Konan BEDIE]
Ivorian Popular Front or FPI [Pascal Affi N'GUESSAN]
Liberty and Democracy for the Republic or LIDER [Mamadou KOULIBALY]
Movement of the Future Forces or MFA [Innocent Augustin ANAKY KOBENA]
Pan-African Congress for People's Justice and Equality or COJEP [Charles BLE GOUDE]
Rally of Houphouetists for Democracy and Peace or RHDP [Alassane Dramane OUATTARA] 
Rally of the Republicans or RDR [Henriette DIABATE]
Together for Democracy and Sovereignty or EDS [Georges Armand OUEGNIN]
Together to Build (UDPCI, FPI,and allies) [Toikeuse MABRI]
Union for Cote d'Ivoire or UPCI [Gnamien KONAN]
Union for Democracy and Peace in Cote d'Ivoire or UDPCI [Albert Toikeusse MABRI]

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSCA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNHRC, UNIDO, UNMISS, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Ibrahima TOURE (since 13 January 2022)

chancery: 2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 797-0300

FAX: [1] (202) 462-9444

email address and website:
info@ambacidc.org

Ambassade de Cote D’ivoire aux USA (ambaciusa.org)

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Jessica Davis BA (since 2 March 2023)

embassy: B.P. 730 Abidjan Cidex 03

mailing address: 2010 Abidjan Place, Washington DC  20521-2010

telephone: [225] 27-22-49-40-00

FAX: [225] 27-22-49-43-23

email address and website:
AbjAmCit@state.gov

https://ci.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and green; orange symbolizes the land (savannah) of the north and fertility, white stands for peace and unity, green represents the forests of the south and the hope for a bright future

note: similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and has the colors reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side), white, and red; design was based on the flag of France

National symbol(s)

elephant; national colors: orange, white, green

National anthem

name: "L'Abidjanaise" (Song of Abidjan)

lyrics/music: Mathieu EKRA, Joachim BONY, and Pierre Marie COTY/Pierre Marie COTY and Pierre Michel PANGO

note: adopted 1960; although the nation's capital city moved from Abidjan to Yamoussoukro in 1983, the anthem still owes its name to the former capital

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 5 (2 cultural, 3 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Comoé National Park (n); Historic Grand-Bassam (c); Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (n); Sudanese-style Mosques (c); Taï National Park (n)

Economy

Economic overview

one of West Africa’s most influential, stable, and rapidly developing economies; poverty declines in urban but increases in rural areas; strong construction sector and increasingly diverse economic portfolio; increasing but manageable public debt; large labor force in agriculture

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$155.935 billion (2022 est.)
$146.087 billion (2021 est.)
$136.53 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 78

Real GDP growth rate

6.74% (2022 est.)
7% (2021 est.)
1.74% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 46

Real GDP per capita

$5,500 (2022 est.)
$5,300 (2021 est.)
$5,100 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 167

GDP (official exchange rate)

$70.019 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

5.28% (2022 est.)
4.09% (2021 est.)
2.43% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 80

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: B+ (2015)

Moody's rating: Ba3 (2015)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 20.1% (2017 est.)

industry: 26.6% (2017 est.)

services: 53.3% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 165; industry 101; agriculture 47

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 61.7% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 14.9% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 22.4% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.3% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 30.8% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -30.1% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

yams, cassava, cocoa, oil palm fruit, sugar cane, rice, plantains, maize, cashew nuts, rubber

Industries

foodstuffs, beverages; wood products, oil refining, gold mining, truck and bus assembly, textiles, fertilizer, building materials, electricity

Industrial production growth rate

8.09% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 27

Labor force

10.609 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 53

Unemployment rate

2.49% (2022 est.)
2.71% (2021 est.)
2.64% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 30

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 5.7% (2021 est.)

male: 4.8%

female: 6.8%

comparison ranking: total 184

Population below poverty line

39.5% (2018 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

37.2 (2018 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

comparison ranking: 77

Average household expenditures

on food: 39.6% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 3.1% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.9%

highest 10%: 29% (2018 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population

Remittances

0.51% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.61% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.52% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Budget

revenues: $8.804 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $10.145 billion (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-4.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 158

Public debt

47% of GDP (2017 est.)
47% of GDP (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 117

Taxes and other revenues

12.56% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 165

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$2.874 billion (2021 est.)
-$1.974 billion (2020 est.)
-$1.349 billion (2019 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 160

Exports

$16.23 billion (2021 est.)
$13.232 billion (2020 est.)
$13.791 billion (2019 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 95

Exports - partners

Netherlands 10%, United States 6%, France 6%, Spain 5%, Malaysia 5%, Switzerland 5%, Germany 5%, Vietnam 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

cocoa products, rubber, gold, cashews, crude petroleum, bananas (2021)

Imports

$16.191 billion (2021 est.)
$12.66 billion (2020 est.)
$12.881 billion (2019 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 102

Imports - partners

China 18%, Nigeria 13%, France 11% (2019)

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, rice, frozen fish, refined petroleum, packaged medicines (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$6.257 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.935 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 94

Debt - external

$13.07 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$11.02 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 105

Exchange rates

Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
623.76 (2022 est.)
554.531 (2021 est.)
575.586 (2020 est.)
585.911 (2019 est.)
555.446 (2018 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

population without electricity: 6 million (2020)

electrification - total population: 71.1% (2021)

electrification - urban areas: 94.9% (2021)

electrification - rural areas: 45.1% (2021)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 2.197 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 5,924,320,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 1.178 billion kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 172 million kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 1.957 billion kWh (2019 est.)

comparison rankings: installed generating capacity 117; transmission/distribution losses 126; imports 104; exports 57; consumption 118

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 75.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 24.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 33,000 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 56,500 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 30,200 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 69,200 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 100 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

69,360 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 72

Refined petroleum products - exports

31,450 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 61

Refined petroleum products - imports

7,405 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 154

Natural gas

production: 2.425 billion cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 2.425 billion cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 28.317 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

11.88 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 7.332 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 4.548 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 100

Energy consumption per capita

8.225 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 161

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 263,308 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 113

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 44,561,505 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 162 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 38

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: in recent years the government of Ivory Coast has helped develop a competitive telecom sector focused on the provision of converged services, thus allowing operators to offer fixed-line and mobile services under a universal services license regime; the fixed internet and broadband sectors remain underdeveloped; this is a legacy of poor international connectivity, which resulted in high wholesale prices, limited bandwidth, and a lack of access for alternative operators to international infrastructure; these limitations were addressed following the landing of a second cable in November 2011; Orange Group has also launched its 20,000km Djoliba cable system, reaching across eight countries in the region, while the 2Africa submarine cable is being developed by a consortium of companies; with a landing station providing connectivity to Côte d'Ivoire, the system is expected to be completed in late 2023 (2022)

domestic: 1 per 100 fixed-line teledensity; mobile subscriptions are 162 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 225; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC, ACE, MainOne, and WACS fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and South and West Africa; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2019)

Broadcast media

state-controlled Radiodiffusion Television Ivoirieinne (RTI) is made up of 2 radio stations (Radio Cote d'Ivoire and Frequence2) and 2 television stations (RTI1 and RTI2), with nationwide coverage, broadcasts mainly in French; after 2011 post-electoral crisis, President OUATTARA's administration reopened RTI Bouake', the broadcaster's office in Cote d'Ivoire's 2nd largest city, where facilities were destroyed during the 2002 rebellion; Cote d'Ivoire is also home to 178 proximity radio stations, 16 religious radio stations, 5 commercial radio stations, and 5 international radios stations, according to the Haute Autorite' de la Communication Audiovisuelle (HACA); govt now runs radio UNOCIFM, a radio station previously owned by the UN Operation in Cote d'Ivoire; in Dec 2016, the govt announced 4 companies had been granted licenses to operate -Live TV, Optimum Media Cote d'Ivoire, the Audiovisual Company of Cote d'Ivoire (Sedaci), and Sorano-CI, out of the 4 companies only one has started operating (2019)

Internet users

total: 12.15 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 45% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 55

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 260,097 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 110

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 10

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 779,482 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 5.8 million (2018) mt-km

Airports

29 (2024)

comparison ranking: 121

Heliports

1 (2024)

Pipelines

101 km condensate, 256 km gas, 118 km oil, 5 km oil/gas/water, 7 km water (2013)

Railways

total: 660 km (2008)

narrow gauge: 660 km (2008) 1.000-m gauge

note: an additional 622 km of this railroad extends into Burkina Faso

comparison ranking: total 103

Roadways

total: 81,996 km

paved: 6,502 km

unpaved: 75,494 km (2007)

note: includes intercity and urban roads; another 20,000 km of dirt roads are in poor condition and 150,000 km of dirt roads are impassable

comparison ranking: total 62

Waterways

980 km (2011) (navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal lagoons)

comparison ranking: 72

Merchant marine

total: 25 (2023)

by type: oil tanker 2, other 23

comparison ranking: total 140

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Abidjan, San-Pedro

oil terminal(s): Espoir Offshore Terminal

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Armed Forces of Cote d'Ivoire (Forces Armees de Cote d'Ivoire, FACI; aka Republican Forces of Ivory Coast, FRCI): Army (Land Force), National Navy, Air Force, Special Forces; National Gendarmerie (under the Ministry of Defense)

Ministry of Security and Civil Protection: National Police, Coordination Center for Operational Decisions (a mix of police, gendarmerie, and FACI personnel for assisting police in providing security in some large cities), Directorate of Territorial Surveillance (2024)

note: the National Gendarmerie is a military force established to ensure public safety, maintain order, enforce laws, and protect institutions, people, and property; it has both territorial and mobile units; the Directorate of Territorial Surveillance is responsible for countering internal threats

Military expenditures

0.9% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.1% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.1% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.1% of GDP (2019 est.)
1.2% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 133

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 25,000 active troops (23,000 Army, including about 2,000 Special Forces; 1,000 Navy; 1,000 Air Force); 5-10,000 Gendarmerie (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the inventory of the FACI consists mostly of older or second-hand equipment, typically of French or Soviet-era origin; Cote d'Ivoire was under a partial UN arms embargo from 2004 to 2016; in recent years it has received limited amounts of mostly second-hand equipment from a variety of suppliers, including Bulgaria, China, and France (2023)

Military service age and obligation

18-26 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service for men and women; conscription is reportedly not enforced (2023)

Military deployments

180 Central African Republic (MINUSCA) (2024)

Military - note

the military (FACI) was established in 1960 from home defense units the French colonial government began standing up in 1950; the FACI has mutinied several times since the late 1990s, most recently in 2017, and has had a large role in the country’s political turmoil; it is responsible for external defense but also has a considerable internal role supporting the National Gendarmerie and other internal security forces; the operational focus of the FACI, as well as the Gendarmerie and other security forces, is the growing threat posed by Islamic militants associated with the al-Qa’ida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) terrorist group operating across the border in Burkina Faso and Mali; AQIM militants conducted significant attacks in the country in 2016 and 2020; Côte d’Ivoire since 2016 has stepped up border security and completed building a joint counter-terrorism training center with France near Abidjan in 2020

the FACI’s Land Forces are assigned to regions, and its combat units are organized into approximately 10 battalions, most of which are infantry or security forces, complemented by artillery, armored, and air defense battalions; the separate special forces branch has a commando/paratrooper battalion; the Air Force has a few operational combat helicopters, while the Navy operates a handful of patrol boats and two offshore patrol vessels acquired since 2022; the National Gendarmerie has seven “legions” deployed throughout the country (Abidjan has two assigned legions) and is organized into mobile and territorial forces; the Mobile Gendarmerie is responsible for maintaining and restoring order and is considered the backbone of the country’s domestic security; the Territorial Gendarmerie is responsible for the administrative, judicial, and military police; the Gendarmerie also has separate specialized units for security, intervention (counterterrorism, hostage rescue, etc), VIP protection, and surveillance

Cote d’Ivoire has close security ties with France, which maintains a military presence; the UN had a 9,000-strong peacekeeping force in Cote d’Ivoire (UNOCI) from 2004 until 2017 (2023)

Space

Space agency/agencies

announced in 2021 that it was in the process of establishing a national space agency (space issues currently managed by the Ministry of Scientific Research)  (2023)

Space program overview

has as nascent, small program focused on acquiring a remote sensing (RS) satellite for purposes detecting illegal gold mining, facilitating access to drinking water, mapping deforestation, and national security issues (2023)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Terrorism

Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): al-Qa'ida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM); Jama’at Nusrat al Islam wal Muslimeen (JNIM)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

disputed maritime border between Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: 302,000 (post-election conflict in 2010-11, as well as civil war from 2002-04; land disputes; most pronounced in western and southwestern regions) (2022)

stateless persons: 930,578 (2022); note - many Ivoirians lack documentation proving their nationality, which prevent them from accessing education and healthcare; birth on Ivorian soil does not automatically result in citizenship; disputes over citizenship and the associated rights of the large population descended from migrants from neighboring countries is an ongoing source of tension and contributed to the country's 2002 civil war; some observers believe the government's mass naturalizations of thousands of people over the last couple of years is intended to boost its electoral support base; the government in October 2013 acceded to international conventions on statelessness and in August 2013 reformed its nationality law, key steps to clarify the nationality of thousands of residents; since the adoption of the Abidjan Declaration to eradicate statelessness in West Africa in February 2015, 6,400 people have received nationality papers in Cote d'Ivoire; in September 2020, Cote d'Ivoire adopted Africa's first statelessness determination procedure to regularize the status of stateless people

Illicit drugs

illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for local consumption; utility as a narcotic transshipment point to Europe reduced by ongoing political instability; while rampant corruption and inadequate supervision leave the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, the lack of a developed financial system limits the country's utility as a major money-laundering center