Photos of Portugal



Following its heyday as a global maritime power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil, its wealthiest colony, in 1822. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, and for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain

Geographic coordinates

39 30 N, 8 00 W


total: 92,090 sq km

land: 91,470 sq km

water: 620 sq km

note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands

comparison ranking: total 111

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Virginia

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 1,224 km

border countries (1): Spain 1,224 km


1,793 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation


maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south


the west-flowing Tagus River divides the country: the north is mountainous toward the interior, while the south is characterized by rolling plains


highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 372 m

Natural resources

fish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 39.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 11.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 7.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 20% (2018 est.)

forest: 37.8% (2018 est.)

other: 22.5% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

5,662 sq km (2019)

Population distribution

concentrations are primarily along or near the Atlantic coast; both Lisbon and the second largest city, Porto, are coastal cities

Natural hazards

Azores subject to severe earthquakes

volcanism: limited volcanic activity in the Azores Islands; Fayal or Faial (1,043 m) last erupted in 1958; most volcanoes have not erupted in centuries; historically active volcanoes include Agua de Pau, Furnas, Pico, Picos Volcanic System, San Jorge, Sete Cidades, and Terceira

Geography - note

Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar; they are two of the four North Atlantic archipelagos that make up Macaronesia; the others are the Canary Islands (Spain) and Cabo Verde

People and Society


10,223,150 (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 91


noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)

adjective: Portuguese

Ethnic groups

Portuguese 95%; citizens from Portugal’s former colonies in Africa, Asia (Han Chinese), and South America (Brazilian) and other foreign born 5%


Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official, but locally used)


Roman Catholic 79.7%, Protestant 2.2%, other Christian 2.5%, other non-Christian, 1.1%, none 14.5% (2021 est.)

note: data represent population 15 years of age and older

Age structure

0-14 years: 12.85% (male 672,673/female 641,409)

15-64 years: 65.18% (male 3,274,201/female 3,389,374)

65 years and over: 21.96% (2023 est.) (male 895,576/female 1,349,917)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 56

youth dependency ratio: 20.8

elderly dependency ratio: 35.2

potential support ratio: 2.8 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 44.6 years

male: 42.7 years

female: 46.5 years (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 13

Population growth rate

-0.17% (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 209

Birth rate

7.99 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 216

Death rate

10.9 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 24

Net migration rate

1.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 61

Population distribution

concentrations are primarily along or near the Atlantic coast; both Lisbon and the second largest city, Porto, are coastal cities


urban population: 67.9% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.44% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

3.001 million LISBON (capital), 1.325 million Porto (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female

total population: 0.9 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.9 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

12 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 141

Infant mortality rate

total: 2.47 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 2.83 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: total 216

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 81.71 years

male: 78.6 years

female: 84.98 years (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: total population 39

Total fertility rate

1.44 children born/woman (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 212

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 99.7% of population

total: 99.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0.3% of population

total: 0.1% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

10.6% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

5.48 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

3.5 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.9% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 99.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.1% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0.1% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

20.8% (2016)

comparison ranking: 95

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 10.37 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 2.62 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 6.04 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 1.34 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.37 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 20

Tobacco use

total: 25.4% (2020 est.)

male: 30.5% (2020 est.)

female: 20.2% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 47

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

0.4% (2015/16)

comparison ranking: 128

Education expenditures

5% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 76


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 95.9%

male: 97.8%

female: 95.9% (2021)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 17 years

male: 17 years

female: 17 years (2020)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 23.1%

male: 20.6%

female: 26.2% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 69


Environment - current issues

soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in urban centers and coastal areas

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban


maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south

Land use

agricultural land: 39.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 11.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 7.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 20% (2018 est.)

forest: 37.8% (2018 est.)

other: 22.5% (2018 est.)


urban population: 67.9% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.44% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.13% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 108

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 82

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 7.87 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 48.74 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 10.93 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 4.71 million tons (2014 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 764,433 tons (2014 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 16.2% (2014 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 880 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 1.83 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 3.42 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

77.4 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Portuguese Republic

conventional short form: Portugal

local long form: Republica Portuguesa

local short form: Portugal

etymology: name derives from the Roman designation "Portus Cale" meaning "Port of Cale"; Cale was an ancient Celtic town and port in present-day northern Portugal

Government type

semi-presidential republic


name: Lisbon

geographic coordinates: 38 43 N, 9 08 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

time zone note: Portugal has two time zones, including the Azores (UTC-1)

etymology: Lisbon is one of Europe's oldest cities (the second oldest capital city after Athens) and the origin of the name is lost in time; it may have been founded as an ancient Celtic settlement that subsequently maintained close commercial relations with the Phoenicians (beginning about 1200 B.C.); the name of the settlement may have been derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus River that runs through the city, Lisso or Lucio; the Romans named the city "Olisippo" when they took it from the Carthaginians in 205 B.C.; under the Visigoths the city name became "Ulixbona," under the Arabs it was "al-Ushbuna"; the medieval version of "Lissabona" became today's Lisboa

Administrative divisions

18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa (Lisbon), Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu


1143 (Kingdom of Portugal recognized); 1 December 1640 (independence reestablished following 60 years of Spanish rule); 5 October 1910 (republic proclaimed)

National holiday

Portugal Day (Dia de Portugal), 10 June (1580); note - also called Camoes Day, the day that revered national poet Luis DE CAMOES (1524-80) died


history: several previous; latest adopted 2 April 1976, effective 25 April 1976

amendments: proposed by the Assembly of the Republic; adoption requires two-thirds majority vote of Assembly members; amended several times, last in 2005

Legal system

civil law system; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Portugal

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years; 6 years if from a Portuguese-speaking country


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (since 9 March 2016)

head of government: Prime Minister Antonio Luis Santos da COSTA (since 24 November 2015)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 January 2021 (next to be held in January 2026); following legislative elections the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president

election results:
2021: Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (PSD) 60.7%, Ana GOMES (ran as an independent but is a member of PS) 13%, Andre VENTURA (CH) 11.9%, João FERREIRA (PCP-PEV) 4.3%, other 10.1%

2016: Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA elected president; percent of vote - Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (PSD) 52%, António SAMPAIO DA NOVOA (independent) 22.9%, Marisa MATIAS (BE) 10.1%, Maria DE BELEM ROSEIRA (PS) 4.2%, other 10.8%


note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; 226 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed-list proportional representation vote and 4 members - 2 each in 2 constituencies representing Portuguese living abroad - directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 30 January 2022 (next to be held in January 2026); note - early elections were called after parliament was dissolved on 3 November 2021 because of the 27 October 2021 rejection of the government's budget

election results: percent of vote by party - PS 42.5%, PSD 28.4%, Enough 7.4%, IL 5%, BE 4.5%, PCP-PEV 4.4%, other 7.8%; seats by party - PS 120, PSD 72, Enough 12, IL 8, PCP-PEV 6, BE 5, other 3; composition - men 145, women 85, percent of women 37%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of 12 justices); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 13 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president and appointed by the Assembly of the Republic; judges can serve for life; Constitutional Court judges - 10 elected by the Assembly and 3 elected by the other Constitutional Court judges; judges elected for 6-year nonrenewable terms

subordinate courts: Supreme Administrative Court (Supremo Tribunal Administrativo); Audit Court (Tribunal de Contas); appellate, district, and municipal courts

Political parties and leaders

Democratic Alliance (2022 electoral alliance in the Azores, includes PSD, CDS-PP, PPM)
Democratic and Social Center/People's Party (Partido do Centro Democratico Social-Partido Popular) or CDS-PP [Nuno MELO]
Ecologist Party "The Greens" or "Os Verdes" (Partido Ecologista-Os Verdes) or PEV [Heloisa APOLONIA]
Enough (Chega) [Andre VENTURA]
Liberal Initiative (Iniciativa Liberal) or IL [Joao COTRIM DE FIGUEIREDO]
Madeira First (2022 electoral alliance in Madeira, includes PSD, CDS-PP)
People-Animals-Nature Party (Pessoas-Animais-Natureza) or PAN [Ines SOUSA REAL]
People's Monarchist Party or PPM [Gonçalo DA CAMARA PEREIRA]
Portuguese Communist Party (Partido Comunista Portugues) or PCP [Jeronimo DE SOUSA]
Social Democratic Party (Partido Social Democrata) or PSD [Luis MONTENEGRO] (formerly the Partido Popular Democratico or PPD)
Socialist Party (Partido Socialista) or PS [Paulo RAIMUNDO]
The Left Bloc (Bloco de Esquerda) or BE or O Bloco [Catarina MARTINS]
Unitary Democratic Coalition (Coligacao Democratica Unitaria) or CDU [Jeronimo DE SOUSA] (includes PCP and PEV)

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CERN, CPLP, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Francisco Antonio DUARTE LOPES (since 7 June 2022)

chancery: 2012 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 350-5400

FAX: [1] (202) 462-3726

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Boston, Newark (NJ), New York, San Francisco

consulate(s): New Bedford (MA), Providence (RI)

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Randi Charno LEVINE (since 22 April 2022)

embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600-081 Lisboa

mailing address: 5320 Lisbon Place, Washington DC  20521-5320

telephone: [351] (21) 727-3300

FAX: [351] (21) 726-9109

email address and website:

consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)

Flag description

two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the national coat of arms (armillary sphere and Portuguese shield) centered on the dividing line; explanations for the color meanings are ambiguous, but a popular interpretation has green symbolizing hope and red the blood of those defending the nation

National symbol(s)

armillary sphere (a spherical astrolabe modeling objects in the sky and representing the Republic); national colors: red, green

National anthem

name: "A Portugesa" (The Song of the Portuguese)

lyrics/music: Henrique LOPES DE MENDOCA/Alfredo KEIL

note: adopted 1910; "A Portuguesa" was originally written to protest the Portuguese monarchy's acquiescence to the 1890 British ultimatum forcing Portugal to give up areas of Africa; the lyrics refer to the "insult" that resulted from the event

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 17 (16 cultural, 1 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Historic Évora (c); Central Zone of the Town of Angra do Heroismo in the Azores (c); Cultural Landscape of Sintra (c); Laurisilva of Madeira (n); Historic Guimarães (c); Monastery of the Hieronymites and Tower of Belém in Lisbon (c); Convent of Christ in Tomar (c); Prehistoric Rock Art Sites in the Côa Valley and Siega Verde (c); University of Coimbra – Alta and Sofia (c); Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Monte in Braga (c)


Economic overview

fast-growing, high-income European economy; EU and NATO member; heavy Chinese infrastructure ownership; key tourism, banking, and telecommunications sectors; declining populations; major energy exporter

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$347.694 billion (2021 est.)
$329.623 billion (2020 est.)
$359.46 billion (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 53

Real GDP growth rate

5.48% (2021 est.)
-8.3% (2020 est.)
2.68% (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 83

Real GDP per capita

$33,700 (2021 est.)
$32,000 (2020 est.)
$34,900 (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 63

GDP (official exchange rate)

$237.698 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.27% (2021 est.)
-0.01% (2020 est.)
0.34% (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 188

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BBB (2007)

Moody's rating: Baa3 (2018)

Standard & Poors rating: BBB (2019)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2.2% (2017 est.)

industry: 22.1% (2017 est.)

services: 75.7% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 44; industry 130; agriculture 170

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 65.1% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 17.6% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 16.2% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 43.1% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -42.1% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, tomatoes, olives, grapes, maize, potatoes, pork, apples, oranges, poultry


textiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper and pulp, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, automobiles and auto parts, base metals, minerals, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; dairy products, wine, other foodstuffs; ship construction and refurbishment; tourism, plastics, financial services, optics

Industrial production growth rate

5.63% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: 80

Labor force

5.174 million (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: 81

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 8.6%

industry: 23.9%

services: 67.5% (2014 est.)

Unemployment rate

6.65% (2021 est.)
6.79% (2020 est.)
6.46% (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 117

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 23.1%

male: 20.6%

female: 26.2% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 69

Average household expenditures

on food: 16.6% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 3.2% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.6%

highest 10%: 25.9% (2015 est.)


revenues: $102.052 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $101.854 billion (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 133

Public debt

125.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
129.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

comparison ranking: 13

Taxes and other revenues

22.04% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 70

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$2.987 billion (2021 est.)
-$2.292 billion (2020 est.)
$1.013 billion (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 173


$105.648 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$85.128 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$104.846 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

comparison ranking: 43

Exports - partners

Spain 26%, France 12%, Germany 12%, United States 6%, United Kingdom 5% (2021)

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, leather footwear, tires, paper (2021)


$112.413 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$89.515 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$103.009 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

comparison ranking: 42

Imports - partners

Spain 31%, Germany 12%, France 6%, Italy 5%, Netherlands 5% (2021)

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, packaged medicines, natural gas (2021)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$32.535 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$29.46 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$25.003 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 59

Debt - external

$462.431 billion (2019 est.)
$483.206 billion (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 27

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)
0.885 (2017 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)


installed generating capacity: 22.364 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 48.409 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 6.097 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 7.553 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 5.269 billion kWh (2020 est.)

comparison rankings: transmission/distribution losses 45; imports 31; exports 31; consumption 52; installed generating capacity 43

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 39% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 3.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 23.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 26.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 7.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)


production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 957,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 1,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 238,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 36 million metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 8,000 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 249,100 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 255,400 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

323,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 39

Refined petroleum products - exports

143,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 36

Refined petroleum products - imports

78,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 64

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 5.94 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 6.09 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

50.37 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 4.882 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 33.429 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 12.059 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 57

Energy consumption per capita

101.734 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 57


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 5,318,750 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 52 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 24

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 12,476,165 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 121 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 80

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Portugal has a medium-sized telecom market with a strong mobile sector and a growing broadband customer base; before the pandemic, the country had seen improving economic growth, following several years of austerity measures; revenue among some operators remains under pressure, though investments in network upgrades are continuing in an effort to attract customers to high-end services; Portugal’s broadband services have grown steadily in recent years, largely the result of joint efforts between the regulator and the key market operators which have invested in significant infrastructure upgrades; these operators are focused on fiber-based services, resulting in a migration of subscribers from digital subscriber line DSL infrastructure; the government has also supported open-access wholesale networks; the mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) market remains largely undeveloped, partly because network operators have their own low-cost brands; collectively, MVNOs have about 2.9% share of the market; population coverage by 3G infrastructure is universal, and most investment in the sector is being directed to LTE and 5G technologies; the MNOs have trialed 5G and are looking to launch commercial services (2021)

domestic: fixed-lineis 52 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular is 121 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 351; landing points for the Ella Link, BUGIO, EIG, SAT-3/WASC, SeaMeWe-3, Equino, MainOne, Tat TGN-Western Europe, WACS, ACE, Atlantis2 and Columbus-III submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Southeast Asia, Australia, South America and the US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores (2019)

Broadcast media

Radio e Televisao de Portugal, the publicly owned TV broadcaster, operates 4 domestic channels and external service channels to Africa; overall, roughly 40 domestic TV stations; viewers have widespread access to international broadcasters with more than half of all households connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV systems; publicly owned radio operates 3 national networks and provides regional and external services; several privately owned national radio stations and some 300 regional and local commercial radio stations

Internet users

total: 8.2 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 82% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 73

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 4,160,795 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 41 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 37


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 10 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 168

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 17,367,956 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 454.21 million (2018) mt-km


64 (2021)

comparison ranking: total 76

Airports - with paved runways


note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports - with unpaved runways


note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control


1,344 km gas, 11 km oil, 188 km refined products (2013)


total: 2,526 km (2020) 1,696 km electrified

comparison ranking: total 65


total: 82,900 km (2008)

paved: 71,294 km (2008) (includes 2,613 km of expressways)

unpaved: 11,606 km (2008)

comparison ranking: total 59


210 km (2011) (on Douro River from Porto)

comparison ranking: 105

Merchant marine

total: 820

by type: bulk carrier 103, container ship 290, general cargo 175, oil tanker 28, other 224 (2022)

comparison ranking: total 30

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Leixoes, Lisbon, Setubal, Sines

container port(s) (TEUs): Sines (1,420,000) (2019)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Sines

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Portuguese Armed Forces (Forças Armadas): Portuguese Army (Exercito Portuguesa), Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa; includes Marine Corps, aka Corpo de Fuzileiros or Corps of Fusiliers), Portuguese Air Force (Forca Aerea Portuguesa, FAP)

Ministry of Internal Administration: Foreigners and Borders Service, Public Security Service, National Republican Guard (Guarda Nacional Republicana, GNR) (2023)

note: the Foreigners and Borders Service has jurisdiction over immigration and border matters, the Public Security Police has jurisdiction in cities, and the GNR has jurisdiction in rural areas; the GNR is a national gendarmerie force comprised of military personnel with law enforcement, internal security, civil defense, disaster response, and coast guard duties; it is responsible to both the Ministry of Internal Administration and to the Ministry of National Defense; it is not part of the Armed Forces, but may be placed under the operational command of the Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces in the event of a national emergency; the GNR describes itself as a hinge between the Armed Forces and the police forces and other security services

Military expenditures

1.5% of GDP (2023 est.)
1.4% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.5% of GDP (2021)
1.4% of GDP (2020)
1.4% of GDP (2019)

comparison ranking: 89

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 27,000 active duty personnel (14,000 Army; 7,000 Navy, including about 1,000 marines; 6,000 Air Force); 24,500 National Republican Guard (military personnel) (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory includes mostly European- and US-origin weapons systems along with a smaller mix of domestically produced equipment; in recent years, leading foreign suppliers have included Germany and the US; Portugal's defense industry is primarily focused on shipbuilding (2023)

Military service age and obligation

18-30 years of age for voluntary or contract military service; no compulsory military service (abolished 2004) but conscription possible if insufficient volunteers available; women serve in the armed forces but are prohibited from serving in some combatant specialties; contract service lasts for an initial period of 2-6 years, and can be extended to a maximum of 20 years of service; initial voluntary military service lasts 12 months; reserve obligation to age 35 (2023)

note: as of 2019, women made up about 12% of the military's full-time personnel

Military deployments

225 Central African Republic (MINUSCA/EUTM); approximately 200 Lithuania (NATO); approximately 230 Romania (NATO) (2023)

note 1: in 2021, Portugal deployed about 80 troops to Mozambique to assist with the EU training mission

note 2: in response to Russia’s 2022 invasion of Ukraine, some NATO countries, including Portugal, have sent additional troops to the battlegroups deployed in NATO territory in eastern Europe

note 3: Portugal also participates in several NATO maritime and air policing operations, as well as some EU international missions

Military - note

the Portuguese military is an all-volunteer and professional force with the primary responsibilities of external defense, humanitarian operations, and fulfilling Portugal’s commitments to European and international security; Portugal was one of the original signers of the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty) in 1949 establishing NATO, and the Alliance forms a key pillar of Portugal’s defense policy; Portugal is also a signatory of the EU’s Common Security and Defense Policy, and it regularly participates in a variety of EU, NATO, and UN deployments around the world; the military’s largest commitments include air, ground, and naval forces under NATO-led missions and standing task forces in the Baltics, Eastern Europe, and the Mediterranean Sea; the military also participates regularly in exercises with NATO partners 

Portugal has had a standing army since the 1570s; the modern-day Army’s primary combat forces are a heavy mechanized brigade, a light mechanized “intervention” brigade, and a rapid reaction brigade comprised of commandos, paratroopers, and special forces; there are also garrison units in the Azores and Madeira 

Portugal’s Navy is one of the oldest in the world, having been permanently established in in the 1300s, and maritime security has long been a key component of the military’s portfolio; the current Navy has a wide variety of missions in addition to war fighting, such as combating piracy, evacuating national citizens from conflict zones, fishery inspections, maritime interdiction, search and rescue,  providing support to other domestic security agencies, and assisting with scientific research; its principal warships are 11 frigates, corvettes, and offshore patrol ships, and two attack-type submarines; the Navy also has a small marine force, which constitutes the Navy’s commando and special operations component 

the Air Force was formed in 1952 although the first flying unit was created in 1911; the current Air Force has about 20 US-made fighter aircraft, as well as reconnaissance and surveillance, maritime patrol, transport, search and rescue, and firefighting fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft (2023)


Space agency/agencies

Portugal Space (aka Portuguese Space Agency or Agência Espacial Portuguesa; established 2019); Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT; government agency that funds space research established in 2009) (2023)

Space launch site(s)

in 2019, announced intentions to build a commercial space port on Santa Maria Island in the Azores (2023)

Space program overview

has a national space program which is is integrated within the framework of the European Space Agency (ESA); builds and operates satellites; researches and develops a range of space-related technologies with an emphasis on small/micro/nano satellites for remote sensing (RS), navigation, science/technology, and telecommunications, as well as satellite launch services; in addition to the ESA/EU and their member states, cooperates with the space agencies and industries of a variety of countries, including those of Algeria, Brazil, China, India, Japan, Morocco, South Korea, and the US, as well as such international organizations and projects as the Europe South Observatory (ESO) and the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) Observatory project; Portugal Space acts as a business and development unit for universities, research entities and companies (2023)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S


Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Portugal-Spain: Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 58,275 (Ukraine) (as of 4 June 2023)

stateless persons: 55 (2022)

Illicit drugs

a European gateway for Southwest Asian heroin; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin