Photos of Argentina

The Rio Parana in Argentina (running north-south through image center) appears brown from its sediment; it eventually drains into the Delta del Parana and the Rio de la Plata estuary. Where the Rio de la Plata empties into the Atlantic, the brown, sediment-filled river water mixes with clearer ocean water and creates swirls and cloudy formations. Visible in this image (in gray) is Buenos Aires, the capital city of Argentina, located where the Rio Parana meets the Rio de la Plata. Montevideo, Uruguay's capital, is located on the opposite side of the Rio de la Plata. Photo courtesy of NASA.



In 1816, the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata declared their independence from Spain. After Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay went their separate ways, the area that remained became Argentina. European immigrants heavily shaped the country's population and culture, with Italy and Spain providing the largest percentage of newcomers from 1860 to 1930. Until about the mid-20th century, much of Argentina's history was dominated by periods of internal political unrest and conflict between civilian and military factions.

After World War II, former President Juan Domingo PERÓN -- the founder of the Peronist political movement -- introduced an era of populism, serving three non-consecutive terms in office until his death in 1974. Direct and indirect military interference in government throughout the PERÓN years led to a military junta taking power in 1976. In 1982, the junta failed in its bid to seize the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) by force from the United Kingdom. Democracy was reinstated in 1983 and has persisted despite numerous challenges, the most formidable of which was a severe economic crisis in 2001-02 that led to violent public protests and the successive resignations of several presidents. The years 2003-15 saw Peronist rule by Néstor KIRCHNER (2003-07) and his spouse Cristina FERNÁNDEZ DE KIRCHNER (2007-15), who oversaw several years of strong economic growth (2003-11) followed by a gradual deterioration in the government’s fiscal situation and eventual economic stagnation and isolation. Argentina underwent a brief period of economic reform and international reintegration under Mauricio MACRI (2015-19), but a recession in 2018-19 and frustration with MACRI’s economic policies ushered in a new Peronist government in 2019 led by President Alberto FERNÁNDEZ and Vice President Cristina FERNÁNDEZ DE KIRCHNER. Argentina's high public debts, its pandemic-related inflationary pressures, and systemic monetary woes served as the catalyst for the 2023 elections, culminating with President Javier MILEI's electoral success. Argentina has since eliminated half of its government agencies and is seeking shock therapy to amend taxation and monetary policies.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay

Geographic coordinates

34 00 S, 64 00 W

Map references

South America


total: 2,780,400 sq km

land: 2,736,690 sq km

water: 43,710 sq km

comparison ranking: total 9

Area - comparative

slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 11,968 km

border countries (5): Bolivia 942 km; Brazil 1,263 km; Chile 6,691 km; Paraguay 2,531 km; Uruguay 541 km


4,989 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin


mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest


rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border


highest point: Cerro Aconcagua (located in the northwestern corner of the province of Mendoza; highest point in South America) 6,962 m

lowest point: Laguna del Carbón (located between Puerto San Julián and Comandante Luis Piedra Buena in the province of Santa Cruz) -105 m

mean elevation: 595 m

Natural resources

fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 53.9% (2018 est.)

arable land: 13.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 39.6% (2018 est.)

forest: 10.7% (2018 est.)

other: 35.4% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

23,600 sq km (2012)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Lago Buenos Aires (shared with Chile) - 2,240 sq km; Lago Argentino - 1,410 sq km; Lago Viedma - 1,090 sq km; Lago San Martín (shared with Chile) - 1,010 sq km; Lago Colhué Huapi - 800 sq km; Lago Fagnano (shared with Chile) - 590 sq km; Lago Nahuel Huapi - 550 sq km

salt water lake(s): Laguna Mar Chiquita - 1,850 sq km;

Major rivers (by length in km)

Río de la Plata/Paraná river mouth (shared with Brazil [s], Paraguay, and Uruguay) - 4,880 km; Paraguay (shared with Brazil [s], and Paraguay [m]) - 2,549 km; Uruguay (shared with Brazil [s] and Uruguay [m]) - 1,610 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Paraná (2,582,704 sq km)

Major aquifers

Guaraní Aquifer System

Population distribution

one-third of the population lives in Buenos Aires; pockets of agglomeration occur throughout the northern and central parts of the country; Patagonia to the south remains sparsely populated

Natural hazards

San Miguel de Tucumán and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the pampas and northeast; heavy flooding in some areas

volcanism: volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains along the Chilean border; Copahue (2,997 m) last erupted in 2000; other historically active volcanoes include Llullaillaco, Maipo, Planchón-Peteroa, San José, Tromen, Tupungatito, and Viedma

Geography - note

note 1: second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); diverse geophysical landscapes range from tropical climates in the north to tundra in the far south; Cerro Aconcagua is the Western Hemisphere's tallest mountain, while Laguna del Carbón is the lowest point in the Western Hemisphere; shares Iguazú Falls, the world's largest waterfalls system, with Brazil

note 2: southeast Bolivia and northwest Argentina seem to be the original development site for peanuts

People and Society


total: 46,994,384

male: 23,274,794

female: 23,719,590 (2024 est.)

comparison rankings: female 33; male 33; total 34


noun: Argentine(s)

adjective: Argentine

Ethnic groups

European (mostly Spanish and Italian descent) and Mestizo (mixed European and Indigenous ancestry) 97.2%, Indigenous 2.4%, African descent 0.4% (2010 est.)


Spanish (official), Italian, English, German, French, indigenous (Quechua, Guarani, Mapudungun)

major-language sample(s):
La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Spanish audio sample:


Roman Catholic 62.9%, Evangelical 15.3% (Pentecostal 13%, other Evangelical 2.3%), Jehovah's Witness and Church of Jesus Christ 1.4%, other 1.2% (includes Muslim, Jewish), none 18.9% (includes agnostic and atheist), unspecified 0.3% (2019 est.)

Demographic profile

Argentina's population continues to grow but at a slower rate because of its steadily declining birth rate. Argentina's fertility decline began earlier than in the rest of Latin America, occurring most rapidly between the early 20th century and the 1950s, and then becoming more gradual. Life expectancy has been improving, most notably among the young and the poor. While the population under age 15 is shrinking, the youth cohort - ages 15-24 - is the largest in Argentina's history and will continue to bolster the working-age population. If this large working-age population is well-educated and gainfully employed, Argentina is likely to experience an economic boost and possibly higher per capita savings and investment. Although literacy and primary school enrollment are nearly universal, grade repetition is problematic and secondary school completion is low. Both of these issues vary widely by region and socioeconomic group.

Argentina has been primarily a country of immigration for most of its history, welcoming European immigrants (often providing needed low-skilled labor) after its independence in the 19th century and attracting especially large numbers from Spain and Italy. More than 7 million European immigrants are estimated to have arrived in Argentina between 1880 and 1930, when it adopted a more restrictive immigration policy. European immigration also began to wane in the 1930s because of the global depression. The inflow rebounded temporarily following WWII and resumed its decline in the 1950s when Argentina's military dictators tightened immigration rules and European economies rebounded. Regional migration increased, however, supplying low-skilled workers escaping economic and political instability in their home countries. As of 2015, immigrants made up almost 5% of Argentina's population, the largest share in South America. Migration from neighboring countries accounted for approximately 80% of Argentina's immigrant population in 2015.

The first waves of highly skilled Argentine emigrant workers headed mainly to the United States and Spain in the 1960s and 1970s, driven by economic decline and repressive military dictatorships. The 2008 European economic crisis drove the return migration of some Argentinean and other Latin American nationals, as well as the immigration of Europeans to South America, where Argentina was a key recipient. In 2015, Argentina received the highest number of legal migrants in Latin America and the Caribbean. The majority of its migrant inflow came from Paraguay and Bolivia.

Age structure

0-14 years: 23.3% (male 5,632,983/female 5,301,778)

15-64 years: 63.9% (male 15,071,215/female 14,956,069)

65 years and over: 12.8% (2024 est.) (male 2,570,596/female 3,461,743)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 54.3

youth dependency ratio: 36

elderly dependency ratio: 18.2

potential support ratio: 5.5 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 33.3 years (2024 est.)

male: 32.1 years

female: 34.6 years

comparison ranking: total 112

Population growth rate

0.79% (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 110

Birth rate

15.2 births/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 107

Death rate

7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 107

Net migration rate

-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 98

Population distribution

one-third of the population lives in Buenos Aires; pockets of agglomeration occur throughout the northern and central parts of the country; Patagonia to the south remains sparsely populated


urban population: 92.5% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.97% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

15.490 million BUENOS AIRES (capital), 1.612 million Córdoba, 1.594 million Rosario, 1.226 million Mendoza, 1.027 million San Miguel de Tucumán, 914,000 La Plata (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2024 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

45 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 98

Infant mortality rate

total: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (2024 est.)

male: 9.9 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 7.9 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 140

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 78.8 years (2024 est.)

male: 75.8 years

female: 82 years

comparison ranking: total population 72

Total fertility rate

2.15 children born/woman (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 89

Gross reproduction rate

1.04 (2024 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.8% of population

rural: NA

total: NA

unimproved: urban: 0.2% of population

rural: NA

total: (2020 est.) NA

Physicians density

4.06 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

5 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: NA

total: NA

unimproved: rural: NA

total: (2020 est.) NA

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

28.3% (2016)

comparison ranking: 31

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 7.95 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 3.62 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 2.88 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.72 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.72 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 45

Tobacco use

total: 24.5% (2020 est.)

male: 29.4% (2020 est.)

female: 19.6% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 53

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

1.7% (2018/19)

comparison ranking: 111

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 2.4%

women married by age 18: 15.5% (2020 est.)

Education expenditures

5% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 79


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99%

male: 98.9%

female: 99.1% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 18 years

male: 17 years

female: 20 years (2020)


Environment - current issues

environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an industrializing economy such as deforestation, soil degradation (erosion, salinization), desertification, air pollution, and water pollution

Environment - international agreements

party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Marine Life Conservation


mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest

Land use

agricultural land: 53.9% (2018 est.)

arable land: 13.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 39.6% (2018 est.)

forest: 10.7% (2018 est.)

other: 35.4% (2018 est.)


urban population: 92.5% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.97% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.09% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 115

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 72

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 12.04 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 201.35 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 120.66 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 17,910,550 tons (2014 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 1,074,633 tons (2010 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 6% (2010 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Lago Buenos Aires (shared with Chile) - 2,240 sq km; Lago Argentino - 1,410 sq km; Lago Viedma - 1,090 sq km; Lago San Martín (shared with Chile) - 1,010 sq km; Lago Colhué Huapi - 800 sq km; Lago Fagnano (shared with Chile) - 590 sq km; Lago Nahuel Huapi - 550 sq km

salt water lake(s): Laguna Mar Chiquita - 1,850 sq km;

Major rivers (by length in km)

Río de la Plata/Paraná river mouth (shared with Brazil [s], Paraguay, and Uruguay) - 4,880 km; Paraguay (shared with Brazil [s], and Paraguay [m]) - 2,549 km; Uruguay (shared with Brazil [s] and Uruguay [m]) - 1,610 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Paraná (2,582,704 sq km)

Major aquifers

Guaraní Aquifer System

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 5.85 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 4 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 27.93 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

876.24 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Argentine Republic

conventional short form: Argentina

local long form: República Argentina

local short form: Argentina

etymology: originally the area was referred to as Tierra Argentina, i.e., "Land beside the Silvery River" or "silvery land," which referred to the massive estuary in the east of the country, the Río de la Plata (River of Silver); over time the name shortened to simply Argentina or "silvery"

Government type

presidential republic


name: Buenos Aires

geographic coordinates: 34 36 S, 58 22 W

time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: the name translates as "fair winds" in Spanish and derives from the original designation of the settlement that would become the present-day city, "Santa Maria del Buen Aire" (Saint Mary of the Fair Winds)

Administrative divisions

23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 autonomous city*; Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires*, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur (Tierra del Fuego - Antarctica and the South Atlantic Islands), Tucuman

note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica


9 July 1816 (from Spain)

National holiday

Revolution Day (May Revolution Day), 25 May (1810)


history: several previous; latest effective 11 May 1853

amendments: a declaration of proposed amendments requires two-thirds majority vote by both houses of the National Congress followed by approval by an ad hoc, multi-member constitutional convention; amended several times, last significant amendment in 1994

Legal system

civil law system based on West European legal systems; note - in mid-2015, Argentina adopted a new civil code, replacing the old one in force since 1871

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: yes

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years


18-70 years of age; universal and compulsory; 16-17 years of age - optional for national elections

Executive branch

chief of state: President Javier Gerardo MILEI (since 10 December 2023); Vice President Victoria Eugenia VILLARRUEL (since 10 December 2023); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Javier Gerardo MILEI (since 10 December 2023); Vice President Victoria Eugenia VILLARRUEL (since 10 December 2023)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by qualified majority vote (to win, a candidate must receive at least 45% of votes or 40% of votes and a 10-point lead over the second place candidate; if neither occurs, a second round is held ); the president serves a 4-year term (eligible for a second consecutive term); election last held on 22 October 2023 with a runoff held 19 November 2023 (next to be held in October 2027)

election results:

2023: Javier Gerardo MILEI elected president in second round; percent vote in first round - Sergio Tomás MASSA (FR) 36.7%, Javier Gerardo MILEI (PL) 30%, Patricia BULLRICH 23.8% (JxC/PRO), Juan SCHIARETTI (PJ) 6.8%, Myriam BREGMAN (PTS) 2.7%; percent of vote in second round - Javier Gerardo MILEI 55.7%, Sergio Tomás MASSA 44.3%

Alberto Ángel FERNÁNDEZ elected president; percent of vote - Alberto Angel FERNÁNDEZ (TODOS) 48.1%, Mauricio MACRI (PRO) 40.4%, Roberto LAVAGNA (independent) 6.2%, other 5.3%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of:
Senate or Senado (72 seats; members directly elected from 24 provincial districts by closed-list proportional representation vote; 2 seats per district awarded to the party with the most votes and 1 seat per district to the party with the second highest votes; members serve 6-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years)
Chamber of Deputies or Cámara de Diputados (257 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed-list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 2 years)

elections: Senate - last held on 22 October 2023 (next to be held in October 2025)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 22 October 2023 (next to be held in October 2025)

election results:

Senate - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - UP 12, LLA 8, JxC 2, other 2; composition - men 39, women 33, percentage women 45.8%

Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - UP 58, LLA 35, JxC 31, NHP  4, other 2; composition - men 148, women 109, percentage women 42.4%; total National Congress percentage women 43.2%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (consists of the court president, vice president, 2 judges, 1 vacancy)

judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the president and approved by the Senate; ministers can serve until mandatory retirement at age 75; extensions beyond 75 require renomination by the president and approval by the Senate

subordinate courts: federal level appellate, district, and territorial courts; provincial level supreme, appellate, and first instance courts

Political parties and leaders

Avanza Libertad or AL [José Luis ESPERT]
Civic Coalition ARI or CC-ARI [Elisa CARRIÓ, Maximiliano FERRARO]
Consenso Federal (Federal Consensus) or CF [Roberto LAVAGNA, Juan Manuel URTUBEY]
Frente Cívico por Santiago (Civic Front for Santiago) [Gerardo ZAMORA]
Frente de Izquierda y de los Trabajadores – Unidad (Workers' Left Front) or FIT-U [Nicolás DEL CAÑO, Miriam BREGMAN] (coalition of leftist parties in lower house; includes PTS, PO, and MST)
Frente de la Concordia Misionero (Front for the Renewal of Social Concord) or FRCS [Carlos Eduardo ROVIRA]
Frente Renovador (Renewal Front) or FR [Sergio MASSA, Pablo MIROLO]
Generación por un Encuentro Nacional (Generation for a National Encounter) or GEN [Margarita STOLBIZER]
Hacemos por Córdoba (We do for Cordoba) or HC [Juan SCHIARETTI]
Hacemos por Nuestro Pais (We Do For Our Country) or NHP [Juan SCHIARETTI]
Juntos por el Cambio (Together for Change) or JxC [Patricia BULLRICH, Horacio Rodríguez LARRETA, Mauricio MACRI] (includes CC-ARI, PRO, and UCR); note - primary opposition coalition since 2019
Juntos Somos Río Negro (Together We Are Rio Negro) or JSRN [Alberto WERETILNECK]   
Partido Justicialista (Justicialist Party) or PJ [Alberto Angel FERNÁNDEZ]
La Cámpora [Maximo KIRCHNER]
La Libertad Avanza (The Liberty Advances) or LLA [Javier MILEI]
Movimiento Popular Neuquino (Neuquén People's Movement) or MPN [Omar GUTIÉRREZ]
Movimiento Socialista de los Trabajadores (Workers' Socialist Movement) or MST [Vilma RIPOLL, Alejandro BODART]
Partido de los Trabajadores Socialistas (Socialist Workers' Party) or PTS [Nicolás DEL CAÑO]
Partido Demócrata (Democratic Party) or PDN [Victoria VILLARRUEL]
Partido Libertario (Libertarian Party) or PL [Javier MILEI]; note - party is also a founding member of the coalition La Libertad Avanza, which is also led by MILEI
Partido Obrero (Workers' Party) or PO [Gabriel SOLANO]
Partido Socialista or PS [Mónica Haydée FEIN]
Propuesta Republicana (Republican Proposal) or PRO [Mauricio MACRI]
Unidad Federal (coalition of provencial parties in the lower house; includes FRCS and JSRN)
Unión Cívica Radical (Radical Civic Union) or UCR [Gerardo Rubén MORALES]
Unión por la Patria (Union for the Homeland) or UP (formerly Frente de Todos (Everyone's Front) or FdT) [Alberto FERNÁNDEZ, Cristina FERNÁNDEZ DE KIRCHNER] (includes FR, La Cámpora, and PJ); note - ruling coalition since 2019; includes several national and provincial Peronist political parties
Vamos con Vos (Let's Go with You) or VcV [Florencio RANDAZZO]

International organization participation

AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (associate), CD, CABEI, CELAC, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, PROSUR, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNHRC, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNOOSA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d'Affaires Adrián Roberto NADOR (since 7 December 2023)

chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 238-6400

FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Marc Robert STANLEY (since 24 January 2022)

Avenida Colombia 4300, (C1425GMN) Buenos Aires

mailing address: 3130 Buenos Aires Place, Washington DC  20521-3130

telephone: [54] (11) 5777-4533

FAX: [54] (11) 5777-4240

email address and website:

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of sky blue (top), white, and sky blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human face (delineated in brown) known as the Sun of May; the colors represent the clear skies and snow of the Andes; the sun symbol commemorates the appearance of the sun through cloudy skies on 25 May 1810 during the first mass demonstration in favor of independence; the sun features are those of Inti, the Inca god of the sun

National symbol(s)

Sun of May (a sun-with-face symbol); national colors: sky blue, white

National anthem

name: "Himno Nacional Argentino" (Argentine National Anthem)

lyrics/music: Vicente LOPEZ y PLANES/Jose Blas PARERA

note: adopted 1813; Vicente LOPEZ was inspired to write the anthem after watching a play about the 1810 May Revolution against Spain

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 12 (7 cultural, 5 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Los Glaciares National Park (n); Jesuit Missions of the Guaranis (c); Iguazú National Park (n); Cueva de las Manos (c); Valdés Península (n); Ischigualasto/Talampaya National Parks (n); Jesuit Block and Estancias of Córdoba (c); Quebrada de Humahuaca (c); Qhapaq Ñan/Andean Road System (c)


Economic overview

large diversified economy; financial risks from debt obligations, rapid inflation, and reduced investor appetites; resource-rich, export-led growth model; increasing trade relations with China; G20 and OAS leader; tendency to nationalize businesses and under-report inflation

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.039 trillion (2022 est.)
$989.46 billion (2021 est.)
$893.675 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 29

Real GDP growth rate

4.96% (2022 est.)
10.72% (2021 est.)
-9.9% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 76

Real GDP per capita

$22,500 (2022 est.)
$21,600 (2021 est.)
$19,700 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 86

GDP (official exchange rate)

$631.133 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

25.7% (2017 est.)
26.5% (2016 est.)

note: data are derived from private estimates

comparison ranking: 205

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: CCC (2020)

Moody's rating: Ca (2020)

Standard & Poors rating: CCC+ (2020)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 10.8% (2017 est.)

industry: 28.1% (2017 est.)

services: 61.1% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 114; industry 94; agriculture 86

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 65.9% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 18.2% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 14.8% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 3.7% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 11.2% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -13.8% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

maize, soybeans, wheat, sugarcane, milk, barley, sunflower seeds, beef, sorghum, chicken (2022)

note: top ten agricultural products based on tonnage


food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

Industrial production growth rate

5.71% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 51

Labor force

21.511 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 31

Unemployment rate

6.81% (2022 est.)
8.74% (2021 est.)
11.46% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 137

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 29.9% (2021 est.)

male: 25%

female: 37.1%

comparison ranking: total 41

Population below poverty line

39.2% (2022 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

42 (2021 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

comparison ranking: 39

Average household expenditures

on food: 23.2% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 1.9% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.8%

highest 10%: 30.8% (2021 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population


0.2% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.18% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.17% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities


revenues: $150.823 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $170.725 billion (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 183

Public debt

57.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
55% of GDP (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 85

Taxes and other revenues

11.47% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 177

Current account balance

-$4.29 billion (2022 est.)
$6.645 billion (2021 est.)
$2.688 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 170


$103.002 billion (2022 est.)
$87.486 billion (2021 est.)
$64.437 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 50

Exports - partners

Brazil 15%, China 9%, US 8%, Chile 6%, India 5% (2022)

note: top five export partners based on percentage share of exports

Exports - commodities

soybean meal, corn, soybean oil, wheat, trucks (2022)

note: top five export commodities based on value in dollars


$97.558 billion (2022 est.)
$72.392 billion (2021 est.)
$52.343 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 48

Imports - partners

China 21%, Brazil 20%, US 14%, Germany 3%, Paraguay 2% (2022)

note: top five import partners based on percentage share of imports

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, vehicle parts/accessories, natural gas, fertilizers, cars (2022)

note: top five import commodities based on value in dollars

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$44.795 billion (2022 est.)
$39.653 billion (2021 est.)
$39.404 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 42

Debt - external

$278.524 billion (2019 est.)
$261.949 billion (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 33

Exchange rates

Argentine pesos (ARS) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
130.617 (2022 est.)
94.991 (2021 est.)
70.539 (2020 est.)
48.148 (2019 est.)
28.095 (2018 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)


installed generating capacity: 44.731 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 121,563,940,000 kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 261 million kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 7.802 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 20.74 billion kWh (2020 est.)

comparison rankings: transmission/distribution losses 193; imports 30; exports 83; consumption 31; installed generating capacity 27

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 65.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 7.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 6.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 17.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 1.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Nuclear energy

Number of operational nuclear reactors: 3 (2023)

Number of nuclear reactors under construction: 1

Net capacity of operational nuclear reactors: 1.64GW (2023)

Percent of total electricity production: 7.2% (2021)

Percent of total energy produced: 3.6% (2021)

Number of nuclear reactors permanently shut down: 0


production: 829,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 1.55 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 4,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 990,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 500 million metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 690,200 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 680,000 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 59,100 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 11,400 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 2,482,700,000 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

669,800 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 26

Refined petroleum products - exports

58,360 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 51

Refined petroleum products - imports

121,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 49

Natural gas

production: 41,194,148,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

consumption: 49,476,585,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 691.241 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

imports: 6,865,323,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 396.464 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

193.205 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 2.122 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 94.208 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 96.875 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 32

Energy consumption per capita

79.083 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 77


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 7.615 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 21

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 60.236 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 132 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 27

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Argentina’s ongoing problem with hyperinflation continues to distort the telecom market’s performance, which shows strong growth in revenue but only modest gains in subscriber numbers each year; the fixed broadband segment has penetration levels only slightly higher than the fixed-line teledensity; nearly a quarter of the country’s broadband connections are via DSL, although fiber is starting claim an increasing share of that market as networks expand across most of the main cities; mobile broadband continues to be the preferred platform for internet access, supported by high mobile penetration levels and nationwide LTE coverage; the first 5G service was launched in February 2021 using refarmed LTE frequencies; the anticipated 5G spectrum auctions should drive even stronger uptake in mobile broadband services; while the various fixed, mobile, and cable operators push to expand and enhance their services, the government is also making an active contribution towards boosting broadband connectivity around the country; its national connectivity plan ‘Plan Conectar’, launched in September 2020, provides funding for a range of programs to increase coverage; in August 2021, the telecom regulator announced the release funding to help operators accelerate the rollout of their broadband infrastructure and services (2021)

domestic: roughly 15 per 100 fixed-line and 130 per 100 mobile-cellular; microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network (2021)

international: country code - 54; landing points for the UNISUR, Bicentenario, Atlantis-2, SAm-1, and SAC, Tannat, Malbec and ARBR submarine cable systems that provide links to Europe, Africa, South and Central America, and US; satellite earth stations - 112 (2019)

Broadcast media

government owns a TV station and radio network; more than two dozen TV stations and hundreds of privately owned radio stations; high rate of cable TV subscription usage (2022)

Internet users

total: 39.15 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 87% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 25

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 9,571,562 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 21 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 20


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 6 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 107

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 18,081,937 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 311.57 million (2018) mt-km


756 (2024)

comparison ranking: 9


144 (2024)


29,930 km gas, 41 km liquid petroleum gas, 6,248 km oil, 3,631 km refined products (2013)


total: 17,866 km (2018)

comparison ranking: total 16


total: 240,000 km

paved: 81,355 km

unpaved: 158,645 km (2017)

comparison ranking: total 18


11,000 km (2012)

comparison ranking: 13

Merchant marine

total: 201 (2023)

by type: container ship 1, bulk carrier 1 general cargo 8, oil tanker 33, other 158

comparison ranking: total 66


total ports: 37 (2024)

large: 1

medium: 2

small: 10

very small: 24

ports with oil terminals: 19

key ports: Buenos Aires, Campana, Concepcion del Uruguay, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Puerto Belgrano, Puerto Ingeniero White, Puerto Madryn, Rosario, San Sebastian Bay, Santa Fe, Ushuaia, Zarate

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic (Fuerzas Armadas de la República Argentina): Argentine Army (Ejercito Argentino, EA), Navy of the Argentine Republic (Armada Republica, ARA; includes naval aviation and naval infantry), Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Argentina, FAA)

Ministry of Security: Gendarmería Nacional Argentina (National Gendarmerie), Coast Guard (Prefectura Naval) (2024)

note: all federal police forces are under the Ministry of Security

Military expenditures

0.6% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.8% of GDP (2021)
0.8% of GDP (2020)
0.7% of GDP (2019)
0.8% of GDP (2018)

comparison ranking: 154

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 80,000 active-duty personnel (50,000 Army; 17,000 Navy, including about 3,500 marines); 13,000 Air Force); estimated 20,000 Gendarmerie (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the inventory of Argentina's armed forces is a mix of domestically-produced and mostly older imported weapons, largely from Europe and the US; in recent years, France and the US have been the leading suppliers of equipment; Argentina has an indigenous defense industry that produces air, land, and naval systems (2023)

Military service age and obligation

18-24 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; conscription suspended in 1995; citizens can still be drafted in times of crisis, national emergency, or war, or if the Defense Ministry is unable to fill all vacancies to keep the military functional (2024)

note: as of 2022, women comprised about 20% of the active duty military

Military deployments

325 Cyprus (UNFICYP) (2024)

Military - note

the Argentine military’s primary responsibilities are territorial defense and protecting the country’s sovereignty, but its duties also include border security, countering narcotics trafficking, and other internal missions, such as disaster response and infrastructure development; it also conducts support operations in Antarctica to promote an active presence in areas of national territory that are sparsely populated; the military participates in both bilateral and multinational training exercises and supports UN peacekeeping operations; the Army’s primary combat units include a rapid deployment division with airborne, mechanized infantry, and special forces brigades, a combined armored and jungle warfare division, a mountain infantry division, and a mechanized division; the Navy’s principal warships are approximately 15 frigates, corvettes, and ocean-going patrol ships, as well as two attack submarines, although they are not operational; both the Army and Navy have helicopter aviation components; the Air Force has a few dozen combat aircraft, as well as multipurpose helicopters and support aircraft, such as tankers and transports

Argentina participates in the Tripartite Command, an interagency security mechanism created by Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay to exchange information and combat transnational threats, including terrorism, in the Tri-Border Area; in addition, Argentina and Chile have a joint peacekeeping force known as the Combined Southern Cross Peacekeeping Force (FPC), designed to be made available to the UN; the FPC is made up of two battalions, one from each country, a command and service company, an air component (a squadron of Argentine and Chilean helicopters), a naval component, and a combined logistics support unit; Argentina has Major Non-NATO Ally (MNNA) status with the US, a designation under US law that provides foreign partners with certain benefits in the areas of defense trade and security cooperation

the Army and Navy were both created in 1810 during the Argentine War of Independence, while the Air Force was established in 1945; the military conducted coups d'état in 1930, 1943, 1955, 1962, 1966, and 1976; the 1976 coup, aka the "National Reorganization Process," marked the beginning of the so-called "Dirty War," a period of state-sponsored terrorism that saw the deaths or disappearances of thousands of Argentinians; the defeat in the 1983 Falklands War led to the downfall of the military junta (2023)


Space agency/agencies

Argentina National Space Activities Commission (Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales, CONAE; formed in 1991); CONAE’s predecessor was the National Commission for Space Research (Comisión Nacional de Investigaciones Espaciales, CNIE; formed in 1960) (2024)

Space launch site(s)

Manuel Belgrano Space Center (Buenos Aires province): planned launch platform of the Tronador SLV (see Appendix S); Punta Indio Space Center (Buenos Aires province): test facility; Teofilo Tabanera Space Center (CETT; Cordoba Province): testing, mission control site (2024)

Space program overview

has a long history of involvement in the development of space-related capabilities, including rockets and satellites; develops, builds, and operates communications, remote sensing (RS), and scientific satellites, often in partnership with other countries; developing additional satellites with more advanced payloads; has a national space plan; contracts with commercial and other government space agencies for launches but has a domestic rocket program and is developing space launch vehicle (SLV) capabilities; cooperates with a broad range of space agencies and industries, including those of Brazil, China, the European Space Agency and its member states (particularly France, Italy), and the US; also has a commercial space industry, which includes efforts to design, build, and launch reusable small SLVs (2024)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S


Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Hizballah

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 217,742 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum, are recognized as refugees, or have received alternative legal stay) (2023)

Illicit drugs

counterfeiting, drug trafficking, and other smuggling offenses in the Tri-Border area; some money laundering organizations in the TBA have may have links to the terrorist organization Hizballah; a large producer of chemical precursors