Photos of Bangladesh

Ahsan Manzil, also known as the Pink Palace, was the official residential palace and seat of the Nawab of Dhaka. The building is situated at Kumartoli along the banks of the Buriganga River in Dhaka. It was constructed between 1859 and 1872 in the Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture style, mixing European and Indo-Islamic elements. Since 1985, it has been designated as a national museum.

Introduction

Background

The huge delta region at the confluence of the Ganges and Brahmaputra River systems -- now referred to as Bangladesh -- was a loosely incorporated outpost of various empires for much of the first millennium A.D. Muslim conversions and settlement in the region began in the 10th century, primarily from Arab and Persian traders and preachers. Europeans established trading posts in the area in the 16th century. Eventually the area known as Bengal, which is primarily Hindu in the western section and mostly Muslim in the eastern half, became part of British India. After the partition of India in 1947, the Muslim-majority area became East Pakistan. Calls for greater autonomy and animosity between the eastern and western areas of Pakistan led to a Bengali independence movement. That movement, led by the Awami League (AL) and supported by India, won the independence war for Bangladesh in 1971.

The military overthrew the post-independence AL government in 1975, the first of a series of military coups that resulted in a military-backed government and the subsequent creation of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) that took power in 1979. That government also ended in a coup in 1981, followed by military-backed rule until democratic elections were held in 1991. The BNP and AL alternated in power from 1991 to 2008, with the exception of a military-backed, emergency caretaker regime in 2007. The country returned to fully democratic rule in 2008 with the election of the AL and Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA. With the help of international development assistance, Bangladesh is on track to graduate from the UN’s Least Developed Countries (LDC) list in 2026.

The economy has grown at an annual average of about 6.25% for the last two decades. Poverty declined from 11.8 percent in 2010 to 5.0 percent in 2022, based on the international poverty line of $2.15 a day (using 2017 Purchasing Power Parity exchange rate). Moreover, human development outcomes improved along many dimensions.  The country made a rapid recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic, but faces several economic challenges.

 

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India

Geographic coordinates

24 00 N, 90 00 E

Area

total: 148,460 sq km

land: 130,170 sq km

water: 18,290 sq km

comparison ranking: total 94

Area - comparative

slightly larger than Pennsylvania and New Jersey combined; slightly smaller than Iowa

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 4,413 km

border countries (2): Burma 271 km; India 4,142 km

Coastline

580 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 18 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: to the outer limits of the continental margin

Climate

tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)

Terrain

mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast

Elevation

highest point: Mowdok Taung 1,060 m

lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 85 m

Natural resources

natural gas, arable land, timber, coal

Land use

agricultural land: 70.1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 59% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 6.5% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 4.6% (2018 est.)

forest: 11.1% (2018 est.)

other: 18.8% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

81,270 sq km (2020)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Brahmaputra river mouth (shared with China [s] and India) - 3,969 km; Ganges river mouth (shared with India [s]) - 2,704 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Indian Ocean drainage: Brahmaputra (651,335 sq km), Ganges (1,016,124 sq km)

Major aquifers

Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra Basin

Natural hazards

droughts; cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during the summer monsoon season

Geography - note

most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty into the Bay of Bengal

People and Society

Population

total: 168,697,184

male: 82,708,252

female: 85,988,932 (2024 est.)

comparison rankings: female 8; male 8; total 8

Nationality

noun: Bangladeshi(s)

adjective: Bangladeshi

Ethnic groups

Bengali at least 99%, other indigenous ethnic groups 1% (2022 est.)

note: Bangladesh's government recognizes 27 indigenous ethnic groups under the 2010 Cultural Institution for Small Anthropological Groups Act; other sources estimate there are about 75 ethnic groups

Languages

Bangla 98.8% (official, also known as Bengali), other 1.2% (2011 est.)

major-language sample(s):


বিশ্ব ফ্যাক্টবুক, মৌলিক তথ্যের অপরিহার্য উৎস (Bangla)


The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Religions

Muslim 91%, Hindu 8%, other 1% (2022 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 25.1% (male 21,540,493/female 20,800,712)

15-64 years: 67.1% (male 55,071,592/female 58,180,322)

65 years and over: 7.8% (2024 est.) (male 6,096,167/female 7,007,898)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 47.7

youth dependency ratio: 39.1

elderly dependency ratio: 8.6

potential support ratio: 11.6 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 29.6 years (2024 est.)

male: 28.7 years

female: 30.4 years

comparison ranking: total 144

Population growth rate

0.89% (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 103

Birth rate

17.3 births/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 88

Death rate

5.5 deaths/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 179

Net migration rate

-2.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 178

Urbanization

urban population: 40.5% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 2.88% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

23.210 million DHAKA (capital), 5.380 million Chittagong, 955,000 Khulna, 962,000 Rajshahi, 964,000 Sylhet, 906,000 Bogra (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2024 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

18.6 years (2017/18 est.)

note: data represents median age at first birth among women 20-49

Maternal mortality ratio

123 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 63

Infant mortality rate

total: 28.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2024 est.)

male: 31.3 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 26.3 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 52

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 75.2 years (2024 est.)

male: 73.1 years

female: 77.5 years

comparison ranking: total population 129

Total fertility rate

2.07 children born/woman (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 96

Gross reproduction rate

1.01 (2024 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99% of population

rural: 98.7% of population

total: 98.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 1% of population

rural: 1.3% of population

total: 1.1% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

2.6% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

0.67 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

0.8 beds/1,000 population (2016)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 85.3% of population

rural: 73.5% of population

total: 78% of population

unimproved: urban: 14.7% of population

rural: 26.5% of population

total: 22% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria are high risks in some locations

water contact diseases: leptospirosis

animal contact diseases: rabies

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

3.6% (2016)

comparison ranking: 191

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 187

Tobacco use

total: 34.7% (2020 est.)

male: 52.2% (2020 est.)

female: 17.1% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 17

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

22.6% (2019)

comparison ranking: 10

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 15.5%

women married by age 18: 51.4% (2019 est.)

Education expenditures

2.1% of GDP (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: 186

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 74.9%

male: 77.8%

female: 72% (2020)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 12 years

male: 12 years

female: 13 years (2020)

Environment

Environment - current issues

many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; waterborne diseases prevalent in surface water; water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; destruction of wetlands; severe overpopulation with noise pollution

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate

tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)

Land use

agricultural land: 70.1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 59% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 6.5% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 4.6% (2018 est.)

forest: 11.1% (2018 est.)

other: 18.8% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 40.5% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 2.88% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Food insecurity

severe localized food insecurity: due to economic constraints and high prices of important food items -  food insecurity is expected to remain fragile, given persisting economic constraints; domestic prices of wheat flour and palm oil, important food items, were at high levels in January 2023; the result of elevated international prices of energy, fuel and food, having been transmitted to the domestic markets (2023)

Revenue from forest resources

0.08% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 120

Revenue from coal

0.02% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 43

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 45.99 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 84.25 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 59.3 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 14,778,497 tons (2012 est.)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Brahmaputra river mouth (shared with China [s] and India) - 3,969 km; Ganges river mouth (shared with India [s]) - 2,704 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Indian Ocean drainage: Brahmaputra (651,335 sq km), Ganges (1,016,124 sq km)

Major aquifers

Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra Basin

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 3.6 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 770 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 31.5 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

1.23 trillion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh

conventional short form: Bangladesh

local long form: Gana Prajatantri Bangladesh

local short form: Bangladesh

former: East Bengal, East Pakistan

etymology: the name - a compound of the Bengali words "Bangla" (Bengal) and "desh" (country) - means "Country of Bengal"

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Dhaka

geographic coordinates: 23 43 N, 90 24 E

time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: the origins of the name are unclear, but some sources state that the city's site was originally called "dhakka," meaning "watchtower," and that the area served as a watch-station for Bengal rulers

Administrative divisions

8 divisions; Barishal, Chattogram, Dhaka, Khulna, Mymensingh, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Sylhet

Independence

16 December 1971 (from Pakistan)

National holiday

Independence Day, 26 March (1971); Victory Day, 16 December (1971); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of the Awami League's declaration of an independent Bangladesh, and 16 December (Victory Day) memorializes the military victory over Pakistan and the official creation of the state of Bangladesh

Constitution

history: previous 1935, 1956, 1962 (preindependence); latest enacted 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended March 1982, restored November 1986

amendments: proposed by the House of the Nation; approval requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the House membership and assent of the president of the republic; amended many times, last in 2018

Legal system

common law; since independence, statutory law enacted by the Parliament of Bangladesh has been the primary form of legislation; Bangladeshi law incorporates elements of English common law; Islamic law applies to Bangladeshi Muslims in family and inheritance laws, with Hindu personal law applying to Bangladeshi Hindus and Buddhists  

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bangladesh

dual citizenship recognized: yes, but limited to select countries

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Mohammad Shahabuddin CHUPPI (since 24 April 2023)

head of government: Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA Wazed (since 6 January 2009)

cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister, appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Parliament for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 13 February 2023 (next to be held by 2028); the president appoints as prime minister the majority party leader in the National Parliament

election results: President Mohammad Shahabuddin CHUPPI (AL) elected unopposed by the National Parliament; Sheikh HASINA reappointed prime minister for a fifth term following the 7 January 2024 parliamentary election

Legislative branch

description: unicameral House of the Nation or Jatiya Sangsad (350 seats; 300 members in single-seat territorial constituencies directly elected by simple majority vote; 50 members - reserved for women only - indirectly elected by the House of the Nation membership by proportional representation vote using single transferable vote method; all members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 7 January 2024 (next to be held in 2029)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party as of December 2023 - AL 306, JP 27, BNP 0, other 14, independent 3; composition - men 280, women 70, percentage women 20%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Bangladesh (organized into the Appellate Division with 7 justices and the High Court Division with 99 justices)

judge selection and term of office: chief justice and justices appointed by the president; justices serve until retirement at age 67

subordinate courts: civil courts include: Assistant Judge's Court; Joint District Judge's Court; Additional District Judge's Court; District Judge's Court; criminal courts include: Court of Sessions; Court of Metropolitan Sessions; Metropolitan Magistrate Courts; Magistrate Court; special courts/tribunals

Political parties and leaders

Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]
Bangladesh Jamaat-i-Islami or JIB [Shafiqur RAHMAN]]
Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP [Tarique RAHMAN, acting chairperson; Khaleda ZIA]
Islami Andolan Bangladesh [Syed Rezaul KARIM]
Jatiya Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Ghulam Muhammed QUADER]
Jatiya Party or JP (Manju faction) [Anwar Hossain MANJU]
National Socialist Party (Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal) or JSD [Hasanul Haque INU]
Workers Party or WP [Rashed Khan MENON]

 

International organization participation

ADB, ARF, BIMSTEC, C, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSCA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNIFIL, UNMISS, UNOOSA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Muhammad IMRAN (since 12 December 2022)

chancery: 3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 244-0183

FAX: [1] (202) 244-2771

email address and website:
mission.washington@mofa.gov.bd

Embassy of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Washington, DC (mofa.gov.bd)

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Miami, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Peter HAAS (since 15 March 2022)

embassy: Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka - 1212

mailing address: 6120 Dhaka Place, Washington DC  20521-6120

telephone: [880] (2) 5566-2000

FAX: [880] (2) 5566-2907

email address and website:
DhakaACS@state.gov

https://bd.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

green field with a large red disk shifted slightly to the hoist side of center; the red disk represents the rising sun and the sacrifice to achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush vegetation of Bangladesh

National symbol(s)

Bengal tiger, water lily; national colors: green, red

National anthem

name: "Amar Shonar Bangla" (My Golden Bengal)

lyrics/music: Rabindranath TAGORE

note: adopted 1971; Rabindranath TAGORE, a Nobel laureate, also wrote India's national anthem

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 3 (2 cultural, 1 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Bagerhat Historic Mosque (c); Ruins of the Buddhist Vihara at Paharpur (c); Sundarbans (n)

Economy

Economic overview

one of the fastest growing emerging market economies; strong economic rebound following COVID-19; significant poverty reduction; exports dominated by textile industry; weakened exports and remittances resulted in declining foreign exchange reserves and 2022 IMF loan request

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.072 trillion (2022 est.)
$1.001 trillion (2021 est.)
$936.113 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 27

Real GDP growth rate

7.1% (2022 est.)
6.94% (2021 est.)
3.45% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 41

Real GDP per capita

$6,300 (2022 est.)
$5,900 (2021 est.)
$5,600 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 158

GDP (official exchange rate)

$460.201 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

7.7% (2022 est.)
5.55% (2021 est.)
5.69% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 121

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BB- (2014)

Moody's rating: Ba3 (2012)

Standard & Poors rating: BB- (2010)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 14.2% (2017 est.)

industry: 29.3% (2017 est.)

services: 56.5% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 148; industry 83; agriculture 68

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 68.7% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 6% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 30.5% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 15% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -20.3% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

rice, milk, potatoes, maize, sugarcane, onions, vegetables, jute, mangoes/guavas, tropical fruits (2022)

note: top ten agricultural products based on tonnage

Industries

cotton, textiles and clothing, jute, tea, paper, cement, fertilizer, sugar, light engineering 

Industrial production growth rate

9.86% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 22

Labor force

73.862 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 7

Unemployment rate

4.27% (2022 est.)
5.25% (2021 est.)
5.32% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 83

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 14.7% (2021 est.)

male: 12.5%

female: 19.6%

comparison ranking: total 119

Population below poverty line

18.7% (2022 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

31.8 (2022 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

comparison ranking: 134

Average household expenditures

on food: 52.7% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 2.1% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.6%

highest 10%: 26% (2022 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population

Remittances

4.67% of GDP (2022 est.)
5.33% of GDP (2021 est.)
5.82% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Budget

revenues: $30.023 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $46.379 billion (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-3.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 136

Public debt

33.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
33.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 162

Taxes and other revenues

7.64% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 200

Current account balance

-$14.37 billion (2022 est.)
-$15.775 billion (2021 est.)
$1.193 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 190

Exports

$60.138 billion (2022 est.)
$49.291 billion (2021 est.)
$38.476 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 62

Exports - partners

US 18%, Germany 16%, UK 8%, Spain 7%, Poland 6% (2022)

note: top five export partners based on percentage share of exports

Exports - commodities

garments, footwear, fabric, textiles, jute yarn (2022)

note: top five export commodities based on value in dollars

Imports

$93.815 billion (2022 est.)
$85.299 billion (2021 est.)
$56.776 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 51

Imports - partners

China 32%, India 17%, Singapore 6%, Malaysia 5%, Indonesia 5% (2022)

note: top five import partners based on percentage share of imports

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, cotton fabric, cotton, fabric, fertilizers (2022)

note: top five import commodities based on value in dollars

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$33.747 billion (2022 est.)
$46.166 billion (2021 est.)
$43.172 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 50

Debt - external

$50.26 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$41.85 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 68

Exchange rates

taka (BDT) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
91.745 (2022 est.)
85.084 (2021 est.)
84.871 (2020 est.)
84.454 (2019 est.)
83.466 (2018 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

population without electricity: 11 million (2020)

electrification - total population: 98.9% (2021)

electrification - urban areas: 99.7% (2021)

electrification - rural areas: 98.5% (2021)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 18.461 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 76,849,877,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 6.786 billion kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 9.537 billion kWh (2019 est.)

comparison rankings: installed generating capacity 51; transmission/distribution losses 179; imports 34; exports 201; consumption 39

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 98.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Nuclear energy

Number of operational nuclear reactors: 0

Number of nuclear reactors under construction: 2 (2023)

Net capacity of operational nuclear reactors: 0GW

Percent of total electricity production: 0%

Percent of total energy produced: 0%

Number of nuclear reactors permanently shut down: 0

Coal

production: 1.016 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 9.345 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 8.329 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 293 million metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 13,500 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 122,500 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 21,600 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 28 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

26,280 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 86

Refined petroleum products - exports

901 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 108

Refined petroleum products - imports

81,570 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 63

Natural gas

production: 28,629,927,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 31,268,968,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 2,639,041,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 126.293 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

96.18 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 16.538 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 18.535 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 61.107 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 44

Energy consumption per capita

9.917 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 155

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 274,000 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: (2022 est.) less than 1

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 111

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 180.198 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 105 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 10

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Bangladesh’s economic resurgence over the last decade took a battering in 2020 and 2021 as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic; the country had been on track to move off the United Nation’s Least Developed Countries list by 2026, however the crisis may have pushed that back a few years; the telecommunications sector experienced a set of challenges, with mobile data usage exploding at the same time as many consumers were being forced to curb their spending in other areas; the demand on data grew so large and so rapidly that Bangladesh came close to running out of bandwidth; at the start of 2020, Bangladesh was consuming around 900Gb/s on average, well below the 2,642GB/s capacity of its submarine cables; this ballooned to over 2,300Gb/s during the pandemic; Bangladesh was looking forward to adding 7,200Gb/s capacity when the SEA-ME-WE-6 submarine cable goes into service in mid-2024, but the sudden upsurge in downloads is forcing state-run company Bangladesh Submarine Cable Company Limited (BSCCL) to scramble to find alternatives before the country’s internet supply is maxed out; the increased demand during the Covid-19 crisis also put pressure on the country’s existing mobile networks, already under strain as a result of strong growth in the mobile broadband market coupled with significant untapped potential for mobile services in general across the country; this led to premium prices being paid at auction for spectrum in the 1800MHz and 2100MHz bands, most of which will be used to enhance and expand LTE services; a 5G spectrum auction had been anticipated for 2020, but low interest from the MNOs in going down that path when there are still so many areas waiting for LTE access means that 5G  will likely be deferred until 2023 (2021)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscribership has been increasing rapidly and now exceeds 107 per 100 persons; mobile subscriber growth is anticipated over the next five years to 2023 (2021)

international: country code - 880; landing points for the SeaMeWe-4 and SeaMeWe-5 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 6; international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries (2019)

Broadcast media

state-owned Bangladesh Television (BTV) broadcasts throughout the country. Some channels, such as BTV World, operate via satellite. The government also owns a medium wave radio channel and some private FM radio broadcast news channels. Of the 41 Bangladesh approved TV stations, 26 are currently being used to broadcast. Of those, 23 operate under private management via cable distribution. Collectively, TV channels can reach more than 50 million people across the country.

Internet users

total: 66.3 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 39% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 15

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 10,052,819 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 19

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 6 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 30

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 5,984,155 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 63.82 million (2018) mt-km

Airports

17 (2024)

comparison ranking: 143

Heliports

35 (2024)

Pipelines

2,950 km gas (2013)

Railways

total: 2,460 km (2014)

narrow gauge: 1,801 km (2014) 1.000-m gauge

broad gauge: 659 km (2014) 1.676-m gauge

comparison ranking: total 66

Roadways

total: 369,105 km

paved: 110,311 km

unpaved: 258,794 km (2018)

comparison ranking: total 16

Waterways

8,370 km (2011) (includes up to 3,060 km of main cargo routes; network reduced to 5,200 km in the dry season)

comparison ranking: 18

Merchant marine

total: 558 (2023)

by type: bulk carrier 68, container ship 10, general cargo 170, oil tanker 162, other 148

comparison ranking: total 40

Ports

total ports: 2 (2024)

large: 0

medium: 1

small: 1

very small: 0

ports with oil terminals: 0

key ports: Chittagong, Mongla

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Armed Forces of Bangladesh (aka Bangladesh Defense Force): Bangladesh Army, Bangladesh Navy, Bangladesh Air Force

Ministry of Home Affairs: Border Guard Bangladesh (BGB), Bangladesh Coast Guard, Rapid Action Battalion (RAB), Ansars, Village Defense Party (VDP) (2024)

note 1: the Armed Forces of Bangladesh are jointly administered by the Ministry of Defense (MOD) and the Armed Forces Division (AFD), both under the Prime Minister's Office; the AFD has ministerial status and parallel functions with MOD; the AFD is a joint coordinating headquarters for the three services and also functions as a joint command center during wartime; to coordinate policy, the prime minister and the president are advised by a six-member board, which includes the three service chiefs of staff, the principal staff officer of the AFD, and the military secretaries to the prime minister and president

note 2: the RAB, Ansars, and VDP are paramilitary organizations for internal security; the RAB is a joint task force founded in 2004 and composed of members of the police, Army, Navy, Air Force, and Border Guards seconded to the RAB from their respective units; its mandate includes internal security, intelligence gathering related to criminal activities, and government-directed investigations

Military expenditures

1% of GDP (2023 est.)
1.1% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.2% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.4% of GDP (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 126

Military and security service personnel strengths

information varies; approximately 160,000 total active personnel (130,000 Army; 15,000 Navy; 15,000 Air Force) (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

much of the military's inventory is comprised of Chinese- and Russian-origin equipment; in recent years, China has been the leading provider of arms to Bangladesh (2023)

Military service age and obligation

16-21 years of age for voluntary military service; Bangladeshi nationality and 10th grade education required; officers: 17-21 years of age, Bangladeshi nationality, and 12th grade education required (2023)

Military deployments

approximately 1,400 Central African Republic (MINUSCA); 1,650 Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO; plus about 200 police); 120 Lebanon (UNIFIL); 100 Mali (MINUSMA; plus about 150 police); 1,600 South Sudan (UNMISS); 500 Sudan (UNISFA) (2024)

note: as of early 2024, Bangladesh had nearly 6,000 total military and police personnel deployed on UN missions

Military - note

the military’s primary responsibility is external defense but it also has a domestic security role and has traditionally been a significant player in the country’s politics, as well as its economy; the military has a long history of participating in UN peacekeeping missions, which has provided operational experience and a source of funding; it runs an international institute for the training of peacekeepers; the military also conducts multinational and bilateral exercises with foreign partners, particularly India; it has commercial business interests in such areas as banking, food, hotels, manufacturing, real estate, and shipbuilding, and manages government infrastructure and construction projects

the Army is the dominant service and its primary combat forces are approximately 10 infantry divisions, supplemented by several independent brigades and regiments of armor, artillery, and commandos; it maintains a large presence in the Chittagong Hills area where it conducted counterinsurgency operations against tribal guerrillas from the 1970s until the late 1990s; the Navy conducts both coastal and blue water operations and participates in UN and humanitarian missions and multinational exercises; its principal surface warships are a mix of frigates, corvettes, and large patrol ships; it also has a few attack submarines; the Air Force has several squadrons equipped Chinese- and Russian-made combat aircraft; the Air Force has several squadrons of mostly Chinese- and Russian-made combat aircraft  (2024)

Space

Space agency/agencies

Bangladesh Space Research and Remote Sensing Organization (SPARRSO; established 1980) (2024)

Space program overview

has a modest space program focused on designing, building, and operating satellites, particularly those with remote sensing (RS) capabilities; researching a variety of other space-related capabilities and technologies; has a government-owned company for acquiring and operating satellites (Bangladesh Satellite Company Limited or BSCL, established in 2017); has relations with several foreign space agencies and commercial entities, including those of France, Japan, Russia, and the US (2024)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Terrorism

Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami/Bangladesh; Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham in Bangladesh (ISB); al-Qa'ida; al-Qa'ida in the Indian Subcontinent (AQIS)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 976,507 (Burma) (2024)

IDPs: 427,000 (conflict, development, human rights violations, religious persecution, natural disasters) (2022)

stateless persons: 929,606 (2022)

Illicit drugs

transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries; does not manufacture precursor chemicals with the exception of sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, and toluene