Photos of Czechia

Square in the lovely spa town of Karlovy Vary, famed for its hot springs.



At the close of World War I, the Czechs and Slovaks of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire merged to form Czechoslovakia, a parliamentarian democracy. During the interwar years, having rejected a federal system, the new country's predominantly Czech leaders were frequently preoccupied with meeting the increasingly strident demands of other ethnic minorities within the republic, most notably the Slovaks, the Sudeten Germans, and the Ruthenians (Ukrainians). On the eve of World War II, Nazi Germany occupied the territory that today comprises Czechia, and Slovakia became an independent state allied with Germany. After the war, a reunited but truncated Czechoslovakia (less Ruthenia) fell within the Soviet sphere of influence when the pro-Soviet Communist party staged a coup in February 1948. In 1968, an invasion by fellow Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize communist rule and create "socialism with a human face," ushering in a period of repression known as "normalization." The peaceful "Velvet Revolution" swept the Communist Party from power at the end of 1989 and inaugurated a return to democratic rule and a market economy. On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a nonviolent "velvet divorce" into its two national components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004. The country formally added the short-form name Czechia in 2016, while also continuing to use the full form name, the Czech Republic.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Central Europe, between Germany, Poland, Slovakia, and Austria

Geographic coordinates

49 45 N, 15 30 E


total: 78,867 sq km

land: 77,247 sq km

water: 1,620 sq km

comparison ranking: total 116

Area - comparative

about two-thirds the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than South Carolina

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 2,046 km

border countries (4): Austria 402 km; Germany 704 km; Poland 699 km; Slovakia 241 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)


temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters


Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country


highest point: Snezka 1,602 m

lowest point: Labe (Elbe) River 115 m

mean elevation: 433 m

Natural resources

hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 54.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 41% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 12.8% (2018 est.)

forest: 34.4% (2018 est.)

other: 10.8% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

220 sq km (2020)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Labe (Elbe) river source (shared with Germany [m]) - 1,252 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, but the northern and eastern regions tend to have larger urban concentrations

Geography - note

note 1: landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe

note 2: the Hranice Abyss in Czechia is the world's deepest surveyed underwater cave at 404 m (1,325 ft); its survey is not complete and it could end up being some 800-1,200 m deep

People and Society


total: 10,837,890

male: 5,335,737

female: 5,502,153 (2024 est.)

comparison rankings: female 85; male 88; total 86


noun: Czech(s)

adjective: Czech

Ethnic groups

Czech 57.3%, Moravian 3.4%, other 7.7%, unspecified 31.6% (2021 est.)

note: includes only persons with one ethnicity


Czech (official) 88.4%, Slovak 1.5%, other 2.6%, unspecified 7.2%

note: includes only persons with one mother tongue (2021 est.)

major-language sample(s):
World Factbook, nepostradatelný zdroj základních informací. (Czech)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Czech audio sample:


Roman Catholic 7%, other believers belonging to a church or religious society 6% (includes Evangelical United Brethren Church and Czechoslovak Hussite Church), believers unaffiliated with a religious society 9.1%, none 47.8%, unspecified 30.1% (2021 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.7% (male 871,303/female 826,896)

15-64 years: 63.8% (male 3,542,298/female 3,373,127)

65 years and over: 20.5% (2024 est.) (male 922,136/female 1,302,130)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 57.4

youth dependency ratio: 25.2

elderly dependency ratio: 32.2

potential support ratio: 3.1 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 44.2 years (2024 est.)

male: 42.7 years

female: 45.7 years

comparison ranking: total 31

Population growth rate

0.04% (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 190

Birth rate

9.8 births/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 190

Death rate

12 deaths/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 17

Net migration rate

2.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 40

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, but the northern and eastern regions tend to have larger urban concentrations


urban population: 74.6% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.2% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

1.323 million PRAGUE (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2024 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

28.5 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

3 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 182

Infant mortality rate

total: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2024 est.)

male: 2.7 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.4 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 214

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 78.6 years (2024 est.)

male: 75.6 years

female: 81.8 years

comparison ranking: total population 76

Total fertility rate

1.73 children born/woman (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 154

Gross reproduction rate

0.85 (2024 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.9% of population

rural: 99.8% of population

total: 99.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.1% of population

rural: 0.2% of population

total: 0.1% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

9.2% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

4.15 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

6.6 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

26% (2016)

comparison ranking: 46

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 12.73 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 6.77 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 2.73 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 3.24 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 3

Tobacco use

total: 30.7% (2020 est.)

male: 35% (2020 est.)

female: 26.4% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 29

Education expenditures

5.1% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 71


definition: NA

total population: 99%

male: 99%

female: 99% (2011)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years

male: 16 years

female: 17 years (2020)


Environment - current issues

air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests; land pollution caused by industry, mining, and agriculture

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements


temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Land use

agricultural land: 54.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 41% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 12.8% (2018 est.)

forest: 34.4% (2018 est.)

other: 10.8% (2018 est.)


urban population: 74.6% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.2% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.17% of GDP (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 97

Revenue from coal

0.14% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 23

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 14.34 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 102.22 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 13.11 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 3.337 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 850,935 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 25.5% (2015 est.)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Labe (Elbe) river source (shared with Germany [m]) - 1,252 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 630 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 700 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 40 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

13.5 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)


total global geoparks and regional networks: 1

global geoparks and regional networks: Bohemian Paradise (2023)


Country name

conventional long form: Czech Republic

conventional short form: Czechia

local long form: Ceska republika

local short form: Cesko

etymology: name derives from the Czechs, a West Slavic tribe who rose to prominence in the late 9th century A.D.; the country officially adopted the English short-form name of Czechia on 1 July 2016

Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Prague

geographic coordinates: 50 05 N, 14 28 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the name may derive from an old Slavic root "praga" or "prah", meaning "ford", and refer to the city's origin at a crossing point of the Vltava (Moldau) River

Administrative divisions

13 regions (kraje, singular - kraj) and 1 capital city* (hlavni mesto); Jihocesky (South Bohemia), Jihomoravsky (South Moravia), Karlovarsky (Karlovy Vary), Kralovehradecky (Hradec Kralove), Liberecky (Liberec), Moravskoslezsky (Moravia-Silesia), Olomoucky (Olomouc), Pardubicky (Pardubice), Plzensky (Pilsen), Praha (Prague)*, Stredocesky (Central Bohemia), Ustecky (Usti), Vysocina (Highlands), Zlinsky (Zlin)


1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia); note - although 1 January is the day the Czech Republic came into being, the Czechs commemorate 28 October 1918, the day the former Czechoslovakia declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, as their independence day

National holiday

Czechoslovak Founding Day, 28 October (1918)


history: previous 1960; latest ratified 16 December 1992, effective 1 January 1993

amendments: passage requires at least three-fifths concurrence of members present in both houses of Parliament; amended several times, last in 2021

Legal system

new civil code enacted in 2014, replacing civil code of 1964 - based on former Austro-Hungarian civil codes and socialist theory - and reintroducing former Czech legal terminology

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Czechia

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Petr PAVEL (since 9 March 2023)

head of government: Prime Minister Petr FIALA (since 17 December 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (limited to 2 consecutive terms); elections last held on 13 to 14 January 2023 with a second round held from 27 to 28 January 2023; next election to be by January 2028; prime minister appointed by the president for a 4-year term

election results:
Petr PAVEL elected in the second round; percent of vote in the first round - Petr PAVEL (independent) 35.4%, Andrej BABIS (ANO) 35%, Danuse NERUDOVA (Mayors and Independents) 13.9%, Pavel FISCHER (independent) 6.8%; percent of vote in the second round - Petr PAVEL 58.3%, Andrej BABIS 41.6%

 Milos ZEMAN reelected president in the second round; percent of vote - Milos ZEMAN (SPO) 51.4%, Jiri DRAHOS (independent) 48.6%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of:
Senate or Senat (81 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 6-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years)

Chamber of Deputies or Poslanecka Snemovna (200 seats; members directly elected in 14 multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote with a 5% threshold required to fill a seat; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 23 to 24 September with a runoff from 30 September to 1 October 2022 (next to be held in October 2024)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 8 to 9 October 2021 (next to be held by October 2025)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party/coalition NA; - seats by party/coalition - ODS 23, STAN 15, KDU-CSL 12, TOP 09 6, ANO 5, SEN 21 4, other 15, independent 1; composition - men 66, women 15, percent of women 18.5%

Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party/coalition – SPOLU 27.8%, ANO 27.1%, Pirates and STAN 15.6%, SPD 9.6%, other 19.9%; seats by party/coalition - ANO 72, SPOLU 71, Pirates and STAN 37, SPD 20; composition - men 148, women 52, percent of women 26%; note - total Parliament percent of women 23.8%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (organized into Civil Law and Commercial Division, and Criminal Division each with a court chief justice, vice justice, and several judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 15 justices); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 36 judges, including the court president and vice president, and organized into 6-, 7-, and 9-member chambers)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges proposed by the Chamber of Deputies and appointed by the president; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate; judges appointed for 10-year, renewable terms; Supreme Administrative Court judges selected by the president of the Court; unlimited terms

subordinate courts: High Court; regional and district courts

Political parties and leaders

Christian Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Marian JURECKA]
Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Petr FIALA]
Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Katerina KONECNA]
Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Michal SMARDA]
Freedom and Direct Democracy or SPD [Tomio OKAMURA]
Mayors and Independents or STAN [Vit RAKUSAN]
Mayors for the Liberec Region [Martin PUTA]
Action of Dissatisfied Citizens or ANO (Akce nespokojených občanů) [Andrej BABIS]
Party of Free Citizens Svobodni [Libor VONDRACEK]
Pirate Party or Pirates [Ivan BARTOS]
Senator 21 [Vaclav LASKA]
Tradition Responsibility Prosperity 09 or TOP 09 [Marketa PEKAROVA ADAMOVA]

International organization participation

Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOOSA, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Miloslav STAŠEK (since 16 September 2022)

chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008-3803

telephone: [1] (202) 274-9100

FAX: [1] (202) 966-8540

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Bijan SABET (since 15 February 2023)

embassy: Trziste 15, 118 01 Praha 1 - Mala Strana

mailing address: 5630 Prague Place, Washington DC  20521-5630

telephone: [420] 257-022-000

FAX: [420] 257-022-809

email address and website:

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side

note: combines the white and red colors of Bohemia with blue from the arms of Moravia; is identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia

National symbol(s)

silver (or white), double-tailed, rampant lion; national colors: white, red, blue

National anthem

name: "Kde domov muj?" (Where is My Home?)

lyrics/music: Josef Kajetan TYL/Frantisek Jan SKROUP

note: adopted 1993; the anthem was originally written as incidental music to the play "Fidlovacka" (1834), it soon became very popular as an unofficial anthem of the Czech nation; its first verse served as the official Czechoslovak anthem beginning in 1918, while the second verse (Slovak) was dropped after the split of Czechoslovakia in 1993

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 17 (16 cultural, 1 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Historic Prague (c); Historic Telč (c); Historic Český Krumlov (c); Lednice-Valtice Cultural Landscape (c); Historic Kutná Hora (c); Holy Trinity Column, Olomouc (c); Karlovy Vary Spa (c); Zatec and the Landscape of Saaz Hops; Žatec and the Landscape of Saaz Hops (n)


Economic overview

high-income, diversified EU economy; manufacturing-oriented exporter led by automotive industry; growth stalled by inflation and energy supply disruption; business-friendly regulatory frameworks; tight labor market with low unemployment; seeking reforms to support decarbonization and improve energy efficiency

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$438.119 billion (2022 est.)
$428.052 billion (2021 est.)
$413.365 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 45

Real GDP growth rate

2.35% (2022 est.)
3.55% (2021 est.)
-5.5% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 162

Real GDP per capita

$41,100 (2022 est.)
$40,700 (2021 est.)
$38,600 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 49

GDP (official exchange rate)

$290.528 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

15.1% (2022 est.)
3.84% (2021 est.)
3.16% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 188

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: AA- (2018)

Moody's rating: Aa3 (2019)

Standard & Poors rating: AA- (2011)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2.3% (2017 est.)

industry: 36.9% (2017 est.)

services: 60.8% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 116; industry 41; agriculture 169

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 47.4% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 19.2% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 24.7% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 79.9% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -72.3% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

wheat, sugar beets, milk, barley, rapeseed, potatoes, maize, pork, triticale, oats (2022)

note: top ten agricultural products based on tonnage


motor vehicles, metallurgy, machinery and equipment, glass, armaments

Industrial production growth rate

0.91% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 151

Labor force

5.373 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 79

Unemployment rate

2.22% (2022 est.)
2.8% (2021 est.)
2.55% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 25

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 7.6% (2021 est.)

male: 6.9%

female: 8.7%

comparison ranking: total 172

Population below poverty line

10.2% (2021 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

26.2 (2020 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

comparison ranking: 167

Average household expenditures

on food: 16.1% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 8.1% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 4%

highest 10%: 22.5% (2020 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population


1.43% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.56% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.7% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities


revenues: $103.838 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $103.167 billion (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

1.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 19

Public debt

34.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
36.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 155

Taxes and other revenues

13.36% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 159

Current account balance

-$17.366 billion (2022 est.)
-$7.686 billion (2021 est.)
$4.967 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 193


$217.731 billion (2022 est.)
$205.626 billion (2021 est.)
$172.837 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 35

Exports - partners

Germany 32%, Slovakia 8%, Poland 7%, France 5%, Austria 5% (2022)

note: top five export partners based on percentage share of exports

Exports - commodities

cars, vehicle parts/accessories, broadcasting equipment, computers, plastic products (2022)

note: top five export commodities based on value in dollars


$218.002 billion (2022 est.)
$197.515 billion (2021 est.)
$156.129 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 34

Imports - partners

Germany 24%, China 13%, Poland 10%, Slovakia 6%, Russia 4% (2022)

note: top five import partners based on percentage share of imports

Imports - commodities

broadcasting equipment, vehicle parts/accessories, natural gas, machine parts, plastic products (2022)

note: top five import commodities based on value in dollars

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$139.981 billion (2022 est.)
$173.618 billion (2021 est.)
$166.126 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 19

Debt - external

$191.871 billion (2019 est.)
$200.197 billion (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 40

Exchange rates

koruny (CZK) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
23.357 (2022 est.)
21.678 (2021 est.)
23.21 (2020 est.)
22.932 (2019 est.)
21.73 (2018 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)


installed generating capacity: 22.485 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 60.814 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 23.521 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 13.368 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 4.117 billion kWh (2020 est.)

comparison rankings: transmission/distribution losses 160; imports 18; exports 9; consumption 45; installed generating capacity 42

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 47% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 37.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 4.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Nuclear energy

Number of operational nuclear reactors: 6 (2023)

Number of nuclear reactors under construction: 0

Net capacity of operational nuclear reactors: 3.93GW (2023)

Percent of total electricity production: 36.7% (2021)

Percent of total energy produced: 38.3% (2021)

Number of nuclear reactors permanently shut down: 0


production: 33.806 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 37.212 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 1.885 million metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 3.795 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 2.927 billion metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 6,300 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 219,500 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 400 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 150,200 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 15 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

177,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 56

Refined petroleum products - exports

52,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 54

Refined petroleum products - imports

83,860 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 60

Natural gas

production: 189.185 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

consumption: 8,815,133,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2020 est.)

imports: 7,590,318,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 3.964 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

99.533 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 57.268 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 25.526 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 16.739 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 43

Energy consumption per capita

161.972 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 30


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 1.214 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 68

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 13.475 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 128 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 78

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: the telecom market has attracted investment from among the key regional telcos; telcos in the Czech Republic have become multi-service providers, offering a full range of fixed and mobile services; this has enabled the reach of their 5G networks; this process has also been assisted by them closing down 3G networks and reforming spectrum for 5G and LTE use (2023)

domestic: roughly 12 fixed-telephone subscriptions per 100 inhabitants and mobile telephone usage of 125 per 100 inhabitants (2021)

international: country code - 420; satellite earth stations - 6 (2 Intersputnik - Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions, 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar) (2019)

Broadcast media

22 TV stations operate nationally, with 17 of them in private hands; publicly operated Czech Television has 5 national channels; throughout the country, there are some 350 TV channels in operation, many through cable, satellite, and IPTV subscription services; 63 radio broadcasters are registered, operating over 80 radio stations, including 7 multiregional radio stations or networks; publicly operated broadcaster Czech Radio operates 4 national, 14 regional, and 4 Internet stations; both Czech Radio and Czech Television are partially financed through a license fee (2019)

Internet users

total: 9.13 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 83% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 64

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 3,845,426 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 36 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 39


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 4 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 48

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 5,727,200 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 25.23 million (2018) mt-km


243 (2024)

comparison ranking: 28


82 (2024)


7,160 km gas, 675 km oil, 94 km refined products (2016)


total: 9,548 km (2020) 3,242 km electrified

comparison ranking: total 24


total: 129,418 km (2022)

comparison ranking: total 40


664 km (2010) (principally on Elbe, Vltava, Oder, and other navigable rivers, lakes, and canals)

comparison ranking: 84

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Czech Armed Forces: Land Forces, Air Forces, Cyber Forces, Special Forces (2024)

Military expenditures

1.5% of GDP (2023 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2022)
1.4% of GDP (2021)
1.3% of GDP (2020)
1.2% of GDP (2019)

comparison ranking: 94

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 30,000 active personnel (24,000 Army; 6,000 Air Force) (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Czech military has a mix of Soviet-era and more modern equipment, mostly of Western European origin from such suppliers as Austria, Germany, and Spain; Czechia has a considerable domestic defense industry; during the Cold War, Czechoslovakia was a major producer of tanks, armored personnel carriers, military trucks, and trainer aircraft (2023)

note: in 2019, Czechia announced a modernization plan to acquire more Western equipment that was compliant with NATO standards, including aircraft and armored vehicles

Military service age and obligation

18-28 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; conscription abolished 2004 (2023)

note: as of 2023, women comprised nearly 14% of the military's full-time personnel

Military deployments

up to 130 Lithuania (NATO); 130 Slovakia (NATO) (2024)

Military - note

the Czech military is responsible for national and territorial defense, assisting civil authorities during natural disasters or other emergencies, boosting border security alongside the police, participating in international peacekeeping operations, and supporting its collective security commitments to the EU and NATO, both of which Czechia considers pillars of its national security strategy; Czechia is a member of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, contributes to UN peacekeeping operations, and actively participates in EU military and security missions under the EU Common Security and Defense Policy; the Czech military has been an active member of NATO since the country joined in 2009 and participates in a variety of NATO’s collective defense missions, including contributing to the Enhanced Forward Presence in Eastern Europe, Baltic Air Policing operations, rapid response forces, and operations in Kosovo; it also exercises regularly with NATO partners and maintains close bilateral ties to a number of militaries particularly partner members of the Visegrad Group (Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia) and Germany

the military has commands for its land, air, cyber/information operations, and territorial forces, as well as a joint operations command and a special forces directorate; the principal combat forces under the Land Force Command include two mechanized brigades, an airborne regiment, and regiments of artillery, reconnaissance, and electronic warfare forces; the Air Force Command is responsible for securing Czech airspace and has about 30 Czech- and Swedish-made light multirole combat fighter aircraft organized in two squadrons, as well as small squadron of Soviet-era attack helicopters; the Territorial Command is responsible for the active reserves and regional military commands that align with each of Czechia’s 13 regions and the capital, Prague (2023)

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 381,400 (Ukraine) (as of 31 January 2024)

stateless persons: 1,625 (2022)

Illicit drugs

main country of origin of methamphetamine in European markets; manufacture of methamphetamine continues to be mostly based on pseudoephedrine from Poland or Turkey