A closer look at the terraced gardens before Melnik. In the background, the Church of Sts. Peter and Paul faces Melnik castle.
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Introduction

Background

At the close of World War I, the Czechs and Slovaks of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire merged to form Czechoslovakia, a parliamentarian democracy. During the interwar years, having rejected a federal system, the new country's predominantly Czech leaders were frequently preoccupied with meeting the increasingly strident demands of other ethnic minorities within the republic, most notably the Slovaks, the Sudeten Germans, and the Ruthenians (Ukrainians). On the eve of World War II, Nazi Germany occupied the territory that today comprises Czechia, and Slovakia became an independent state allied with Germany. After the war, a reunited but truncated Czechoslovakia (less Ruthenia) fell within the Soviet sphere of influence when the pro-Soviet Communist party staged a coup in February 1948. In 1968, an invasion by fellow Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize communist rule and create "socialism with a human face," ushering in a period of repression known as "normalization." The peaceful "Velvet Revolution" swept the Communist Party from power at the end of 1989 and inaugurated a return to democratic rule and a market economy. On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a nonviolent "velvet divorce" into its two national components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004. The country formally added the short-form name Czechia in 2016, while also continuing to use the full form name, the Czech Republic.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Central Europe, between Germany, Poland, Slovakia, and Austria

Geographic coordinates

49 45 N, 15 30 E

Area

total: 78,867 sq km

land: 77,247 sq km

water: 1,620 sq km

country comparison to the world: 116

Area - comparative

about two-thirds the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than South Carolina

Area comparison map
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 2,046 km

border countries (4): Austria 402 km; Germany 704 km; Poland 699 km; Slovakia 241 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain

Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country

Elevation

highest point: Snezka 1,602 m

lowest point: Labe (Elbe) River 115 m

mean elevation: 433 m

Natural resources

hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 54.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 41% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 12.8% (2018 est.)

forest: 34.4% (2018 est.)

other: 10.8% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

220 sq km (2020)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Danube (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km; Elbe river source (shared with Germany [m]) - 1,252 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, but the northern and eastern regions tend to have larger urban concentrations

Geography - note

note 1: landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe

note 2: the Hranice Abyss in Czechia is the world's deepest surveyed underwater cave at 404 m (1,325 ft); its survey is not complete and it could end up being some 800-1,200 m deep

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Czech(s)

adjective: Czech

Ethnic groups

Czech 57.3%, Moravian 3.4%, other 7.7%, unspecified 31.6% (2021 est.)

note: includes only persons with one ethnicity

Languages

Czech (official) 88.4%, Slovak 1.5%, other 2.6%, unspecified 7.2%

note: includes only persons with one mother tongue (2021 est.)

major-language sample(s):
World Fackbook, nepostradatelný zdroj základních informací. (Czech)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Czech audio sample:

Religions

Roman Catholic 7%, other believers belonging to a church or religious society 6% (includes Evangelical United Brethren Church and Czechoslovak Hussite Church), believers unaffiliated with a religious society 9.1%, none 47.8%, unspecified 30.1% (2021 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.17% (male 834,447/female 789,328)

15-24 years: 9.2% (male 508,329/female 475,846)

25-54 years: 43.29% (male 2,382,899/female 2,249,774)

55-64 years: 12.12% (male 636,357/female 660,748)

65 years and over: 20.23% (male 907,255/female 1,257,515) (2020 est.)

2022 population pyramid
2022 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 57.4

youth dependency ratio: 25.2

elderly dependency ratio: 32.2

potential support ratio: 3.1 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 43.3 years

male: 42 years

female: 44.7 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 28

Birth rate

8.59 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 212

Death rate

10.74 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 25

Net migration rate

2.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 47

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, but the northern and eastern regions tend to have larger urban concentrations

Urbanization

urban population: 74.4% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 0.2% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

1.318 million PRAGUE (capital) (2022)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.19 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.14 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female

total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

28.5 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

3 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 176

Infant mortality rate

total: 2.4 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 2.59 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 218

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 79.73 years

male: 76.8 years

female: 82.82 years (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 56

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.9% of population

rural: 99.8% of population

total: 99.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.1% of population

rural: 0.2% of population

total: 0.1% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

7.8% of GDP (2019)

Physicians density

4.15 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

6.6 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 12.73 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 6.77 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 2.73 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 3.24 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 3

Tobacco use

total: 30.7% (2020 est.)

male: 35% (2020 est.)

female: 26.4% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 28

Literacy

definition: NA

total population: 99%

male: 99%

female: 99% (2011)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years

male: 16 years

female: 17 years (2019)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 8%

male: 7.2%

female: 9.2% (2020 est.)

Environment

Environment - current issues

air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests; land pollution caused by industry, mining, and agriculture

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 15.15 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 102.22 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 13.11 megatons (2020 est.)

Climate

temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Land use

agricultural land: 54.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 41% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 12.8% (2018 est.)

forest: 34.4% (2018 est.)

other: 10.8% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 74.4% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 0.2% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0.14% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 24

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 3.337 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 850,935 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 25.5% (2015 est.)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Danube (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km; Elbe river source (shared with Germany [m]) - 1,252 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 616.6 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 967.2 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 46.6 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

13.15 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Czech Republic

conventional short form: Czechia

local long form: Ceska republika

local short form: Cesko

etymology: name derives from the Czechs, a West Slavic tribe who rose to prominence in the late 9th century A.D.; the country officially adopted the English short-form name of Czechia on 1 July 2016

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Prague

geographic coordinates: 50 05 N, 14 28 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the name may derive from an old Slavic root "praga" or "prah", meaning "ford", and refer to the city's origin at a crossing point of the Vltava (Moldau) River

Administrative divisions

13 regions (kraje, singular - kraj) and 1 capital city* (hlavni mesto); Jihocesky (South Bohemia), Jihomoravsky (South Moravia), Karlovarsky (Karlovy Vary), Kralovehradecky (Hradec Kralove), Liberecky (Liberec), Moravskoslezsky (Moravia-Silesia), Olomoucky (Olomouc), Pardubicky (Pardubice), Plzensky (Pilsen), Praha (Prague)*, Stredocesky (Central Bohemia), Ustecky (Usti), Vysocina (Highlands), Zlinsky (Zlin)

Independence

1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia); note - although 1 January is the day the Czech Republic came into being, the Czechs commemorate 28 October 1918, the day the former Czechoslovakia declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, as their independence day

National holiday

Czechoslovak Founding Day, 28 October (1918)

Constitution

history: previous 1960; latest ratified 16 December 1992, effective 1 January 1993

amendments: passage requires at least three-fifths concurrence of members present in both houses of Parliament; amended several times, last in 2021

Legal system

new civil code enacted in 2014, replacing civil code of 1964 - based on former Austro-Hungarian civil codes and socialist theory - and reintroducing former Czech legal terminology

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Czechia

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Milos ZEMAN (since 8 March 2013)

head of government: Prime Minister Petr FIALA (since 17 December 2021); First Deputy Prime Minister Vit RAKUSAN (since 17 December 2021), Deputy Prime Ministers Marian JURECKA, Ivan BARTOS, Vlastimil VALEK (all since 17 December 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (limited to 2 consecutive terms); elections last held on 12-13 January 2018 with a runoff on 26-27 January 2018 (next to be held in January 2023); prime minister appointed by the president for a 4-year term

election results:
2018:
Milos ZEMAN reelected president in the second round; percent of vote - Milos ZEMAN (SPO) 51.4%, Jiri DRAHOS (independent) 48.6%

2013: Milos ZEMAN elected president; percent of vote - Milos ZEMAN (SPO) 54.8%, Karel SCHWARZENBERG (TOP 09) 45.2%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of:
Senate or Senat (81 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 6-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years)

Chamber of Deputies or Poslanecka Snemovna (200 seats; members directly elected in 14 multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote with a 5% threshold required to fill a seat; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held in 2 rounds on 23-24 September and 30 September and 1 October 2022 (next to be held in October 2024)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 8-9 October 2021 (next to be held by October 2025)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - seats by party - ODS 23, STAN 15, KDU-CSL 12, ANO 5, TOP 09 6, CSSD 1, SEN 21 4, Pirates 2, minor parties with one seat each 9, independents 1

Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party – SPOLU 27.8%, Action of Dissatisfied Persons (ANO)27.1%, Pirates and Mayors of Independents (STAN) 15.6%, Freedom and Direct Democracy 9.6%, other 19.9%; seats by party - Action of Dissatisfied Persons 72, SPOLU 71, Pirates and Mayors 37, Freedom and Direct Democracy 20

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (organized into Civil Law and Commercial Division, and Criminal Division each with a court chief justice, vice justice, and several judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 15 justices); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 36 judges, including the court president and vice president, and organized into 6-, 7-, and 9-member chambers)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges proposed by the Chamber of Deputies and appointed by the president; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate; judges appointed for 10-year, renewable terms; Supreme Administrative Court judges selected by the president of the Court; unlimited terms

subordinate courts: High Court; regional and district courts

Political parties and leaders

Christian Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Marian JURECKA]
Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Petr FIALA]
Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Katerina KONECNA]
Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Michal SMARDA]
Freedom and Direct Democracy or SPD [Tomio OKAMURA]
Mayors and Independents or STAN [Vit RAKUSAN]
Mayors for the Liberec Region [Martin PUTA]
Movement of Dissatisfied Citizens or ANO [Andrej BABIS]
Party of Free Citizens Svobodni [Libor VONDRACEK]
Pirate Party or Pirates [Ivan BARTOS]
Senator 21 [Vaclav LASKA]
Tradition Responsibility Prosperity 09 or TOP 09 [Marketa PEKAROVA ADAMOVA]

International organization participation

Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNHRC, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Miloslav STASEK (since 16 September 2022)

chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Lane NW, Washington, DC 20008-3803

telephone: [1] (202) 274-9100

FAX: [1] (202) 966-8540

email address and website:
washington@embassy.mzv.cz

https://www.mzv.cz/washington/

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Christy AGOR (since 18 August 2022)

embassy: Trziste 15, 118 01 Praha 1 - Mala Strana

mailing address: 5630 Prague Place, Washington DC  20521-5630

telephone: [420] 257-022-000

FAX: [420] 257-022-809

email address and website:
ACSPrg@state.gov

https://cz.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side

note: combines the white and red colors of Bohemia with blue from the arms of Moravia; is identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia

National symbol(s)

silver (or white), double-tailed, rampant lion; national colors: white, red, blue

National anthem

name: "Kde domov muj?" (Where is My Home?)

lyrics/music: Josef Kajetan TYL/Frantisek Jan SKROUP

note: adopted 1993; the anthem was originally written as incidental music to the play "Fidlovacka" (1834), it soon became very popular as an unofficial anthem of the Czech nation; its first verse served as the official Czechoslovak anthem beginning in 1918, while the second verse (Slovak) was dropped after the split of Czechoslovakia in 1993

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 16 (all cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Historic Prague; Historic Telč; Historic Český Krumlov; Lednice-Valtice Cultural Landscape; Historic Kutná Hora; Holy Trinity Column, Olomouc; Karlovy Vary Spa 

Economy

Economic overview

Czechia is a prosperous market economy that boasts one of the highest GDP growth rates and lowest unemployment levels in the EU, but its dependence on exports makes economic growth vulnerable to contractions in external demand. Czechia’s exports comprise some 80% of GDP and largely consist of automobiles, the country’s single largest industry. Czechia acceded to the EU in 2004 but has yet to join the euro-zone. While the flexible koruna helps Czechia weather external shocks, it was one of the world’s strongest performing currencies in 2017, appreciating approximately 16% relative to the US dollar after the central bank (Czech National Bank - CNB) ended its cap on the currency’s value in early April 2017, which it had maintained since November 2013. The CNB hiked rates in August and November 2017 - the first rate changes in nine years - to address rising inflationary pressures brought by strong economic growth and a tight labor market.

 

Since coming to power in 2014, the new government has undertaken some reforms to try to reduce corruption, attract investment, and improve social welfare programs, which could help increase the government’s revenues and improve living conditions for Czechs. The government introduced in December 2016 an online tax reporting system intended to reduce tax evasion and increase revenues. The government also plans to remove labor market rigidities to improve the business climate, bring procurement procedures in line with EU best practices, and boost wages. The country's low unemployment rate has led to steady increases in salaries, and the government is facing pressure from businesses to allow greater migration of qualified workers, at least from Ukraine and neighboring Central European countries.

 

Long-term challenges include dealing with a rapidly aging population, a shortage of skilled workers, a lagging education system, funding an unsustainable pension and health care system, and diversifying away from manufacturing and toward a more high-tech, services-based, knowledge economy.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$409.97 billion (2020 est.)

$434.31 billion (2019 est.)

$424.48 billion (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 46

Real GDP growth rate

2.27% (2019 est.)

3.18% (2018 est.)

5.35% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 123

Real GDP per capita

$38,300 (2020 est.)

$40,700 (2019 est.)

$39,900 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 46

GDP (official exchange rate)

$250.631 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

2.8% (2019 est.)

2.1% (2018 est.)

2.4% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 139

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: AA- (2018)

Moody's rating: Aa3 (2019)

Standard & Poors rating: AA- (2011)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2.3% (2017 est.)

industry: 36.9% (2017 est.)

services: 60.8% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 47.4% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 19.2% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 24.7% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 79.9% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -72.3% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

wheat, sugar beet, milk, barley, rapeseed, potatoes, maize, pork, triticale, poultry

Industries

motor vehicles, metallurgy, machinery and equipment, glass, armaments

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 2.8%

industry: 38%

services: 59.2% (2015)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 4.1%

highest 10%: 21.7% (2015 est.)

Budget

revenues: 87.37 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 83.92 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

34.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

36.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 153

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$678 million (2019 est.)

$1.259 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 130

Exports

$174.92 billion (2020 est.)

$186.54 billion (2019 est.)

$191.69 billion (2018 est.)

note: Data are in current year dollars and do not include illicit exports or re-exports.

country comparison to the world: 34

Exports - partners

Germany 31%, Slovakia 7%, Poland 6%, France 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, computers, broadcasting equipment, office machinery/parts, seating (2019)

Imports

$157.95 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$171.43 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$176.78 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 34

Imports - partners

Germany 27%, China 12%, Poland 9%, Slovakia 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

broadcasting equipment, cars and vehicle parts, office machinery/parts, computers, packaged medicines (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$148 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$85.73 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 19

Debt - external

$191.871 billion (2019 est.)

$200.197 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 39

Exchange rates

koruny (CZK) per US dollar -

21.76636 (2020 est.)

23.0629 (2019 est.)

22.71439 (2018 est.)

24.599 (2014 est.)

20.758 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 22.485 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 60.814 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 23.521 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 13.368 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 4.117 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 47% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 37.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 4.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 33.806 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 37.212 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 1.885 million metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 3.795 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 2.927 billion metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 6,300 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 219,500 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 400 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 150,200 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 15 million barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 189.185 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

consumption: 8,815,133,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2020 est.)

imports: 7,590,318,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 3.964 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

99.533 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 57.268 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 25.526 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 16.739 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 43

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 1,335,224 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 66

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 12,999,812 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 121 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 75

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: the telecom market has attracted investment from among the key regional telcos; telcos in the Czech Republic have become multi-service providers, offering a full range of fixed and mobile services; the auction has enabled the licensees to expand the reach of their 5G networks; this process has also been assisted by them closing down 3G networks and reforming spectrum for 5G and LTE use (2021)

domestic: roughly 12 fixed-telephone subscriptions per 100 inhabitants and mobile telephone usage of about 121 per 100 inhabitants (2020)

international: country code - 420; satellite earth stations - 6 (2 Intersputnik - Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions, 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced a downturn, particularly in mobile device production; progress toward 5G implementation has resumed, as well as upgrades to infrastructure; consumer spending on telecom services has increased due to the surge in demand for capacity and bandwidth; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home is still evident, and the spike in this area has seen growth opportunities for development of new tools and increased services

Broadcast media

22 TV stations operate nationally, with 17 of them in private hands; publicly operated Czech Television has 5 national channels; throughout the country, there are some 350 TV channels in operation, many through cable, satellite, and IPTV subscription services; 63 radio broadcasters are registered, operating over 80 radio stations, including 7 multiregional radio stations or networks; publicly operated broadcaster Czech Radio operates 4 national, 14 regional, and 4 Internet stations; both Czech Radio and Czech Television are partially financed through a license fee (2019)

Internet users

total: 9,323,428 (July 2022 est.)

percent of population: 86.8% (July 2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 59

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 3,845,426 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 36 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 39

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 4 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 48

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 5,727,200 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 25.23 million (2018) mt-km

Airports - with paved runways

total: 41

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 12

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 16 (2021)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 87

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 25

under 914 m: 61 (2021)

Heliports

1 (2021)

Pipelines

7,160 km gas, 675 km oil, 94 km refined products (2016)

Railways

total: 9,408 km (2017)

standard gauge: 9,385 km (2017) 1.435-m gauge (3,218 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 23 km (2017) 0.760-m gauge

country comparison to the world: 24

Roadways

total: 55,744 km (2019) (includes urban and category I, II, III roads)

paved: 55,744 km (2019) (includes 1,252 km of expressways)

country comparison to the world: 81

Waterways

664 km (2010) (principally on Elbe, Vltava, Oder, and other navigable rivers, lakes, and canals)

country comparison to the world: 84

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Prague (Vltava)

Decin, Usti nad Labem (Elbe)

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Czech Armed Forces: Land Forces; Air Forces; Cyber Forces; Special Forces (2022)

Military expenditures

1.3% of GDP (2022 est.)

1.4% of GDP (2021)

1.3% of GDP (2020)

1.2% of GDP (2019) (approximately $4.05 billion)

1.1% of GDP (2018) (approximately $3.8 billion)

country comparison to the world: 103

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 26,000 active personnel (20,000 Army; 6,000 Air Force) (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Czech military has a mix of Soviet-era and more modern equipment, mostly of Western European origin; since 2010, the leading suppliers of military equipment to Czechia have been Austria and Spain; Czechia has a considerable domestic defense industry; during the Cold War, Czechoslovakia was a major supplier of tanks, armored personnel carriers, military trucks, and trainer aircraft (2021)

note: in 2019, Czechia announced a modernization plan to acquire more equipment that was compliant with NATO standards, including aircraft from the US and armored vehicles from Germany and Sweden, as well as domestically-produced arms

Military service age and obligation

18-28 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; conscription abolished 2004 (2022)

note: as of 2019, women comprised about 13% of the military's full-time personnel

Military deployments

up to 130 Lithuania (NATO); 130 Slovakia (NATO) (2022)

note: in response to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, some NATO countries have sent additional troops and equipment to the battlegroups deployed in NATO territory in eastern Europe

Military - note

Czechia joined NATO in 1999; Czechia, Hungary, and Poland were invited to begin accession talks at NATO's Madrid Summit in 1997, and in March 1999 they became the first former members of the Warsaw Pact to join the Alliance

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 464,910 (Ukraine) (as of 29 November 2022)

stateless persons: 1,498 (mid-year 2021)

Illicit drugs

manufacture of methamphetamine continues to be mostly based on pseudoephedrine from  Poland or Turkey.